Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies And Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. Hunter, Boston College, United States, Paul J.J. van Geest, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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 The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

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Ibas of Edessa

(572 words)

Author(s): Doran, Robert
Ibas (Hiba) was bishop of Edessa 433–457 CE, except for the years 449–451 CE. He was a member of the School of Edessa, and was active in the translation of writings in Greek into Syriac, particularly the works of Theodore of Mopsuestia. During the Nestorian controversy (Nestorianism/Nestorius), Ibas was on the opposite side from Rabbula, bishop of Edessa, a staunch supporter of Cyril of Alexandria’s miaphysite position. In a letter to Mari the Persian shortly after the Fo…
Date: 2021-12-14


(5,453 words)

Author(s): Tollefsen, Torstein Theodor
The term icon comes from the Greek word εἰκών and has the ordinary sense of image. In Christian context the category of icon/image comprises mosaics and frescoes on church walls, paintings on wooden panels, figures in metalwork, and embroidery. The topic of the present article is the controversy over icons in early Byzantium. First there will be given a simplified historical overview interwoven with a main focus on the reasons for the controversy and the theology of the opposing parties.Images are generally of different kinds. They may be linguistic or material. The materi…
Date: 2021-12-14


(4,245 words)

Author(s): Fundic, Leonela
In ancient sources, the Greek terms εἰκών and its diminutive εἰκονίδιον, which means “little painting,” were used for both pagan and Christian panel paintings.Christians decorated walls of their first places of worship, catacombs, initially with symbols (e.g. the cross, lamb, fish, and dove), and from the 3rd century CE, with figurative images made in fresco technique that were called icons. The oldest examples are preserved in Dura-Europos (present-day Salahiyeh) in Syria and in Roman catacombs. They thematically var…
Date: 2021-12-14

Ignatians, Pseudo-

(2,891 words)

Author(s): Brent, Allen
There existed from the 4th century CE a corpus of approximately 13 letters, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch (Ignatius, Epistles of), now designated the “long recension.” 1.   Ignatius to Mary (of Cassobala); 2.   Mary (of Cassobala) to Ignatius; 3.   Trallians; 4.   Magnesians; 5.   Tarsians; 6.   Philippians; 7.   Philadelphians; 8.   Smyrnaeans; 9.   Polycarp; 10.   Antiochenes; 11.   Hero; 12.   Ephesians; 13.   Romans. Here is the list in the order given in the 11th-century manuscript Monacensis Graecus 394 of the long recension, found also in folios of the cate…
Date: 2021-12-14

Ignatius, Epistles of

(5,437 words)

Author(s): Brent, Allen
Reliable details of Ignatius of Antioch’s life can only be gleaned from his original letters: neither the post-Eusebian, legendary Antiochene Acts (6th cent. CE) nor John Chrysostom’s 4th-century CE Homilia in S. Ignatium gives us any additional information not found in these texts. Ignatius is “bishop of Antioch in Syria” (Ign. Rom. 2.2) taken as a condemned criminal under armed escort along the cursus publicus, the highway permitted to officials on public business, from Antioch across Asia Minor to Troas (Ign. Eph. 12.1; Trall. 3.3; Rom. 4.3), from where he is destined to jour…
Date: 2021-12-14