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Katholizismus

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Die neuere Forschung fasst unter dem Terminus K. die Summe aller soziokulturellen Manifestationen der Römisch-Katholischen Kirche zusammen, angefangen von den Formen ihrer institutionellen Verfasstheit über individuelle wie kollektive Frömmigkeitspraktiken bis hin zu idealtypischen ethisch-politischen Haltungen, ökonomischen Verhaltensweisen, künstlerischen Stilen, mentalen Deutungsmustern und theologischen Sinngehalten. Als ein erstes fundamentales Charakteristikum des K. wäre der Anspruch zu nennen, im Untersc…

Gallikanismus

(732 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Der erst vom Ultramontanismus des 19. Jh.s geprägte Terminus G. (von mlat. gallicanus, davon franz. gallicanisme) fasst eine Vielzahl von Theorien und Praktiken zusammen, welche die Freiheit und Eigenständigkeit der franz. Kirche gegenüber dem universalen Jurisdiktionsanspruch des Papsttums begründen und durchsetzen wollten. Unterschieden werden können stärker theologisch argumentierende »episkopale Gallikanismen« ( Episkopalismus), welche die territorialkirchliche Unabhängigkeit von der Würde des Bischofsamtes herleiten, und eher juristisch …

Episkopalismus

(818 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Ein weiter E.-Begriff erfasst sämtliche kirchenpolitische Handlungsmuster und ekklesiologische Theorien (Theorien von Kirche), in denen das Bischofsamt als das Grundprinzip der Kirchenverfassung aufgefasst wird. Im Unterschied zum Protestantismus beinhaltet der theoretische E. in der ma. und Römisch-katholischen Kirche nicht die staatsrechtliche Legitimation des landesherrlichen Kirchenregimentes (vgl. Episkopalsystem), sondern eine theologisch und kanonistisch argumentierende Grundlegung der bischöflichen Struktur von Kirche. Das im Laufe d…

Anti-Catholicism

(825 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Little study has been devoted to the history of the term and the phenomenon. Early occurrences of the term appeared in Victorian England, where Protestant anti-Catholicism was organized in numerous societies during the first half of the 19th century (British Reformation Society, 1827; Protestant Association, 1835/1836; National Club, 1845 [7]; [6]). Although central themes of its later manifestations were anticipated in the anticlericalism, antipopery, and the anti-Roman tenor of some late medieval reform movements (including the Reformation)…
Date: 2017-02-14

Catholicism

(2,047 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Modern scholars use the term  Catholicism as a collective term for all the sociocultural manifestations of the Roman Catholic Church, from the forms of its institutional constitution through individual and collective manifestations of religiosity to ideal-typical ethicopolitical attitudes, patterns of economic behavior, artistic styles, interpretive mental models, and theological meanings. The first and most fundamental feature of Catholicism is probably its claim – unlike the “heretical …
Date: 2017-02-14

Diocese

(794 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Concept A diocese (from the Greek dioíkesis, Latin  dioecesis, “administration,” “administrative district”) is an ecclesiastical territory within which a Catholic bishop executes his office (Episcopate). The equivalent in the German-speaking Protestant world is the institution of the Landeskirche. The term “diocese” (French diocèse; Spanish  diócesis; Italian  diocesi; German  Diözese) dates back to Late Antiquity. The term “bishopric” and cognates (French évêché; Spanish obispado; German  Bistum, from MHG  bischoftuom, “that pertaining to the bishop”) h…
Date: 2018-02-14

Episcopalianism

(831 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. DefinitionA broad concept of episcopalism embraces all models of church polity and ecclesiological theories (theories of the church) in which the episcopate is understood as the fundamental principle of church polity. In contrast to Protestantism, theoretical episcopalism in the medieval and Roman Catholic Church does not include constitutional legitimation of church governance by the secular sovereign (cf. Episcopal system) but rather theological and canonistic arguments justifying the episcopal structure of the church.The broad spectrum of practical fo…
Date: 2018-02-14

Gallicanism

(736 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition The term Gallicanism (from Middle Latin gallicanus, hence French  gallicanisme) was coined by 19th-century Ultramontanism. It encapsulates a variety of theories and practices intended to justify and realize the freedom and independence of the French church vis-à-vis the papacy’s claim of universal jurisdiction. There were two basic types of Gallicanism: a more theologically based  “episcopal Gallicanism” (Episcopalianism), which derived the independence of the territorial church from the dignity of the episcopate, an…
Date: 2018-02-14

Bistum

(792 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff B. bezeichnet ein kirchliches Territorium, in dem ein kath. Bischof sein Amt ausübt (Bischofsamt). Dem entspricht auf evang. Seite die Institution der Landeskirche. Der Begriff (von mhdt. bischoftuom, »das, was des Bischofs ist«) wird seit dem MA in der Westkirche weitgehend synonym mit dem schon in der Spätantike üblichen Terminus »Diözese« (griech. dioíkēsis, lat. dioecesis, »Verwaltung«, »Verwaltungsbezirk«) verwendet und bringt die grundlegende Rolle des Bischofs zum Ausdruck. 2. Die Bistümer der Reichskirche In räumlicher Ausdehnung und internem Organi…

Antikatholizismus

(779 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Die Geschichte von Begriff und Phänomen ist kaum erforscht. Frühe Belege für das engl. Begriffsäquivalent anti-catholicism stammen aus dem viktorianischen England, wo sich der protest. A. während der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jh.s in zahlreichen societies organisierte ( British Reformation Society 1827; Protestant Association 1835/6; National Club 1845 [7]; [6]). Im Antiklerikalismus, Antipapismus und antiröm. Grundtenor einiger spätma. Reformbewegungen (inklusive der Reformation) wurden zwar zentrale Gehalte seiner späteren Erscheinungsformen an…

Jaeger, Lorenz

(204 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1892, Halle an der Saale – Apr 1, 1975, Paderborn), since 1941 archbishop of Paderborn, was named cardinal in 1965, and retired from office in 1973. Jaeger's significance urging the Catholic Church's participation in the ecumenical movement is undisputed. Two institutions trace their foundation essentially to him. In 1946, together with W. Stählin, Jaeger initiated the Ökumenischer Arbeitskreis evangelischer und katholischer Theologen (ÖAK) and, in 1957, the Johann Adam M…

Schwarzenberg, Friedrich

(114 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 6, 1809, Vienna – Mar 27, 1885, Vienna), of Bohemian high nobility, 1836 archbishop of Saltzburg, 1842 cardinal, 1850 archbishop of Prague, where he was involved in the struggle of the nationalities for equality in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Schwarzenberg was sympathetic to the intellectual openness of A. Günther and his ideas on church reform; he also opposed the monopolization of theology by Neoscholasticism. From the outset less disposed toward Ultramontanism than many, at Vatican I he became a leader of the minority (Papacy: III, 4). Günther Wassilowsky Bi…

Schmaus, Michael

(219 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1897, Oberbaar – Dec 8, 1993, Gauting), Catholic theologian. After receiving his doctorate ( Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des heiligen Augustinus, 1927, 21967) and habilitation, he taught in Prague (from 1929), Münster (from 1933), and Munich (1946–1965); in Munich he founded the Grabmann Institute (named after his teacher, M. Grabmann) for the study of medieval theology and philosophy in 1954. His monumental, widely influential Katholische Dogmatik (1938–1941; several revisions, 61960–1964) set itself apart from contemporary Neoschola…

Kleutgen, Joseph

(222 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1811, Dortmund, Germany – Jan 13, 1883, St. Anton, Austria), Catholic philosopher and theologian and a member of the Society of Jesus from 1834. After studying philosophy, classical philology, and theology, Kleutgen was resident primarily in Rome from 1847 onward, fulfilling functions in his order and teaching rhetoric in the Collegium Germanicum. As an author, consultant for the Index Congregation (1850–1862, Index Librorum Prohibitorum ), and as a theologian at Vatican I, he contributed significantly …

Pius XI, Pope

(1,698 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Pope Feb 6, 1922 – Feb 10, 1939; Achille Ratti, born May 31, 1857, Desio, near Monza), son of a middle-class Lombard family, Ratti began his theological studies in Milan, then entered the Lombard College in Rome, where he attended the universities of the Jesuits and Dominicans. After ordination to the priesthood (1879) and doctoral study, he returned the Milan seminary at the age of 25, where he taught dogmatic theology and homiletics for four years. Accepted in 1888 into the doc…

Mausbach, Joseph

(298 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Feb 7, 1861, Wipperfeld – Jan 31, 1931, Ahrweiler), Catholic moral theologian. From 1892, he was professor of moral theology and apologetics in Münster. In an autobiographical sketch (in: E. Stange, ed., Die Religionswissenschaft der Gegenwart in Selbstdarstellungen, 1927, 57–89) Mausbach mentions four emphases in his life: (1) in the context of his teaching and publishing activity, he argued against the casuistic method and for a stronger theological approach to his field. Through the integration of biblical, ascet…

John XXIII, Pope

(457 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (pope Oct 28, 1958 – Jun 3, 1963; Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, b. Nov 25, 1881, Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo), came from a large farming family. After studying in Bergamo and Rome and being ordained priest in 1904, Roncalli was, until 1914, secretary to his local bishop G. Radini Tedeschi, who ¶ remained his pastoral model for the rest of his life. During these years, Roncalli also began his work in church history, including the edition of the visitation documents of C. Borromeo. Although Roncalli rendered political service to the Vat…

Pius X, Pope (Saint)

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; born Jun 2, 1835, Riese, Trevisio; pope Aug 4, 1903 – Aug 28, 1914). On the basis of the many internal reforms accomplished during his pontificate, Pius X must be considered a reforming pope (albeit conservative), distinguished for his personal virtues and a serious desire for greater religious depth. At the same time, severe diplomatic blunders in the political sphere and the crisis of Roman Catholic antimodernism, which reached its peak during his pontificate, suppo…

Wessenberg, Ignaz Heinrich von

(549 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1774, Dresden – Aug 9, 1860, Constance), pastoral reformer committed to the cultural ideals of the Catholic ¶ Enlightenment (II, 4.f). Wessenberg was the son of an aristocratic Breisgau family, destined for a career in the church. As was standard practice in the church within the Empire, he was admitted to minor orders in 1785 and assigned a living as a cathedral canon in 1791/1792. During studies at Dillingen (from 1792), Würzburg (from 1794), and Vienna (from 1796), he came under the influence of J.M. Sailer, the Kantian Joseph Weber (1753–1831), and K.T.A.M. v. Dalberg, the bishop…
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