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Middle

(790 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: active voice, middle voice and passive voice. The middle voice is morphologically marked with a distinctive set of personal endings: - mai, - sai (or - ēi/-ei), - tai, etc. The middle voice expresses that the subject is physically or psychologically affected by the event (subject-affectedness). The verbal grammatical category voice pertains to the relationship between grammatical roles (Subject, Direct Object) and semantic roles (agent [Agency and Causation], Patient and The…
Date: 2013-11-01

Stative (and Middle/Medium) Verbs

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Proto-Indo-European probably had three voice categories: active, middle and stative voice. The stative voice was morphologically distinguished from the act. and mid. by its personal endings and semantically by its stative meaning. According to some scholars, Proto-Indo-European (PIE) (Indo-European Linguistic Background) had three voice categories: active, middle (mediopassive) and stative voice ( Oettinger 1976, 1993, Rix 1988, Kümmel 1996, Meier-Brügger 2010). The stative voice was morphologically marked off  from the act. and mid. by its …
Date: 2013-11-01

Media Tantum

(429 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract  Media tantum (middle deponents) are verbs which do not have an active voice. Media tantum (‘middle  only’) are verbs which do not have an active voice. They are also called middle deponents. The term media tantum is sometimes used in a narrower sense, to refer to verbs which lack an active voice and have a middle aorist form. Verbs which lack active forms and have a passive aorist form (with suffix - thē- or -; Passive (Morphology)) are then called passiva tantum. Media tantum have a middle meaning in that their subject is physically or mentally affected by…
Date: 2013-11-01

Active

(647 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: active voice, middle voice and passive voice. The active voice is marked by active endings: , - eis, -ei, etc. The active voice can be viewed as the unmarked member in a privative opposition. The verbal grammatical category of voice pertains to the relationship between syntactic roles and semantic roles ( agent, patient and experiencer). Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: active voice, middle voice, and passive voice (Voice). The act. voice is marked by act. endings: , - ei…
Date: 2013-11-01

Passiva Tantum

(257 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Passiva tantum (passive deponents) are verbs which do not have an active voice and have a passive aorist form (with suffix -ē-/ -thē -).      Passiva tantum (‘passive only’) are verbs which do not have an active voice and have a passive aor. (with suffix - ē-/- thē-; Passive (morphology)). Passiva tantum have a mid. (mediopassive) inflection in the pres. and pf. stems (Middle, Mediopassive). In the fut. stem, they may have a mid. ( -so-mai) or a passive ( -( th) ḗsomai) form, e.g. 1 pres. mid. boúlomai ‘want’, aor. pass. eboulḗthēn, pf. mid. beboúlēmai, fut. mid. boulḗsomai. Passiva …
Date: 2013-11-01

Passive (Syntax)

(947 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: act. voice, mid. voice and pass. voice. In the literature on Ancient Greek voice, the term pass. voice may refer to (1) the grammatical construction in which an entity undergoing the event is selected as the subject of the clause, (2) the formation marked with the suffix - thē- or - ē-. In the literature on Ancient Greek voice, the term pass. voice may refer to two different notions. First, the pass. voice can refer to the grammatical construction in which an entity undergoing the…
Date: 2013-11-01

Voice

(5,423 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract The verbal grammatical category of voice pertains to the relationship between syntactic roles (subject, direct object) and semantic roles (agent, patient, experiencer, beneficiary, recipient). Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories. The active voice is marked by act. endings ( , -eis, etc.). The middle voice is marked by mid. endings (- mai, - sai, etc.). The passive voice is marked by the suffix -thē-/ -ē-. It is restricted to the aor. and fut. stems. While the act. voice is semantically unmarked, the mid. voice expresses …
Date: 2013-11-01

Mediopassive

(1,853 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voices: the active voice, the middle voice and the passive voice. The term mediopassive or middle-passive is used to refer to the morphological voice category which combines the mid. and pass. voices. Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voices (Voice): the active, the middle and passive voice (Passive (morphology), Passive (syntax)). The term mediopassive or middle-passive is used to refer to the morphological voice category which unifies the mid. and pass. voices. The combined middle-p…
Date: 2013-11-01

Activa Tantum

(327 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Activa tantum are verbs that lack a middle and a passive voice in the present, aorist and perfect stems. Activa tantum (‘active only’) are verbs that lack a middle (mediopassive) and a passive voice (Passive (syntax), Passive (morphology)) in the present, aorist and perfect stems. Activa tantum are typically intransitive (Transitivity). Examples are: áēmi ‘blow’, baínō ‘come, go’, eîmi ‘go’, eimí ‘be’, eméō ‘vomit’, ethélō ‘want, be prepared’, geláō ‘laugh’, gēthéō ‘rejoice’, hérpō ‘creep’, khézō ‘ease oneself’, ménō ‘stay’, noséō ‘be ill’, nostéō ‘return’, omikhéō ‘uri…
Date: 2013-11-01

Diathesis/Voice (Morphology of)

(2,183 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: the active voice, the middle voice and the passive voice. The act. and mid. voices are distinguished by contrasting sets of personal endings. The passive voice is marked by a special morpheme - th ē - or - ē- and only occurs in the aorist and future stems. A number of verbs display voice variation between tense stems. Ancient Greek has three morphologically distinct voice categories: the active voice, the middle voice (also mediopassive) and the passive voice (Passive (syntax), Passive …
Date: 2013-11-01

Passive (Morphology)

(608 words)

Author(s): Rutger Allan
Abstract In the  aorist and  future stems, a separate  passive voice is distinguished in opposition with the  active and middle voice. The passive voice is marked by the morphemes - thē- and - ē-. In the aorist and future stems, Ancient Greek distinguishes a separate passive voice (Passive (syntax)) in opposition to the active and middle voice (Mediopassive, Diathesis/Voice (Morphology of)). In the pres. and pf. stems, pass. meaning is expressed by the mid. (mediopassive) voice. The passive voice is marked by the variant morphemes - thē- and - ē- which follow the verbal stem. The s…
Date: 2013-11-01