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Tank

(1,187 words)

Author(s): Gross, Gerhard P.
Tank Originally a code name that is still being used in some countries today for a heavily armored fighting vehicle. Already prior to World War I, plans had been drawn up in Europe to develop an all-terrain armored fighting vehicle. Although armored cars had been developed, and the tracked vehicle concept was well, no known, no true armored fighting vehicles had been developed before the war. However, with the onset of positional warfare the question arose of how to achieve an operational breakth…

The Women’s Suffrage Campaign in Italy in 1919 and Voce Nuova (“New Voice”): Corporatism, Nationalism and the Struggle for Political Rights

(8,310 words)

Author(s): Schiavon, Emma
Schiavon, Emma - The Women’s Suffrage Campaign in Italy in 1919 and Voce Nuova (“New Voice”): Corporatism, Nationalism and the Struggle for Political Rights Keywords: feminism | interventionism | Italian women movement | Milanese feminists | nationalism | Voce Nuova | World War I ISFWWS-Keywords: Italy | Society | Politics | Legacy | Masculinity | Gender | Culture Abstract: This chapter focuses on the Italian women's movement after World War I with particular reference to the experience of the Milanese feminists, who were the leading group in…

“We Stand on the Threshold of a New Age”: Alice Masaryková, the Czechoslovak Red Cross, and the Building of a New Europe

(8,699 words)

Author(s): Berglund, Bruce R.
Berglund, Bruce R. - “We Stand on the Threshold of a New Age”: Alice Masaryková, the Czechoslovak Red Cross, and the Building of a New Europe Keywords: Alice Garrigue Masaryková | Czechoslovakia; Europe | Red Cross ISFWWS-Keywords: Legacy | Society | Gender | Austria-Hungary | The United States of America | Religion | Politics Abstract: Alice Garrigue Masaryková has long been left in the historical shadow of her father, who served seventeen years as Czechoslovakia's first president, and her brother Jan, the diplomat whose mysterious…

Russian Revolution

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Kochanek, Hildegard
Russian Revolution Neither the Russian army, nor their economy, nor their political system was equal to the demands of the World War, contributing to the end of the Russian Tsarist Empire. Another major reason was the rapid loss of trust, at all levels of society, which the regime had endured during the war years. As the situation at the military front continued to worsen, an even deeper conflict developed between Tsar Nicholas II and the State Duma. The subsistence crisis engendered by the wartim…

“All That is Best of the Modern Woman”? Representations of Female Military Auxiliaries in British Popular Culture, 1914–1919

(11,249 words)

Author(s): Robert, Krisztina
Robert, Krisztina - “All That is Best of the Modern Woman”? Representations of Female Military Auxiliaries in British Popular Culture, 1914–1919 Keywords: British popular culture | conflicting representations | female military auxiliaries | First World War | military parades | military women | modern military discourses | wartime popular culture | wartime propaganda battle ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Women and War | Home fronts | Society | Gender | Politics | Legacy Abstract: In Britain during the First World War, members of the female auxiliary corps became th…

After the Vote was Won. The Fate of the Women’s Suffrage Movement in Russia After the October Revolution: Individuals, Ideas and Deeds

(7,787 words)

Author(s): Shnyrova, Olga
Shnyrova, Olga - After the Vote was Won. The Fate of the Women’s Suffrage Movement in Russia After the October Revolution: Individuals, Ideas and Deeds Keywords: October Revolution | Russia | women's suffrage ISFWWS-Keywords: Russia | Politics | Gender | Intellectuals and the War | Women and War | Society | Pre-war period Abstract: As the women's movement in Russia has its own specific history which is connected with the peculiarities of the political and economic development of the country, this chapter starts with a short preamble …

From “Free Love” to Married Love: Gender Politics, Marie Stopes, and Middlebrow Fiction by Women in the Early Nineteen Twenties

(8,637 words)

Author(s): Rea, Ann
Rea, Ann - From “Free Love” to Married Love: Gender Politics, Marie Stopes, and Middlebrow Fiction by Women in the Early Nineteen Twenties Keywords: feminism | Marie Stopes | Married Love | middlebrow fiction | post-war culture ISFWWS-Keywords: Britain | Great Britain | Literature | Society | Legacy | Gender | Culture | Politics Abstract: This chapter considers the role that Marie Stopes played in influencing vast numbers of women to turn away from the radical alternatives, towards what was known as 'New Feminism' ultimately a conservativ…

A Bitter-Sweet Victory: Feminisms in France (1918–1923)

(8,697 words)

Author(s): Bard, Christine
Bard, Christine - A Bitter-Sweet Victory: Feminisms in France (1918–1923) Keywords: feminists | France | La Garçonne | pacifism ISFWWS-Keywords: France | Politics | Legacy | Gender | Germany | French society during the war | Women and War | Legacy Abstract: Feminists in France were to share in the mass jubilation of 11 November 1918. From the beginning of the 1920s, the pacifist propaganda of women was based on a naturalistic discourse, namely: 'woman' is a pacifist by nature. The degree of naturalisation/essentialisatio…

Luxembourg

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Majerus, Benoît
Luxembourg The First World War scarcely has a presence in the collective memory of Luxembourgers, and the country’s historians have until now shown little interest in the period. Luxembourg’s entry into the Zollverein (German Customs Union, 1842) engendered very close economic links between the Grand Duchy and the neighboring German territories. Luxembourg’s railways passed into German Reich ownership in 1872, and the rise of the iron industry was facilitated by both German capital (e.g. Gelsenkirchener Bergwerk AG) and German workers (more than half the foreigners livi…

Women’s Movement

(601 words)

Author(s): Süchting-Hänger, Andrea
Women’s Movement The women’s movement in the World War embraced a number of efforts working for the improvement of the economic, social and political position of women. There was a distinction between the moderate and radical middle class, and the proletarian and the confessional women’s movement. Whereas, before the war, lines of conflict were mostly drawn between a middle-class and a proletarian women’s movement, during the war the women’s movement was divided between the large majority of supporters of the war and the small minority of those who opposed it. At the start of the war…

Volunteers, Auxiliaries, and Women’s Mobilization: The FirstWorld War and Beyond (1914–1939)

(18,792 words)

Author(s): Jensen, Kimberly
Jensen, Kimberly - Volunteers, Auxiliaries, and Women’s Mobilization: The FirstWorld War and Beyond (1914–1939) Keywords: Women and War | Masculinity | Society | Medicine | Home fronts | Gender | Experience of combat | Prisoners of War | Military organisation of combat | Legacy A Companion to Women’s Military History Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining , (2012) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2012 e-ISBN: 9789004206823 DOI: 10.1163/9789004206823_007 © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Jensen, Kimberly

Australia

(2,831 words)

Author(s): Grey, Jeffrey
Australia Australia entered the First World War as a federal dominion of the British Empire (Commonwealth of Australia), having achieved that status in 1901. Although the Australian colonies had sent troops to the Boer War between 1899 and 1902, there was no military tradition in the sense of a high-echelon military leadership and administration and a defense policy, and precious little national experience of war. Yet, by the end of the First World War, almost seven Australian cavalry and infantr…

The Hun and the Home: Gender, Sexuality and Propaganda in First World War Europe

(7,466 words)

Author(s): Todd, Lisa M.
Todd, Lisa M. - The Hun and the Home: Gender, Sexuality and Propaganda in First World War Europe ISFWWS-Keywords: Gender | Home fronts | Violence against civilians | Germany | Visual Arts | Belgium | Britain | Prisoners of War World War I and Propaganda Troy R.E. Paddock , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004264571 DOI: 10.1163/9789004264571_008 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Todd, Lisa M.

Social Policy (Germany)

(1,215 words)

Author(s): Cornelissen, Christoph
Social Policy (Germany) In 1914–18 this was understood as including all legal and administrative measures of the German Reich, the federal states and the communal administrations for the regulation of the labor market and the welfare of soldiers’ relatives, war victims and surviving dependents. In addition, social policy extended in the war years to ensuring food supplies, regulating the residential property market, and amending previous social security conditions. After the outbreak of war, German…

Eastern Command

(721 words)

Author(s): Liulevicius, Vejas Gabriel
Eastern Command A military state established by German occupation forces under the auspices of General Erich Ludendorff in Russian Empire territory. Between 1915 and 1918, Eastern Command included what are now the countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and parts of Belarus. The full title of Eastern Command was “Supreme Command of All German Forces in the East,” entrusted since November 1914 to Field Marshal von Hindenburg. When Hindenburg and his Chief of Staff Ludendorff assumed command of the…

Home Front

(853 words)

Author(s): Baumeister, Martin
Home Front In today’s usage in English and German (German Heimatfront), in terms of the geography of the First World War, the term signifies the home territory, defined essentially as the civilian sphere, as opposed to the battle zone and in particular the military front. Used in this sense, with the rise since the 1970s of the social and economic history of war as a subject of study, and also the growing significance of approaches based on sexual and cultural history, it has achieved broad currency in th…

Psychiatry

(620 words)

Author(s): Ulrich, Bernd
Psychiatry The science that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral illnesses and functional brain disorders that primarily manifest themselves through psychological symptoms. Psychiatry constitutes a major aspect of the medico-military study and analysis of the effects of the World War on human beings. In 1916, the German psychiatrist Robert Gaupp (University of Tübingen) summarized the scientific-empirical value of the war for psychiatry in the following manner: “For psychiatr…

The Aftermaths of Defeat: The Fallen, the Catastrophe, and the Public Response of Women to the End of the First World War in Bulgaria

(8,095 words)

Author(s): Vukov, Nikolai
Vukov, Nikolai - The Aftermaths of Defeat: The Fallen, the Catastrophe, and the Public Response of Women to the End of the First World War in Bulgaria Keywords: Bulgarian public life | cultural demobilisation | female activists | post-war stabilisation | women movements ISFWWS-Keywords: Bulgaria | Women and War | Society | Politics | Gender | Home fronts | Economy | Pre-war period Abstract: This chapter seeks to examine the role of female activists and organised women's movements in Bulgarian public life after the war, focusing in particular on th…

Raps across the Knuckles: The Extension of War Culture by Radical Nationalist Women Journalists in Post-1918 Germany

(8,310 words)

Author(s): Streubel, Christiane
Streubel, Christiane - Raps across the Knuckles: The Extension of War Culture by Radical Nationalist Women Journalists in Post-1918 Germany Keywords: culture of war | Der Tag | Deutsche Zeitung | German Right | Radical Nationalist Women Journalists ISFWWS-Keywords: Germany | Politics | Legacy | Society | Literature | Masculinity | Gender | Culture Abstract: This chapter explores the role of radical nationalist women journalists in rebuilding the nation after defeat and in contesting Germany's redrawn national boundaries by analysing two i…

Brittain, Vera

(232 words)

Author(s): Reimann, Aribert
Brittain, Vera (December 29, 1893, Newcastle-under-Lyme – March 29, 1970, London), English writer. Brittain became particularly well-known through her memoir Testament of Youth (1933), which was based on her correspondence with her younger brother Edward, her fiancé Roland Leighton and other friends, as well as her own diaries from the time of the First World War. Already a student at Somerville College (Oxford) at the beginning of the war, she decided to go to France, Malta, and London first to work as a Voluntary A…
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