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Hague Land Warfare Convention

(285 words)

Author(s): Renz, Irina
Hague Land Warfare Convention By Hague Land Warfare Convention one means the text of the Hague article concerning The Laws and Customs of War on Land. This article was the fourth of thirteen articles signed on October 18, 1907, along with the final declarations, at the conclusion of the Second International Peace Conference at The Hague. Forty-four nations had taken part in the conference, convened at the suggestion of Tsar Nicholas II. Article IV was ratified by most warring states of the First World War. In December 1911 the text of Article IV on The Laws and Customs of War on Land was includ…

Foreword to the Revised Edition

(148 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Foreword to the Revised Edition The lasting interest in our Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrieg, released in 2003, has motivated us to publish a third edition, revised and expanded, as part of the Universitätstaschenbücher (University Paperbacks Series, UTB). In order to include the intensive research on the First World War undertaken since its original publication, we have added a number of new entries. A comprehensive record of the persons and places increases the usefulness of this reference work. The bibliography has likewise been …


(3,646 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Timeline1914–1918 1914 June 28 Assassination of heir to the Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo. July 5 “Hoyos Mission”: Kaiser Wilhelm II assures Austria-Hungary of Germany’s support. July 23 Austria-Hungary delivers Serbia an ultimatum. July 25 Mobilization of the Serbian Army. The Russian Crown Council resolves to support Serbia. July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. July 30 General mobilization of the Russian Army. July 31 General mobilization in Austria-Hungary and Belgium. August 1 Germany declares war on Russia. General mobilization …

Table of Contents

(237 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Table of Contents Volume I Foreword vii Foreword to the Revised Edition viii Essays 1 States 3 Germany Wolfgang J. Mommsen 5 France Jean-Jacques Becker 18 Belgium Laurence van Ypersele 28 Great Britain Jay Winter 33 Austria-Hungary Manfried Rauchensteiner 44 Russia Dittmar Dahlmann 63 Italy Mario Isnenghi 72 United States Ronald Schaffer 78 Social Aspects of the War 87 Women Ute Daniel 89 Children and Adolescents Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau 103 Workers Dick Geary 108 Soldiers Benjamin Ziemann 118 Scientists Jürgen von Ungern-Sternberg 129 War Literature Bernd Hüppauf 135 Religion Annet…


(7,427 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Persons Aalst, Cornelis J.K. van 774 Abbas II Hilmi Bey 785 Abd el-Malik 786 Abderhalden, Emil 1015 Abdul Hamid II 599, 620, 662 Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, Emir and King of Transjordan 283, 620 Adenauer, Konrad 883 Adler, Friedrich 54, 933 Adler, Viktor 933 Adolfi, John G. 517 Aitken, Arthur Edward 569 Alain-Fournier, Henri 262 Albert I, King of the Belgians 28, 265f., 597, 686, 717 Albertini, Luigi 245 Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 267, 299, 673, 1045 Alby, Henri Edouard 295 Alderson, Sir Edwin A.H. 290, 400 Aldington, Richard 144 Aleksandar I Karadjordjević, Prince Regent of Serbia…


(1,158 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Foreword The First World War endures in human memory as an event of especial significance. The French still refer to it as the “Grande Guerre”; the Germans and Austrians, “der Große Krieg”; and the British and Americans, the “Great War.” Those who survived it are no more. Even the children of the war years have died by now. Yet the war did not pass away with the generation that waged and endured it. World War One will remain the defining experience of the 20th century. The war evolved from a localized European conflict to a global catastrophe. The swift disintegration of multina…

Image Credits

(87 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Image Credits Dr. Ernst Aichner: Ingolstadt, 593. Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne: 276f., 280, 356, 669, 940. Imperial War Museum, London: 92, 97. Irina Renz, Stuttgart: 956. Stadtarchiv Lörrach, C/VIII/23: 498. The remaining illustrations are taken from the Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte (BfZ), now a special collection of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek in Stuttgart. The editors wish to thank all the above sources for their permission to reproduce these illustrations. Hirschfeld, Gerhard, Krumeich, Gerd and Renz, Irina

Subject Index

(2,634 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Subject Index 08/15, see Null-Acht-Fünfzehn (Maxim Machine Gun) A Adriatic 255 Advertising 255 Aerial Warfare Africa Africa (German East Africa) 569 Africa (German Southwest Africa) 576 Africa (North Africa) 785 Africa (South Africa) 919 Africa (Sub-Saharan Africa) 938 Aircraft 260 Airship, see Zeppelin Alain-Fournier, Henri 262 Albania 262 Alberich, Operation 264 Albert I, King of the Belgians 265 Albion 266 Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 267 Alekseyev, Mikhail Vasilyevich 267 Allenby, Edmund 268 Alpine Warfare 269 Alsace-Lorraine 273 Animals 275 Annunzio, see D’Annunzio, …


(9,690 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Places Aarschot 29 Abadan 798 Abercorn 569, 684 Abrolhos Islands 502 Abu Chuff 563 Abyssinia 227 Acre 945 Aden 625 Adrianople (Edirne) 350, 946 Adriatic 44, 57, 73, 255, 313, 350, 368, 452, 482, 506, 644, 741, 875f., 888, 896, 918, 1021 Aegean 236, 350, 392, 454, 486, 585 Afghanistan 474, 495, 592, 626, 777 Africa 184–187, 191f., 194, 213, 218, 225, 293, 299, 306, 343, 355, 380f., 407, 413, 428, 430–434, 438, 511, 569, 576f., 597, 625, 627, 630, 663, 668, 683f., 735, 737, 746, 764, 785–788, 806, 824, 835, 867, 876, 888, 893, 902, 919f., 938f., 961, 1021 Agadir 687, 746 Agram (Zagreb) 61 Ağri 409 Aire …


(720 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Contributors Afflerbach, Holger, Prof. (Leeds) Albes, Jens, Dr. (Koblenz) Allain, Jean-Claude, Prof. † Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane, Prof. (Paris) Baumeister, Martin, Prof. (Munich) Bavendamm, Gundula, Dr. (Taunusstein) Beaupré, Nicolas, Dr. (Clermont-Ferrand) Becker, Annette, Prof. (Paris) Becker, Jean-Jacques, Prof. (Paris) Beckers, Thomas, MA (Düsseldorf ) Behrenbeck, Sabine, Dr. (Cologne) Bendick, Rainer, Dr. (Osnabrück) Berghoff, Hartmut, Prof. (Washington DC/ Göttingen) Bessel, Richard, Prof. (York) Blom, J.C.H., Prof. (Leiden) Bohn, Robert, Prof. Dr. (Fle…