Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies And Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. Hunter, Boston College, United States, Paul J.J. van Geest, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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 The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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Iamblichus of Chalcis

(5,402 words)

Author(s): Lecerf, Adrien | Taormina, Daniela Patrizia
Iamblichus of Chalcis (c. 242–c. 325 CE) was a major Neoplatonist (Neoplatonism) faithful to the ancient Hellenic religion and a disciple of Porphyry of Tyre. Active in Apamea (Syria), he was instrumental in the transformation of Plotinus’ metaphysics into the form it would later acquire in the works of authors such as Proclus and Damascius. For a source-focused introduction, see J.M. Dillon (2000); for a doctrinal approach, see R. Chiaradonna & A. Lecerf (2019).Allusions to Christianity in IamblichusThe only explicit mention of Christians in Iamblichus is found in a fr…
Date: 2024-01-19

Ibas of Edessa

(599 words)

Author(s): Doran, Robert
Ibas (Hiba) was bishop of Edessa 433–457 CE, except for the years 449–451 CE. He was a member of the School of Edessa, and was active in the translation of writings in Greek into Syriac, particularly the works of Theodore of Mopsuestia. During the Nestorian controversy, Ibas was on the opposite side from Rabbula, bishop of Edessa (Rabbula of Edessa), a staunch supporter of Cyril of Alexandria’s miaphysite position. In a letter to Mari the Persian shortly after the Formula of Reunion was …
Date: 2024-01-19

Iberia of the Caucasus

(3,584 words)

Author(s): Aleksidze, Nikoloz
Iberia of the Caucasus, or Kartli in Georgian, refers to the political entity that existed as a kingdom from around the 3rd century BCE until the late 6th century CE on the territory of the central and eastern parts of Georgia, and the southern slopes of the central Caucasian range. While modern Georgia occupies the territory of both late antique Iberia and Egrisi, also known as Colchis, in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, until the end of the 1st millennium CE, the two political…
Date: 2024-01-19


(5,424 words)

Author(s): Tollefsen, Torstein Theodor
The term icon (Iconology/Icons/Iconicity) comes from the Greek word εἰκών and has the ordinary sense of image. In Christian context the category of icon/image comprises mosaics and frescoes on church walls, paintings on wooden panels, figures in metalwork, and embroidery. The topic of the present article is the controversy over icons in early Byzantium. Below there will be given a simplified historical overview interwoven with a main focus on the reasons for the controversy and the theology of the opposing parties.Images are generally of different kinds. They may be lingui…
Date: 2024-01-19


(4,207 words)

Author(s): Fundic, Leonela
In ancient sources, the Greek terms εἰκών and its diminutive εἰκονίδιον, which means “little painting,” were used for both pagan and Christian panel paintings.Christians decorated walls of their first places of worship, catacombs, initially with symbols (e.g. the cross, lamb, fish, and dove), and from the 3rd century CE, with figurative images made in fresco technique that were called icons. The oldest examples are preserved in Dura-Europos (present-day Salahiyeh) in Syria and in Roman catacombs. They thematicall…
Date: 2024-01-19

Ignatians, Pseudo-

(2,892 words)

Author(s): Brent, Allen
There existed from the 4th century CE a corpus of approximately 13 letters, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch (Ignatius, Epistles of), now designated the “long recension.”1.   Ignatius to Mary (of Cassobala); 2.   Mary (of Cassobala) to Ignatius; 3.   Trallians; 4.   Magnesians; 5.   Tarsians; 6.   Philippians; 7.   Philadelphians; 8.   Smyrnaeans; 9.   Polycarp; 10.   Antiochenes; 11.   Hero; 12.   Ephesians; 13.   Romans.Here is the list in the order given in the 11th-century manuscript Monacensis Graecus 394 of the long recension, found also in folios of the ca…
Date: 2024-01-19

Ignatius, Epistles of

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Brent, Allen
Reliable details of Ignatius of Antioch’s life can only be gleaned from his original letters: neither the post-Eusebian, legendary Antiochene Acts (6th cent. CE) nor John Chrysostom’s 4th-century CE Homilia in S. Ignatium gives us any additional information not found in these texts. Ignatius is “bishop of Antioch in Syria” (Ign. Rom. 2.2) taken as a condemned criminal under armed escort along the cursus publicus, the highway permitted to officials on public business, from Antioch across Asia Minor to Troas (Ign. Eph. 12.1; Trall. 3.3; Rom. 4.3), from where he is destined to jou…
Date: 2024-01-19