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Katholizismus

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Die neuere Forschung fasst unter dem Terminus K. die Summe aller soziokulturellen Manifestationen der Römisch-Katholischen Kirche zusammen, angefangen von den Formen ihrer institutionellen Verfasstheit über individuelle wie kollektive Frömmigkeitspraktiken bis hin zu idealtypischen ethisch-politischen Haltungen, ökonomischen Verhaltensweisen, künstlerischen Stilen, mentalen Deutungsmustern und theologischen Sinngehalten. Als ein erstes fundamentales Charakteristikum des K. wäre der Anspruch zu nennen, im Untersc…

Episkopalismus

(818 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Ein weiter E.-Begriff erfasst sämtliche kirchenpolitische Handlungsmuster und ekklesiologische Theorien (Theorien von Kirche), in denen das Bischofsamt als das Grundprinzip der Kirchenverfassung aufgefasst wird. Im Unterschied zum Protestantismus beinhaltet der theoretische E. in der ma. und Römisch-katholischen Kirche nicht die staatsrechtliche Legitimation des landesherrlichen Kirchenregimentes (vgl. Episkopalsystem), sondern eine theologisch und kanonistisch argumentierende Grundlegung der bischöflichen Struktur von Kirche. Das im Laufe d…

Gallikanismus

(732 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Der erst vom Ultramontanismus des 19. Jh.s geprägte Terminus G. (von mlat. gallicanus, davon franz. gallicanisme) fasst eine Vielzahl von Theorien und Praktiken zusammen, welche die Freiheit und Eigenständigkeit der franz. Kirche gegenüber dem universalen Jurisdiktionsanspruch des Papsttums begründen und durchsetzen wollten. Unterschieden werden können stärker theologisch argumentierende »episkopale Gallikanismen« ( Episkopalismus), welche die territorialkirchliche Unabhängigkeit von der Würde des Bischofsamtes herleiten, und eher juristisch …

Catholicism

(2,047 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Modern scholars use the term  Catholicism as a collective term for all the sociocultural manifestations of the Roman Catholic Church, from the forms of its institutional constitution through individual and collective manifestations of religiosity to ideal-typical ethicopolitical attitudes, patterns of economic behavior, artistic styles, interpretive mental models, and theological meanings. The first and most fundamental feature of Catholicism is probably its claim – unlike the “heretical …
Date: 2017-02-14

Anti-Catholicism

(825 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Little study has been devoted to the history of the term and the phenomenon. Early occurrences of the term appeared in Victorian England, where Protestant anti-Catholicism was organized in numerous societies during the first half of the 19th century (British Reformation Society, 1827; Protestant Association, 1835/1836; National Club, 1845 [7]; [6]). Although central themes of its later manifestations were anticipated in the anticlericalism, antipopery, and the anti-Roman tenor of some late medieval reform movements (including the Reformation)…
Date: 2017-02-14

Bistum

(792 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff B. bezeichnet ein kirchliches Territorium, in dem ein kath. Bischof sein Amt ausübt (Bischofsamt). Dem entspricht auf evang. Seite die Institution der Landeskirche. Der Begriff (von mhdt. bischoftuom, »das, was des Bischofs ist«) wird seit dem MA in der Westkirche weitgehend synonym mit dem schon in der Spätantike üblichen Terminus »Diözese« (griech. dioíkēsis, lat. dioecesis, »Verwaltung«, »Verwaltungsbezirk«) verwendet und bringt die grundlegende Rolle des Bischofs zum Ausdruck. 2. Die Bistümer der Reichskirche In räumlicher Ausdehnung und internem Organi…

Antikatholizismus

(779 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Die Geschichte von Begriff und Phänomen ist kaum erforscht. Frühe Belege für das engl. Begriffsäquivalent anti-catholicism stammen aus dem viktorianischen England, wo sich der protest. A. während der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jh.s in zahlreichen societies organisierte ( British Reformation Society 1827; Protestant Association 1835/6; National Club 1845 [7]; [6]). Im Antiklerikalismus, Antipapismus und antiröm. Grundtenor einiger spätma. Reformbewegungen (inklusive der Reformation) wurden zwar zentrale Gehalte seiner späteren Erscheinungsformen an…

Sedlnitzki

(171 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[English Version] von Choltitz, Leopold Graf v. (29.7.1787 Geppersdorf – 25.3.1871 Berlin), aus mährisch-schlesischem Adel. Nach Positionen sowohl in der Bistumsverwaltung als auch in der staatl. Schulbehörde auf Betreiben der preußischen Regierung 1835 zum Fürstbf. von Breslau gewählt, 1836 geweiht. Zur Konfrontation mit dem Diözesanklerus und mit Rom führte seine Haltung im Preußischen Kirchenstreit, in dem der staatskirchl. wie ökum. Gesinnte an der bisherigen Praxis festhalten und gemischt konfes…

Pius X.

(888 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[English Version] Pius X., Papst 4.8.1903–28.8.1914 (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, geb. 2.6.1835 Riese, Treviso). Unter Hinweis auf die während des Pontifikates durchgeführten zahlreichen innerkirchl. Reformen gilt P. einerseits als ein (freilich konservativer) Reformpapst, der sich durch persönliche Tugenden und einen ernsten Willen zu rel. Vertiefung auszeichnete. Schwerwiegende diplomatische Fehlgriffe auf polit. Terrain und die Krise des röm.-kath. Antimodernismus, die unter P. ihren Höhepunkt err…

Leo XIII, Pope

(485 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci, born Aug 2, 1810, Carpineto; pope Feb 20, 1878 – Jul 20, 1903). In the history of the papacy, Leo will be remembered above all as a political realist and the author of the first official Catholic social ethics (Catholic social teaching); his international diplomacy earned him his reputation as “the most significant pope of the 19th century” (Schwaiger). In the wake of the intransigent opposition of his predecessor Pius IX to the states that had emerged …

Scheeben, Matthias Joseph

(360 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Mar 1, 1835, Meckenheim, near Bonn – Jul 21, 1888, Cologne), Catholic dogmatic theologian, in the judgment of K. Barth “the greatest the Roman Catholic Church has produced on German soil in the modern era” (E. Busch, Karl Barths Lebenslauf, 1975, 428; ET: Karl Barth: His Life from Letters and Autobiographical Texts, 1976). While he was studying at the Gregorianum (1852–1859), Scheeben’s theology was given its anti-rationalist bent (against A. Günther and G. Hermes) – emphasizing the supernatural character of the act of faith and …

Pius XII, Pope

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Pope Mar 2, 1939 – Oct 9, 1958; Eugenio Pacelli, born Mar 2, 1876, Rome, died in Castel Gandolfo). After more than two centuries the city of Rome once again had a native Roman as its bishop – and pope. Pacelli grew up in a family of jurisprudents closely connected with the papacy. The network of relationships within which his grandfather and father served as curial officials secured the talented young man effective career promotion from an early age. Before ordination to the prie…

Schmaus, Michael

(219 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1897, Oberbaar – Dec 8, 1993, Gauting), Catholic theologian. After receiving his doctorate ( Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des heiligen Augustinus, 1927, 21967) and habilitation, he taught in Prague (from 1929), Münster (from 1933), and Munich (1946–1965); in Munich he founded the Grabmann Institute (named after his teacher, M. Grabmann) for the study of medieval theology and philosophy in 1954. His monumental, widely influential Katholische Dogmatik (1938–1941; several revisions, 61960–1964) set itself apart from contemporary Neoschola…

Kleutgen, Joseph

(222 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1811, Dortmund, Germany – Jan 13, 1883, St. Anton, Austria), Catholic philosopher and theologian and a member of the Society of Jesus from 1834. After studying philosophy, classical philology, and theology, Kleutgen was resident primarily in Rome from 1847 onward, fulfilling functions in his order and teaching rhetoric in the Collegium Germanicum. As an author, consultant for the Index Congregation (1850–1862, Index Librorum Prohibitorum ), and as a theologian at Vatican I, he contributed significantly to the establish…

Günther, Johann Christian

(168 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1695, Strzegom [Ger. Striegau], Poland – Mar 15, 1723, Jena), a poet of the transition period between Baroque and the Enlightenment. During his short and unsteady life (Protestant grammar school in Schweidnitz from 1710 to 1715, from 1715 study of medicine in Frankfurt an der Oder and Wittenberg, relocation to Leipzig in 1717, from 1720 short stays in Silesian towns with changing patrons) Günther managed to produce more than 600 ¶ poems, letters, and one drama under the pressure of permanent existential precariousness. The elaborate rhetorical…

Pius X, Pope (Saint)

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; born Jun 2, 1835, Riese, Trevisio; pope Aug 4, 1903 – Aug 28, 1914). On the basis of the many internal reforms accomplished during his pontificate, Pius X must be considered a reforming pope (albeit conservative), distinguished for his personal virtues and a serious desire for greater religious depth. At the same time, severe diplomatic blunders in the political sphere and the crisis of Roman Catholic antimodernism, which reached its peak during his pon…

Wessenberg, Ignaz Heinrich von

(549 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1774, Dresden – Aug 9, 1860, Constance), pastoral reformer committed to the cultural ideals of the Catholic ¶ Enlightenment (II, 4.f). Wessenberg was the son of an aristocratic Breisgau family, destined for a career in the church. As was standard practice in the church within the Empire, he was admitted to minor orders in 1785 and assigned a living as a cathedral canon in 1791/1792. During studies at Dillingen (from 1792), Würzburg (from 1794), and Vienna (from 1796), he ca…

Sedlnitzki, Leopold, Count von

(204 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1787, Geppersdorf [Linhartovy] – Mar 25, 1871, Berlin), of Moravian-Silesian nobility. After holding positions in both the bishopric and the state school system, at the instigation of the Prussian government he was elected prince bishop of Breslau in 1835 and was consecrated in 1836. His stance in the Prussian Church Dispute led to a confrontation with the diocesan clergy and with Rome: Sedlnitzki, an ecumenically minded supporter of the state church, wanted to maintain t…

John Paul I, Pope

(208 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] Aug 26, 1978 – Sep 28, 1978 (Albino Luciani, born Oct 17, 1912, Canale d'Agordo, Veneto). Luciani was from a northern Italian working-class family. In 1935, he was ordained priest for the diocese of Belluno, and became subregens (vice-director) of the seminary there in 1937. In 1947, he submitted his theological dissertation on A. Rosmini-Serbati at the Gregoriana in Rome, and became vicar general in 1948. As bishop of Vittorio Veneto (1958) and patriarch of Venice (1969), he was primarily interested in social and pa…

Pius XI, Pope

(1,698 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Pope Feb 6, 1922 – Feb 10, 1939; Achille Ratti, born May 31, 1857, Desio, near Monza), son of a middle-class Lombard family, Ratti began his theological studies in Milan, then entered the Lombard College in Rome, where he attended the universities of the Jesuits and Dominicans. After ordination to the priesthood (1879) and doctoral study, he returned the Milan seminary at the age of 25, where he taught dogmatic theology and homiletics for four years. Accepted in 1888 into the doc…
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