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Campestris

(97 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] (-ter, -trius, -τριος). Roman astrologer, possibly of the 3rd cent. AD (differently in [1]), who, according to Lyd. De ostentis p. 24,5 Wachsmuth, revived the prophetic  astrology and magic of  Petosiris, perhaps as an alternative to the Middle Platonic  demonology. He wrote De cometis (Lyd. Ost. p. 35,8, chs. 11-16; Adnotationes super Lucan. 1,529), and about powers of the underworld such as  Typhon (Serv. Aen. 10,272), the title Catabolica infernalia (according to Fulg. Exp. Verg. p. 86 Helmet) is doubtful.  Astrology Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography 1 E. Ri…

Frontinus, S. Iulius

(487 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] High state official under Domitian, Nerva and Trajan, military and technical specialist author. He probably began as an officer under  Domitius [II 10] Corbulo [1. 150], in AD 70 he was praetor urbanus (Tac. Hist. 4,39), i.e. in a prominent position in the absence of the consuls Titus and Vespasian, in 73 he became cos. suff., then until 77/78 as successor to  Petilius Cerialis governor ( legatus Aug. pr. pr.) in Britannia (Tac. Agr. 17,3), in 83 he campaigned against the Chatti together with Domitian (plans for the Low and Upper German limes? [1…

Fragmentum Censorini

(120 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] The anonymous Compendium disciplinarum, a short encyclopaedia of 15 small ch., was considered until 1583 (L. Carrio) to be the final part of De die natali by  Censorinus [4], as it joins on smoothly in his MSS, although it is probably garbled at the beginning. Cosmogony, astronomy, geography (Aristotelian-geocentric), geometry and postulates according to  Euclides, music theory (Aristoxian?) and metrics according to the theory of prototypes are treated, overall therefore approximately the quadrivium acco…

Technical terminology

(323 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] Usually understood as the language used in specialist and technical writing. In ancient prose, strictly speaking the only established genres were oratory and (since Herodotus) historiography. Treatments of the arts and academic subjects were stylistically open, ranging from dry, specialist (esoteric) prose (the texts of Aristotle’s lectures), via highly stylized, mimetic dialogue (exoteric), to ceremonial or artificially didactic poetry. Particular dialects remained typical of som…

Cetius Faventinus, M.

(99 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] C.' liber artis architectonicae (name and title not ascertained until 1871/1879): a vulgarized, individual adaptation of Vitruvius on domestic architecture, survives in MSS of Vitruvius. If it came down via  Gargilius Martialis [1], then it belongs in the middle or [2] at the end of the 3rd cent. AD; C. is quoted in  Palladius and in  Isidorus of Seville. Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography Edition: F. Krohn, Vitruv, 1912, 262-283. Bibliography: 1 M. Wellmann, Palladius und Gargilius Martialis, in: Hermes 43, 1908, 1-31 2 H. Plommer, Vitruvius and later Roma…

Itinerarium Alexandri

(200 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] Following the  Alexander Romance by  Iulius [IV 23] Valerius, Ambrosianus P 49 sup. records an anonymous, abbreviated version ( breviarium, § 3) of the Alexander story under the title Itinerarium Alexandri, which is based on  Arrianus' [2] Anabasis, but also on Iulius Valerius' translation of (Ps.-) Callisthenes and other texts. The text is dedicated to  Constantius II and dated 340 (the emperor died in April) and promises, as an encouragement for the planned Parthian war, also a report of Trajan's Parthian campaign…

Solinus

(653 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] C. Iulius S. Grammarian and compiler of the 3rd (end) or the 4th century AD. Author of the Collectanea rerum memorabilium ('Collections of Curiosities'), dedicated to (Oclatinius ?; cf. [1]) Adventus (not the cos. of 218). The work, which inclines in the first part towards mythical history and in the second towards paradoxography, manifests a 'national' programme in its structure. It begins with a history of Roman origins and follows with a periegesis, starting in Italy, of the oikoumene as a framework for relaying curiosities. This works…

Etymology

(1,243 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
(ἐτυμολογία, literally ‘science of the true meaning of a word’; Latin etymologia). Modern linguistics ([1]; cf. [2]) considers etymology the study of word formation processes [3] and the shifts in sound and meaning in the prehistory of words from which it attempts to gain insight into the relationships of words and languages. By contrast, ancient etymology attempted an interpretative determination of the ‘actual’ meaning (ἔτυμον/ étymon) of (proper) names or words, which did not preclude the correct analysis of a composite or derivative. Etymology was introdu…

Antiquarians

(537 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] Modern history of literature summarizes the national investigation of the pre-literary past conducted from the 2nd cent. BC to the 3rd cent. AD under the term antiquarian literature and distinguishes sacral, legal, local antiquities (legends of establishment and foundation) as well as genealogical and chronographical (Roman speciality area:   fasti ) constructs, and above all linguistic etiological (etymological) constructs applied by grammar. Specialist and language analysis are brilliantly linked by M. Terentius  Varro and ordered by disciplines (Antiqui…

Technical literature

(1,374 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] A. Systematic Perspective Ancient TL is defined 1. by its object, 2. by its literary form, and 3. by its function. Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) [German version] 1. Objects TL includes general and specialized presentations of ancient science, arts, and techniques. TL dealing with manual work is seldom transmitted, except, for instance, for the cookbook by Caelius [II 10] Apicius and the works of the Roman Surveyors. Technology is also not represented until late; practical transmission must have been usual. Rhetori…

Fachliteratur

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] A. Systematisch Die ant. F. ist 1. durch ihren Gegenstand, 2. durch ihre lit. Form, 3. durch ihre Funktion definiert. Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) [English version] 1. Gegenstände F. umfaßt die allg. und speziellen Darstellungen der ant. Wiss., Künste und Techniken. Handwerkliche F. ist wenig überliefert, abgesehen z.B. vom Kochbuch des Caelius [II 10] Apicius und den Schriften der röm. Feldmesser; auch die Technik ist erst spät vertreten. Die praktische Vermittlung dürfte üblich gewesen sein. Bei den “Künsten”…

Campestris

(87 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] (-ter, -trius, -τριος). Röm. Astrologe wohl des 3.Jh. n.Chr. (anders [1]), belebte, so Lyd. de ostentis p. 24,5 Wachsmuth, die prophetische Astrologie und Magie des Petosiris, vielleicht als Alternative zur mittelplatonischen Dämonologie. Er schrieb De cometis (Lyd. ost. p. 35,8, Referat c. 11-16; Adnotationes super Lucan. 1,529) und über Unterweltsmächte wie Typhon (Serv. Aen. 10,272), der Titel (nach Fulg. exp. Verg. p. 86 Helm) Catabolica infernalia ist zweifelhaft. Astrologie Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography 1 E. Riess, s.v. C., RE 3, 1443f. 2 K. Sal…

Cetius Faventinus, M.

(93 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] Der anon. in Vitruv-Hss. überlieferte liber artis architectonicae des C. (Name und Titel erst 1871/1879 ermittelt), eine vulgarisierende, eigenständige Bearbeitung von Vitruv über den Privathausbau, gehört, falls Gargilius Martialis Vermittler war [1], in die Mitte oder [2] ans Ende des 3. Jh.n. Chr.; zit. ist C. bei Palladius und Isidorus von Sevilla. Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography Ed.: F. Krohn, Vitruv, 1912, 262-283. Lit.: 1 M. Wellmann, Palladius und Gargilius Martialis, in: Hermes 43, 1908, 1-31 2 H. Plommer, Vitruvius and later Roman build…

Fragmentum Censorini

(104 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] Das anon. Compendium disciplinarum, eine Kurz-Enzyklopädie von 15 kleinen Kap., galt bis 1583 (L. Carrio) als Schlußteil von De die natali des Censorinus [4], da es sich in dessen Hss. fugenlos, am Anfang wohl verstümmelt, anschließt. Behandelt sind Kosmogonie, Astronomie, Erdbild (aristotelisch-geozentrisch), Geometrie und Postulate nach Eukleides, Musiklehre (aristoxenisch?) und Metrik nach der Prototypentheorie, insgesamt also etwa das Quadrivium nach Varronischem Modell. Die Schrift, nur vom Sch…

Antiquare

(483 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] Die neuzeitliche Literaturgesch. faßt die vom 2. Jh. v. Chr. bis ins 3. Jh. n. Chr. betriebene nationale Erforsch. der vorlit. Vergangenheit mit dem Begriff a. Schrifttum zusammen und unterscheidet Sakral-, Rechts-, Lokal-Altertümer (Gründungs- und Stiftungssagen) sowie genealogische, chronographische (röm. Sondergebiet: fasti ) und vor allem von der Gramm. betriebene sprachaitiologische (etym.) Konstrukte. Real- und Sprachanalyse werden von M. Terentius Varro genial verknüpft und nach Sparten geordnet (Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum: de h…

Frontinus, S. Iulius

(436 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] Hoher Staatsbeamter unter Domitian, Nerva und Traian, mil. und technischer Fachautor. Er begann wohl als Offizier unter Domitius [II 10] Corbulo [1. 150], war 70 n.Chr. praetor urbanus (Tac. hist. 4,39), d.h. in führender Position bei Abwesenheit der Consuln Titus und Vespasian, wurde 73 cos. suff., dann bis 77/78 als Nachfolger des Petilius Cerialis Statthalter ( legatus Aug. pr. pr.) in Britannien (Tac. Agr. 17,3), zog 83 mit Domitian gegen die Chatti (Planung des nieder- und obergerman. Limes? [1. 152f.; 2]); 86 wurde er Proconsul v…

Itinerarium Alexandri

(190 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] Im Anschluß an den Alexanderroman des Iulius [IV 23] Valerius überl. der Ambrosianus P 49 Sup. unter dem Titel I.A. eine anon. Kurzfassung ( breviarium, § 3) der Alexandergesch., basierend auf Arrianos' [2] Anabasis, aber auch Iulius Valerius' Übers. des (Ps.) Kallisthenes u.a. Die Constantius II. gewidmete Schrift datiert sich auf 340 (im April stirbt der Kaiser) und verspricht als Ermutigung zum geplanten Partherkrieg auch den Ber. des Partherfeldzugs Traians; indes bricht der Text mit Alexanders Fahrt zu den…

Fachsprache

(280 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[English version] wird meist als technische Sondersprache des Fach- und Sachbuches verstanden. In der ant. Prosa sind strenggenommen nur Rede und (seit Herodotos) Geschichtsschreibung gattungsmäßig als Kunstprosa festgelegt; Darstellungen von Künsten und Realfächern sind stilistisch offen: Sie reichen von der (esoterischen) trockenen Fachprosa (Vorlesungsskripte des Aristoteles) über den (exoterischen) hochstilisierten mimetischen Dialog bis zum feierlichen oder artifiziellen Lehrgedicht. Für eini…

Celsus, [II]

(730 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Commonly occurring cognomen (cf. PIR2 2, 145-147). [German version] [1] C. Friend of Ovid, c. 0 AD Friend of Ovid and of Aurelius Cotta Maximus; Ovid consoles Cotta on the death of C. (Pont. 1,9) [1. 90]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Eques from Alba Pompeia, c. 100 AD Eques from Alba Pompeia, admitted to the Senate by Trajan (CIL V 7153; PIR2 C 647). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Conspirator against Antoninus Pius (?), 2nd cent. AD Supposed conspirator against Antoninus Pius; fictitious letter in SHA Avid. Cass. 10,1. (PIR2 C 644). Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Plinius

(4,411 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
[German version] [1] P. Secundus, C. (Pliny the Elder) Roman historian and orator, 1st cent. Roman equestrian [1], cavalry officer, government official, historian, orator, encyplopaedist. Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) [German version] I. Life P. was born in AD 23/4 in Novum Comum (Gallia Transpadana, modern Como). Under emperor Claudius [III 1], he served as an officer and financial administrator in the provinces ( procurator), simultaneously active as an encyclopaedist and versatile author. Apparently unmarried, he took his widowed sister Plinia and her son C. …
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