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List of Contributors

(340 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
previous chapter | next chapter | contents Margaret Bendroth is the Executive Director of the Congregational Library in Boston, Massachusetts. Her research focuses on American religious history. She was the President of the American Society of Church History. Martin Dreher is Professor of History at the Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Brasil. He researches the history of colonisation and immigration in Latin America. Christian Gottlieb is Affiliate Professor of Church History at the University of Copenhagen. The focus of his research is the history of Christianity in Russia. N…

Foreword to Volume 2

(2,597 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
German edition | next chapter | contents The origin of these three volumes on the history of Christianity since the 16th Century Reformation was the necessity of augmenting the well-known series published by the Kohlhammer Verlag in Stuttgart, Germany, “ Religionen der Menschheit,” the Religions of Humankind. From the point of view of the contributors to these volumes, the substance and general approach of the books was the product of serious study and interaction with one another. Jens Holger Schjørring, professor emeritus of church history at the University of Aarhus i…

II Sources and Early Accounts of the Literary History of the Arabs

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | Introduction previous chapter | German edition With the exception of those monographs that will be mentioned in their proper places throughout these volumes, the most important biographical and bibliographical sources for the fIeld as a whole are as follows: |³1. Biographical works Ibn Khall. = Ibn Khallikān (p. 326), Wafayāt al-aʿyān, Būlāq 12991; Vitae illustrium virorum, ed. F. Wüstenfeld, Göttingen 1835–40; Ibn Khallikan’s biographical dictionary translated from the Arabic, by MacGuckin de Slane, 4 vols., Paris-London 1843–71. Fawāt = Muḥammad b. Shākir al-…

Chapter 1. Egypt

(10,261 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition |⁷¹⁸ As a result of European influence, the stagnation of intellectual life which had dominated the Muslim world over the last couple of centuries gradually diminished. But even though the reforms of Muḥammad ʿAlī and his successors inundated the country with countless achievements of European civilization and the machine age, these matters initially had …

2. Rhymed Prose and Stylistics

(2,954 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Manṣūr b. al-Qāriḥ al-Ḥalabī Dawkhala was born in Aleppo in 351/962. He was active as a teacher of adab in Syria and Egypt, and died after 421/1030 in Mosul. Yāqūt, Irsh. V, 424–7. Risāla to al-Maʿarrī, who answered it with his Risālat alghufrān (see above, p. 453), ed. M. Kurd ʿAlī in al-Muqtabas V (1910), 545–64, Rasāʾil al-bulaghāʾ, 2nd ed., 194–213. 1a. As well as in ep…

4. Historiography

(11,962 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition While the Arabs of southern Arabia lacked any sense of history (see Rhodokanakis, Altsab. Texte I, Vienna 1927, 36, n.4), the same was not true for those of the north. The interest that the Bedouins took in their genealogy, their pride in the deeds of the ancients, even if void of any historical value in the elevated sense of the term, at least had the merit of keeping the past al…

2. The Qurʾān

(835 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
1 In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition Ad p. 26 Against D.H. Müller’s theory of strophes, to which R. Geyer, WZKM 1908, 265–86 tried to give a new foundation, see also Nöldeke, NB 6 n.3. Repeated attempts to discover lines of poetry in the Qurʾān, already carried out by Arab grammarians (see al-Suyūṭī, Muzhir2I, 291, 1, 234, 23, following Ibn Fāris, see p. 130, Fiqh al-lugha) and replicated in Grimme, Mohammed II (1895), p. 18 ff., have all been just as fruitless; cf. W.F. Warren, Rhyme and R…

2. ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa

(633 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 3, The Period of the Umayyads previous chapter | German edition Up to this time, the tribe of Quraysh in Mecca had played hardly any role in poetry. However, in the first century of the Hijra there arose in their midst a poet whose skill was already—and deservedly—recognised by his contemporaries, |⁴⁶ and which the modern Arab world has learned to appreciate once again after a long period of relative neglect. ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa came from the famous house of Makhzūm. His father ʿAbdallāh, who was one of the ric…

4. The Nature of Ancient Arabic Poetry

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
1 In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 1, From the Beginnings until the Appearance of Muḥammad previous chapter | German edition By the last century before the Hijra, which is the earliest period for which we possess reasonably reliable source material on the oldest forms of Arabic poetry, |²⁵ its link with magical and religious imagery, once typical of the poetry of the Arabs as of that of other primitive cultures, had been almost completely severed, except for the hijāʾ. In the merciless struggle for survival in the desert, the most important fla…

Chapter 7. India

(9,320 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1 Philology 1. ʿAbd al-Rashid b. ʿAbd al-Ghafūr al-Ḥasanī al-Madani al-Tatmāʾī wrote for Shāh Jahān Abu ’l-Muẓaffar (1037–68/1627–57) and died in 1068/1657. Jāmiʿ lughāt or Muntakhab al-lughāt, Arabic-Persian dictionary, Leid. 118, Tippu 135, Ouseley 386, Br. Mus. Pers. 518, printings Calcutta 1808, 1816, ed. J.H. Taylor 1836, Bombay and Lucknow. 2. ʿAlī Akbar b. ʿAlī al-Ilāhābādī c…

11. Philosophy and Politics

(10,256 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn (Ḥasan) b. ʿAlī b. Sīnā (Avicenna) al-Qānūnī was born in Ṣafar 370/August 980 |⁵⁹⁰ in Afshana, near Bukhārā, the son of the governor of Ḥarmaythān. |⁴⁵³ Having studied philosophy under Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Nātilī and medicine under the Christian physician ʿĪsā b. Yaḥyā, by the age of 17 he gained the favour of Nūḥ b. Manṣūr of Bukhārā after succ…

Introduction

(611 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature, from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition The dominance of the rigid qaṣīda style remained unchallenged in literary poetry, and many of its representatives would deserve the criticism that the qāḍī Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Jurjānī directed at al-Ustādh al-Ṭabarī (al-Thaʿālibī, Aḥsan mā samiʿtuhu 52, bottom): “If one would just shake his verses a little, they would fly apart and return to their lord.” Yet at the margins, freer forms were…

8. The Malay Archipelago

(194 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁴²²In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition From the sixteenth century onwards, Islam also came to the Malay people, seemingly from Malabar, among whom it soon won some of its most fervent adherents.1 Just as in Malabar, on the Sunda islands the Shāfiʿī rite is predominant, |⁵⁵⁶ while the rest of India followed Abū Ḥanīfa. Arabic fiqh and mysticism were carefully studied by the Malays, although only a few of them played a…

Chapter 5. Oman, East Africa, and Abyssinia

(538 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition A Oman 1. ʿUmar b. Masʿūd al-Salīʿī(?) Two poems in honour of Sayyid Yaʿrub b. al-Imām Balʿarab b. Sulṭān, Ambr. C 129, ii ( RSO VII, 603), cf. A 119, vi, vii. 1a. Abū Saʿīd Muḥammad b. Saʿīd al-Azdī al-Qalhātī wrote, before 1070/1659: Kitāb al-kashf wal-bayān, on Ibāḍī theology (mentioned in the Qāmūs alsharīʿa 1, 20, 37, V, 2, 63, 84, VIII, 309, XI, 312, 314), Br. Mus. Suppl. 202. 2a. Mūsā b. Ḥusayn …

14. The Sudan

(148 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 until the Present Day previous chapter | German edition 1. ʿUthmān Danfodiu (b. Fūdyū) b. Muḥammad b. ʿUthmān al-Turūdī, a member of the Fūl tribe and founder of the kingdom of Sokoto, died in 1817. |⁵¹¹T.W. Arnold, The Preaching of Islam265ff. Nūr al-albāb, against widespread superstition in the Sudan, ed. and transl. Ismāʿīl Hamet in Revue Afr. 41st year no. 227, 4th trim. 1897, p. 297, 42nd year no. 228, 1st trim. 1898, p. 58. 11a. Ḥājj Saʿīd, reader to Sultan Alyu of Soko…

13. Astronomy

(1,261 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁶²³In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Aṣbagh b. Muḥammad al-Gharnāṭī b. al-Samḥ was a mathematician, physician, and astronomer in Granada, who died on 18 Rajab 426/30 May 1035. Ibn Abī Uṣ. II, 391. 1. Kitāb fi ’l-ʿamal bil-asṭurlāb Br. Mus. 405,2.— 2, 3. see Suppl.— Cf. Steinschneider, Zur pseudepigr. Lit. p. 74. 2. Abū Naṣr Manṣūr b. ʿAlī b. ʿIrāq, who died before 427/1036 (see Suppl.). Sachau, Alberunis Chron. XXXIII, Steins…

Chapter 5. South Arabia

(2,140 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
1 In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition 1. See ad p. 582, chapter 6, 1. 1a. Aḥmad b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbdallāh al-Ḥaddād wrote, in 1203/1789: 1. al-Fawāʾid al-saniyya wa-dhikr nubdha min faḍāʾil nisbat man yantasib bilsilsila al-nabawiyya wa-aʿnī bihim al-sāda al-ʿAlawiyya khuṣūṣan minhum al-qāṭinīn bil-jiha al-Ḥaḍramiyya etc., MS formerly in possession of Snouck-Hurgronje, see ZA XXVI, 239. |⁸¹⁷ 1b. Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad b. Isḥāq wrote, around 1222/1807: A…

Chapter 9. India

(5,115 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition From among the great quantity of works in Arabic that were written in India in the nineteenth century, a corpus of which Europeans have no complete overview yet, we can only mention the most important ones here. Raḥmān ʿAlī, Tadhkira ʾi ʿulamāʾi Hind, Lucknow 1894. 1. Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Muftī Yār Muḥammad al-Dakkanī al-Malibārī wrote, in 1200/1786: Kawākib al-ʿirfān bi-taḥqīq al-subḥān al-mulaqqab bil-Sabʿ al-sāʾira, …

7. Dhu ̓l-Rumma

(940 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 3, The Period of the Umayyads previous chapter | German edition Ghaylān b. ʿUqba received this name on the occasion of his verse in Diw. 22, 8 = Geyer, Dijamben 23, 8. Apparently he started out as a rajaz poet, but when he realised that he was no match for al-ʿAjjāj and Ruʿba (Marzubānī, Muw. 174) he turned to the qaṣīda. It is said that he himself complained about the slowless of his production; the means to continue some half verse supposedly only came to his mind when his eye fell on a silver vessel, some days later (Ibn Jinnī, Khaṣāʾi…

4. Ḥassān b. Thābit

(457 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition His mother al-Furayʿa supposedly lived to convert to Islam (Ibn Saʿad, VIII, 271). As such, it is not very likely that he was 60 years old when the Prophet came to Medina (Ibn Hishām, Sīra 102, bottom). Instead, he was probably born around 590. The Prophet used to bring his wives to the safety of Ibn Thābit’s well-guarded fortress when he went on his campaigns (Ibn Saʿd, VIII, 27, 25). It is highly unlikely that the Prophet h…
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