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Axidares

(92 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Son of the Parthian king Pacorus, who was made king of Armenia in about AD 110 by his father. When Osroes ousted Pacorus, A. also lost his throne to his own brother Parthamasiris. During the subsequent period, he seems to have made efforts to prevent contact being made between Parthamasiris and his Roman sovereign  Trajanus and, in so doing, to gain some recognition for himself. He was unsuccessful in this respect. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien zur Gesch. des Partherreiches, 1988 A. Stein, s.v. Exedares,…

Varazes

(93 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βαράθης/ Baráthēs, Varazes). An Armenian who was sent by Iustinianus [1] to Italy in 548 at the head of 800 of his countrymen and arrived at just the right time to rescue Verus (PLRG 3B, 1370) and his Heruli from total destruction by Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,27). Recalled from Italy in 551, he was appointed leader of 800 Tzans (Armenian sub-tribe) against the Persians in Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,13,10). His identification with an Armenian commander V. in Lazica in 556 (Agathias 4,13) is disputed. PLRE 3B, 1362 f. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Monaeses

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μοναίσης; Monaísēs). Parthian nobleman who fled from  Phraates IV. to Marcus Antonius [I 9] in 37 BC. The latter accepted him as a possible pretender to the throne (Cass. Dio 49,24,2), but did not oppose M.'s reconciliation with Phraates (Plut. Antonius 37). In Anthony's Parthian War (Parthian and Persian Wars), M. defeated the Roman army (Hor. Carm. 3,6,9) but had his cousin, Mithradates, show the retreating triumvir a route to the Armenian border (Plut. Antonius 46). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien z…

Naimanes

(101 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (App. Mithr. 19: Nemánēs; but cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 22: Menophánēs). An Armenian in the service of Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus, who dealt M. Aquillius [I 4] a heavy defeat in Bithynia in 88 BC. He seems then to have entered the service of the Paphlagonian king Mithridates Philopator Philadelphus, a son of Mithridates VI, as a ‘N., son of Naimanes’ appears among the envoys who brought gifts in the former's name to the Roman Capitol in about 80 BC (CIL I2 730 = CIL VI 30922 = ILS 30 = ILLRP 180). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Perozes

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Greek Περόζης; Perózēs). [German version] [1] P.I. Persian king of kings, 459-484 AD (Arabic Fīrūz). Persian Great King (AD 459-484), son of Yazdgird II. His reign is characterised by disputes with tribes of Hunni, who were already supporting a campaign for the throne against Hormisdas [5] III. In about AD 465 P. got into conflict with king Kunchas of the Kidarites, to whom he sent a woman to be his wife, claiming that she was his sister (Priscus fr. 41 Blockley). More dangerous to him were the Hephthalitae,…

Sauromaces

(140 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] A pro-Roman king of Iberia [1] who was expelled in AD 368/9 by Sapor [2] II (Amm. Marc. 27,12,4). In 370, Valens [2] had S. brought back by Terentius [II 1], and Aspacures, S.' pro-Persian cousin, arranged for the territory along the Cyrus [5] to be divided between them, so S. received only the part bordering on Armenia and the Lazi (Amm. Marc. 27,12,16 f.). This arrangement was approved by the emperor but aroused the anger of the great king, who wanted to maintain the rule of his…

Zamasphes

(97 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαμάσφης/ Zamásphēs). Persian king, son of Peroz [1] I. His reign 496-499 interrupted that of his brother Cavades [1] I, who had been dethroned in a conspiracy of high nobles and Zoroastrian clerics because of his support for Mazdak. When Cavades, who had escaped from the 'Castle of Forgetfulness', returned at the head of an army of Hephthalitae, Z. vacated the throne without a fight (Agathias 4,28). His later fate is unclear. PLRE 2, 1195. Sassanids Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. Lippold, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2308 f. K. Schippmann, Grundzüge der Geschi…

Abdagaeses

(99 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Parthian noble from the house of Suren, who in AD 36 supported the counter-king  Tiridates against  Artabanus [5] II and after Tiridates' failure fled to Syria (Tac. Ann. 6,31 and passim). Whether he is identical to the homonymous troop leader of Artabanus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,9,4) is just as uncertain as his possible relation to the Indo-Parthian King Abdagases (1st cent. AD). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, in: AMI 4, 1932, 75 ff. M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien zur Gesch. des Partherreiches, 1988 J. Markwart, in: ZDMG 49…

Rodericus (Roderic)

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (German Roderich, Spanish Rodrigo, Arabic Luḏrīq). Last king of the Visigoths. The so-called Crónica Mozárabe (in Spanish) of AD 754, which provides information about the end of the West Gothic empire, reveals that R. was initially provincial governor (of Hispania Baetica ?) and in 710, after the death of Witiza, was elected king, an election which did not go unopposed. At the very time the Muslims invaded Spain in April/May 711, R. was fighting the Basques; yet he managed to deploy an approxim…

Zaberganes

(79 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαβεργάνης/ Zabergánēs). In 531 the Persian diplomat Z. succeeded in annihilating his rival Mebodes (Procop. BP 1,23,25 f.). In 540 he took part in the conquest of Antioch [1] (Procop. Pers. 2,8,30-32), and shortly afterwards he received a letter from the empress Theodora [2] with a request to mediate peace (Procop. Arc. 2,32-35). In 544 he led negotiations with citizens from Edessa [2], which was under siege (Procop. Pers. 2,26,16-19). PLRE 3B, 1410. Sassanids Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Zipoetes

(424 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ζιποίτης/ Zipoítēs). [German version] [1] Bithynian prince, 356-280 BC Born in 356 BC, he succeeded his father, the Bithynian prince Bas, in 328. In 315 BC, his first attempt to expand his kingdom by conquering Chalcedon and Astacus [1] failed (Diod. Sic. 19,60,3). In the period after the battle of Ipsus (in 301), Z. defeated two of Lysimachus' [2] strategoi (Memnon FGrH 434 F 6,3). Renewed fighting with Chalcedon (Plut. Mor. 302e) and the conquest of Astacus (Str. 12,4,2; Paus. 5,12,7) are probably con…

Zarbienus

(60 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαρβιηνός /Zarbiēnós). A king of Corduene (Gordyaea), who negotiated with Appius Claudius [I 24] Pulcher in 71/70 BC over an alliance with Licinius [I 26] Lucullus, and was betrayed to his overlord Tigranes [2] II of Armenia, who disposed of him. Lucullus gave him a magnificent burial in 69 and confiscated his treasures (Plut. Lucullus 21; 29). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Shirin (Sira)

(133 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [1] Wife of Chosroes [6] II, c. 600 AD (Šīrīn, Σειρέμ / Seirém, Σιρήν/ Sirḗn). A Christian from Ḫūzistan, one of the wives of Chosroes [6] II, who was elevated by him to queen in AD 592 (Theophylaktos Simokattes, Historiae 5,13,7). She was still alive in 627 (Theophanes, Chronographia anno mundi 6118). Only late oriental authors tell of her suicide over the corpse of her husband [1. 401-405]. The S. topic underwent many literary revisions in the Islamic world, of which the epic Chosrou and S. by the Persian poet Neẓāmī (Nesami; translate…

Phraates

(951 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φραάτης; Phraátēs). [German version] [1] P. I Parthian king, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC Son of Phriapatius, Parthian king from 176 BC. In about 171 BC, P. defeated the Amardi and deported them to Charax near the Caspian Gates (Isidorus of Charax 7). He died soon afterwards, after having appointed his brother Mithridates [12] I as his successor (Just. Epit. 41,5,9-10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenia, 1989, Index s.v. P. [German version] [2] P. II Parthian king, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Nephew of P. [1], son of Mithridates…

Nennius

(210 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] The Welshman N. is said to be the author of the Historia Brittonum, which appeared around AD 829, although his authorship has recently been disputed [1. 1089f.]. The work is a compilation in Latin, and does not form a coherent historical account, but collates source texts for such an account in a semi-chronological sequence. This literary form, consciously chosen by the author, represents a modern and, for its time, unique approach to dealing with historical material [2]. The information preserved by N. is certainly of extremely disparate value, especiall…

Vonones

(258 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] V. I was the eldest of four Parthian princes who in 10 BC were placed in the custody of the Romans by their father Phraates [4] IV. He was able to succeed Orodes [3] III c. 8 AD, but did not manage to gain the respect of the Iranian nationalist nobility that Artabanus [5] II arrayed against him. V. was able to force his competitor to temporarily retreat into the Medean mountains, but ultimately had to flee from him to Armenia. He tried to win the throne there, which was vacant after the final retreat of Erato […

Arsaces

(366 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] A. I. Founder and Ruler of the Parthian Empire (247-217 BC) Uncertain origin; around 250 BC under his leadership, the Parni invaded the region of Astauene. The confusion in the eastern part of the Seleucid kingdom allowed A. to conquer Parthia around 238, and Hyrcania shortly thereafter. He was crowned in Asaak. In spite of a counterattack led by Seleucus II, A. was able to maintain his hold on Parthia and Hyrcania. He left a strong state behind him at his death in 217. He was the founder of the Parthian Empire and founding father of the Arsacids. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfel…

Ariarathes

(814 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριαράθης/ Ariaráthēs). Name of kings of Cappadocia. [German version] [1] A. I A. I, b. 405/4 BC, became satrap of Northern Cappadocia under Artaxerxes [3] III, and retained the position under the latter's successors and during the Macedonian conquest (v. Alexander [4] the Great). In 322 BC, he was defeated by Perdiccas [4], who had him executed. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] A. II Son of Orophernes [1], nephew and adoptive son of A. [1], defeated the Seleucid strategos Amyntas around 280 BC [1. 93 f.] with the assistance of Orontes [4] III of Armeni…

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Samus

(159 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σάμος/ Sámos). [German version] [1] King of Armenia, 3rd cent. BC King of Armenia first half of the 3rd cent. BC, appears among the paternal ancestors of Antiochus [16] I of Commagene as the father of king Arsames [4] (OGIS 394). S. (and not his homonymous descendant) founded Samosata, later the capital of Commagene, and Samokart in the Armenian region of Arzanene. In c. 255 BC he hosted the Bithynian prince Ziaelas. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] S. Theosebes Dicaeus (Σ. Θεοσεβὴς Δίκαιος/ S. Theosebḕs Díkaios). Great-grandson of S. [1], son of Ptolemaeus [III…
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