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9. Rumelia and Anatolia

(15,125 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition Together with their political power, the central lands of the Ottoman Empire also gained a certain intellectual ascendancy over the rest of the Muslim world. In Istanbul, which was from then on regarded as the capital of Islam, scholars from all countries TIocked together. Even though they generally remained only long enough to secure…

9. Minor Poets

(488 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū Dhuʾayb Khuwaylid b. Khālid al-Qaṭīl was the most important poet of the Hudhayl tribe (see Suppl. I, 42). He took part in the wars of conquest, went with ʿAbdallāh b. Saʿd to Africa in the year 26/646, and died some years later in Egypt while he and |⁴² ʿAbdallāh b. al-Zubayr were on their way to the caliph ʿUthmān to inform him of the conquest of Carthage. His five sons had died one year before him in Egypt of the plague and are bewailed by him in a song of mourning. |³⁷ Agh. V…

8. The Rajaz Poets

(397 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 3, The Period of the Umayyads previous chapter | German edition While in pagan times the rajaz (Suppl. I, 22) had only been used in improvisations, under the Umayyads it received special attention from some poets, particularly as a way of honing their qaṣīda technique. They sought to compensate for the simplicity of the rajaz metre by embellishing it with rather obscure expressions. |⁶⁰ Indeed, the two most important representatives of this movement are rightly seen as having enriched the Arabic lexicon…

5. Iran and Tūrān

(13,980 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition The old centres of Islamic culture in Iran and its neighbouring regions, in particularly Bukhara, Samarqand, and Herat, had suffered much more under the Mongol onslaught and its aftermath than Iraq. One emphemeral dynasty quickly followed another, and it was only at the end of this period that |¹⁹² the Safavid ruler Shāh Ismāʿīl was at least able to bring the whole of Iran under his sway. Even tho…

10. The Maghreb

(3,953 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition While the eastern lands of the Muslim world, though culturally stagnant, lived in relative peace under the Ottomans, North Africa gradually sank into barbarism. From the end of the fifteenth century onward, the Corsairs and their successsors—Turkish pashas, the beys of Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers—became completely engrossed in their m…

10. Two Forgeries

(626 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁴³In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. The manuscript Ref. 33 (Leipz. 505) contains, in addition to the two dīwāns just mentioned, another, supposedly by Abū Ṭālib, the uncle of Muḥammad, and the poems contained within it deal with relations between the Prophet and the Quraysh. Although some of the songs, whose tone is in accordance with the real situation in which Abū Ṭālib found himself, may actually be authentic, most of them were inve…

3. North Arabia

(3,321 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition The Mongol onslaught never reached Arabia, and the lives of the herdsmen and bandits who made up the Bedouins of Najd remained undisturbed. Only rarely was the peace of the holy places of Mecca and Medina disturbed by disputes, usually between the ruling families of sharifs or as a result of attempts by Egyptian or Yemeni rulers to bring the area und…

2. The Qurʾān

(898 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition |³⁴In the earliest period of his religious activity, the Prophet emptied his soul in true ecstasy; in passionately emotional, and, for the most part, short and incoherent phrases in sajʿ, i.e. the rhyming prose of the kāhin. Later, when he transformed himself more and more from an ecstatic into a preacher, reciting his admonitions in long phrases that were often adorned with stories from the Old Testament and the Haggada, he con…

III Division of the History of Arabic Literature

(538 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁷In volume 1 | Introduction previous chapter | German edition When Arab philologists separated the history of the poetry of their people into the two periods of the jāhiliyya1 (pre-Islamic time) and Islam, this was not to disparage the former in an act of religious self-conceit. Quite the opposite, in fact, for its pre-Islamic exponents were regarded as unsurpassable models, and pedantecism often went so far that a poet whose achievement was highly regarded was nevertheless belittled merely because he was born after Muḥammad.2 For this reason they created the intermediary class of the m…

7. India

(2,580 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition As part of a general increase in Islamic culture, Mongol rule in India also advanced Arabic literature, even though it took a backseat to literature in Persian as it was mainly limited to theology. It was only on the west coast, in Gujarat and Malabar, which were in regular contact with South Arabia and the Hijaz, that it gained increased importance. 1 Philology 3. Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Ghayth b. Mughl…

2. Rhymed Prose and Stylistics

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition 1. Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh b. Ghālib b. Zaydūn al-Makhzūmī was born in 394/1003 in Cordova where, being from a good family, he soon gained a prominent role. He won the love of Wallāda, the witty and emancipated daughter of the Umayyad caliph al-Mustakfī billāh, who had been murdered in 416/1025.1 This love raised the suspicions of the ruler of Cordova, Abu ’l-Ḥazm Jawhar, who …

13. Mathematics

(3,126 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²¹⁵In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition L.P.E.A. Sédillot, Matériaux pour servir à lʼhistoire comparée des sciences mathématiques chez les Grecs et les Orientaux, 2 vols., Paris 1845/9. |²³⁹M. Cantor, Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik, vol. I, Leipzig 1880, 593/700. H.P.J. Renaud, Additions et corrections à Suter, Isis XVIII, 1932, 166/88. Aldo Mieli, La Science Arabe et son rôle dans lʼévolution scientifique mondiale, avec quelques addit…

8. Abū Miḥjan and al-Ḥuṭayʾa

(383 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition A younger contemporary of Muḥammad was Abū Miḥjan—whose real name is sometimes given as ʿAmr, though at other times as Mālik or ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥabīb—of the tribe of Thaqīf in the Hijaz. When the Prophet, after his capture of Mecca, also wanted to conquer this tribe, Abū Miḥjan took part in the defence of al-Ṭāʾif, the capital. However, when his tribe surrendered he converted to Islam, on 9 Ramaḍ…

7. Fiqh

(8,827 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|¹⁶⁸In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition See Suppl. I, 282/3 Older literature: A. v. Kremer, Culturgeschichte des Islāms I, 470/500, E. Sachau, Zur ältesten Geschichte des muhammedanischen Rechts, SBWA 65 (1875), 669/723, A. Sprenger, Eine Skizze der Entwicklungsgeschichte des muslimischen Gesetzes, Z. f. vergl. Rechtswiss. X, 1/31, Goldziher, Die Ẓāhiriten 3/19, MSt. II, 73/8. 1 The Ḥanafīs Die Krone der Lebensbeschreibungen, enthaltend die Klassen der…

8. North Africa

(9,318 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition North Africa faced the eastern lands of Islam as one united bloc, even though Tunis and Morocco, and, before 796/1393, Algeria as well, under the Ziyānids, were independent states. |³⁰⁷ Through the movement of the Almohads, the Berbers, who had always outnumbered the Arabs, had finally also got the better of them politically and culturally, even though they were unable to assert…

I The Task of Literary History

(590 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|¹In volume 1 | Introduction previous chapter | German edition |¹In its widest sense, one may call “literature” everything that has been written, or spoken and then written down, for the purpose of having it remembered. For this reason, A. Boeckh suggested including inscriptions as part of a people’s literature. In cases where the history of a dead language is written using a limited number of monuments one can also employ charters, letters, and the like. But when a language has such a rich abundance of e…

2. Poetry

(6,865 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition As early as the latter years of Umayyad rule, the qaṣīda had disappeared as a poetic art form. Considering that its limited, traditional subject matter was entirely linked to the life of the desert, it was no longer suitable for the entirely different conditions of the creolised, Arabo-Persian population of the big cities, which now formed the centre of intellectual life. The different elements of the old qaṣīda, to the extent to wh…

11. The Translators

(3,338 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition M. Steinschneider, Die arabischen Übersetzungen aus dem Griechischen, Einleitung 1–24, Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen Beiheft 5 Jahrg. VI, 1889, I Abschnitt Philosophie (25–84), Beiheift 12, Jahrg. X 1893, III Die griechischer Ärzte § 1–34, Virchows Archiv 124 (1891), 115/36, 268/96, 455/87, II Mathematik, § 85–139, §140, Alchemie, Index, ZDMG 50, 161/219, 357/417.1 W. Kutsch, Zur Geschichte der syrisch-arab. Über…

2. Al-Jazīra, Iraq, and Bahrain

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition Even the Ottoman conquest of the year 1048/1638 was not able to resuscitate the lifeless culture of the lands of the Euphrates and the Tigris. The officials of the sultan had to be content with defending, as well as they could, the remains of its material culture against outside pressure from Arab and Kurdish nomads. As such, Arabic l…

5. Kaʿb b. Zuhayr

(454 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition had inherited his talent as a poet from his father (see p. 15). He flourished during the time Islam conquered the whole of Arabia in its unstoppable, victorious march. Both his tribe, Muzayna, and his brother Bujayr adopted the new faith, and as such the poet made fun of this in mocking verse. When Muḥammad learned of this he pronounced the death sentence on him. In order not to fall victim to a random fanatic, Kaʿb now had to obtain the Prophet’s pardon at any price. |³³|³⁹ Th…
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