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Vacalus

(63 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Waal). A slow-flowing (Tac. Ann. 2,6,3 f.) left bank distributary of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine); it incorporates the Mosa [1] (modern Maas) to form the Insula Batavorum (Caes. Gall. 4,10,2; Tac. Ann. 2,6: Vahalis; Serv. Aen. 8,727: Vahal) and the Rhenus Bicornis ('with two horns';  cf. Verg. Aen. 8,727). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2018-2024.

Nemetes

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Νέμητες; Némētes). Germanic tribe, which - judging by the Celtic name - probably settled  in the area of contact between Celts and Germani before the Roman period, but is hardly likely to belong to the Suebi. The N. were first mentioned alongside Triboci and Vangiones and later were also repeatedly referred to in conjunction with them (Plin. HN. 4,106; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Ptol. 2,9,17), among the seven tribes which Ariovistus had led across the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). However, …

Tencteri

(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, driven in 58 BC from their homeland to the east of the Rhine by the Suebi. After three years as nomads, in 55 BC the T. crossed the Rhine (Rhenus [2]), defeated the west-bank Menapii, who had refused to accept them into their territory, and migrated up the Meuse (Mosa [1]) as far as the Eburones and the Condrusi. There, Caesar annihilated them; only some of the cavalry escaped to the Sugambri to the east of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,1,1-4,18,5). In 17/16 BC they, …

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Tubantes

(173 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe to the west of the upper Amisia [1] (modern Ems). Germanicus [2] was attacked by the T. in AD 14 (Tac. Ann. 1,51,2); T. may then have also been paraded in Germanicus' triumphal procession (Str. 7,1,4: Σουβάττιοι/ Soubáttioi). Later than the Chamavi and earlier than the Usipetes, they settled predominantly between the Vecht and the Ijssel (Tac. Ann. 13,55,2). Then they migrated southwards together with the Usipetes, who besieged Mogontiacum in AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 4,37,3). According to Ptol. 2,11,23 (Τούβαντοι/ Toúbantoi), they were neighbours of the …

Sitones

(65 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] People neighbouring the Suiones, ruled at the time of Tacitus (Tac. Germ. 45,6) by a woman. Their area of settlement cannot be ascertained, possibly in modern Finland. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. A. Lund (ed.), P. Cornelius Tacitus, Germania, 1988, 237 f.  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas ..., vol. 2, 1990, 257 f.  J. B. Rives, Tacitus, Germania, 1999, 321.

Ubii

(479 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe (Caes. B Gall. 4,3,3; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Tac. Hist. 4,28,1; 4,64), settled in Caesar's time on the right bank of the Rhine (Rhenus [2]) between the lower La(u)gona (modern Lahn) and Taunus. Displaced by the Suebi, the U. allied with Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,8,3; 16,5-8). Caesar's Rhine crossings in 55 and 53 BC probably took place from the Neuwieder Becken in the territory of the U. The history and chronology of their resettlement on the left bank of the Rhine…

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…

Lesura

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 365), which flows into the Moselle near Bernkastel, modern Lieser. L. or Lesora is the name of a mountain in the Cevennes, modern Lozère (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,44; cf. Plin. HN 11, 240), Lesuros (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 48) a river on the east coast of Spain. There is also a Lieser in Carinthia (Austria). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Cramer, s.v. L., RE 12, 2138 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterungen zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Saxones

(589 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Σάξονες/ Sáxones, the Saxons). Association of Germanic tribes, first mentioned at Ptol. 2,11,11. According to him, they settled in Holstein to the northeast of the lower Elbe; in the west their territory bordered the sea (Ptol. 2,11,31: three Saxon islands). Presumably the S. originated from the Reudigni and the Aviones (Tac. Germ. 40,2) [1]. They may have become known to the Romans earlier, possibly in 5 AD when a fleet sailed to the Cimbrian peninsula, yet Tacitus does not menti…

Sumelocenna

(229 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Celtic settlement on the Nicer/Neckar (Tab. Peut. 4,1; [1. 199-271, 693 f.], cf. [3. 357-382]), modern Rottenburg. Settled in the Roman period, probably after AD 90 [3. 399-402]; there is no evidence of a fort [2. 469 f. D 89], but there is evidence of an ala Vallensium (CIL XIII 6361). Inscriptions attest to a procurator (administrator of the imperial saltus S., ILS 8855, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD), an ordo and magistri of the saltus (ILS 7100, middle of the 2nd cent.). S. was in the periphery of a civi…

Lupia

(340 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A. Geography and tradition Righthand tributary flowing into the Rhine a little above Vetera (Str. 7,1,3), modern Lippe. For Mela 3,30, Moenus (Main) and L. are the best-known tributaries of the Rhine ( Rhenus), and these names were used for the most important Roman invasion routes into Germania Magna. Mentioned on several occasions in the course of the Roman offensives into the area east of the Rhine from 12 BC to AD 15/6 (Cass. Dio 54,33,1-4; Tac. Ann. 1,60,3; 2,7,1). In AD 70 the c…

Kastel

(469 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman fort and vicus called Castellum Mattiacorum on the right bank of the Rhine, in the region of the Mattiaci, today Mainz-Kastel. A bridgehead of timber and earth had probably safeguarded the Rhine crossing from the time of Augustus. No later than the time of Tiberius (AD 14-37) a bridge on wooden piles spanned the river here ( c. 700 metres long). Its conversion to a stone bridge had perhaps already begun in the time of Claudius and Nero (AD 41-68). The military complex was probably destroyed in the year of four emperors (AD 69), but…

Reudigni

(56 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe in the cult community of the Nerthus tribes to the north of the Langobardi (Tac. Germ. 40,2) in the area of modern Holstein and West-Mecklenburg. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography B. Rappaport, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 700 f.  A. Genrich, Der Siedlungsraum der Nerthusstämme, in: Die Kunde 26/7, 1975/6, 103-146.

Usipetes

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Usipi). Germanic tribe, presumably originally settled in the valley of the La(u)gona (modern Lahn), which was driven out by the Suebi in 58 BC. After crossing the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) they drove out the Menapii in 56/5 BC and subsequently advanced farther south. In 55 BC Caesar annihilated the U. and the Tencteri; previously he had unlawfully captured the leaders of the two tribes, and this led to to severe reactions in Rome (Caes. Gall. 4,1-16; 6,35,5; Plut. Caesar 22,…

Nida

(364 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Roman vicus, modern Frankfurt am Main-Heddernheim in Germany. Beginning with the Flavian period (2nd half of 1st cent. AD) there is evidence for at least 10 camps between Heddernheim and the adjoining Praunheim. Evidence of longer-term activity is only found in a cavalry fort (5 ha in size) which was constructed in the early Flavian period in timber and earth and then extended in stone towards the end of the 1st cent. It was presumably occupied by the ala I Flavia Gemina. There is also epigraphical evidence of the cohors IV…

Vetera

(975 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Roman camp on the Rhine at the 60th milestone downstream from Colonia Agrippinensis (modern Cologne; Tac. Ann. 1,45,1) between the modern towns of Birten and Xanten. The camp originated from the early Imperial period. The name, probably indigenous, refers to an archaeologically unattested earlier settlement nearby (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,18,3: castra quibus Veterum nomen est, 'camp with the name V.', quite often in accounts of the Batavian Revolt; Ptol.…

Tougeni

(137 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Τωϋγενοί/ Tōÿgenoí). Sub-tribe of the Helvetii, affiliated with the Cimbri on the westward migration (Poseid. FGrH 87 F 31,2). According to Str. 4,1,8 Marius [I 1] fought against the T. and the Ambrones; but since, besides the Cimbri and the Ambrones, Plut. Marius 15,6 mentions the Teutoni as opponents of Marius at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae in 102 BC, Strabo may have confused the T. with the Teutoni [1. 145-157]. Identification of the T. with the Teutoni [1; 3. 356 f.; 4. 300-309, 455-459], however, is fundamentally unlikely [2; 5; 6. 20810]. Wiegels, Rainer (Osna…

Cugerni

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Cuberni). Presumably a part of a tribe, certainly one of the groups succeeding the  Sugambri resettled by the Romans in 8 BC on the lefthand side of the Rhine (on the motives [1]). According to Pliny (HN 4,106: Cuberni) they lived between the  Ubii in the south and the  Batavi in the north and probably already created in the 1st cent. AD a   civitas based on peregrine law. On the basis of an extant fragmentary inscription (AE 1981, 690 = AE 1984, 650) from AD 68, Cib[ernodurum] was developed close to the later  Colonia Ulpi…

Tolbiacum

(140 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Zülpich, district of Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia). Town ( vicus: CIL XIII 7920;  It. Ant. 373,4: vicus Sopenorum - possibly a Celtic tribal name), originally in the settlement area of the Eburones, then of the Ubii (Tac. Hist. 4,79,2). Presumably the location of a station of beneficiarii . Remains survive of thermae and burial monuments. After being destroyed in Germanic attacks in 275/6 AD, T. was fortified at the beginning of the 4th cent. AD . There is evidence of Romanic settlement until the middle of the 5th cent. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliogr…
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