Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

Get access Subject: Biblical Studies and Early Christianity
General Editors: David G. HUNTER, University of Kentucky, United States, Paul J.J. van GEEST, Tilburg University, Netherlands, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity focuses on the history of early Christian texts, authors, ideas. Its content is intended to bridge the gap between the fields of New Testament studies and patristics, covering the whole period of early Christianity up to 600 CE. The BEEC aims to provide a critical review of the methods used in Early Christian Studies and to update the historiography.

More information: Brill.com

Early Christianity is a multi-faceted and complex phenomenon – if we can even refer to it as a single phenomenon at all. Since the publication of W. Bauer’s groundbreaking study Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im frühesten Christentum in 1934, the scholarly world has come increasingly to the conclusion that the variety of early Christian groups was not the result of the disintegration of a single, original form of Christianity over the course of several centuries but rather that variety has always been at the heart of what we call early Christianity.

The label “Christianity” is itself not unproblematic. Although the term naturally has a long history in the tradition of the Christian movement, its use, for example, to refer to 1st-century CE followers of Jesus is nevertheless an anachronism given that the term is first mentioned in the epistles of Ignatius of Antioch (Magn. 10.1, 3; Rom. 3.3; Phld. 6.1), dated to the early 2nd century CE. One can also question the appropriateness of its use for a number of groups that are currently seen as belonging to the extended family of early Christianity. Far from implying that “early Christianity” was a unified or monolithic movement, therefore, this encyclopedia uses the term as an umbrella covering a wide variety of historical phenomena.

In creating this Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, the editors have made a number of decisions with regard to its subject matter, scope, and structure. The first choice made was to focus on the most significant topics concerning early Christianity: the most important authors, texts, ideas, and places that played a role in the history of the development of Christianity. While it is impossible to provide the user with a comprehensive survey of every detail in the growth of the Christian movement, an effort was made to cover the topics that would best provide the reader with a reliable map of the early Christian movement.

A second decision made was the time period to be covered. Any periodization is bound to be arbitrary to some extent, and thus prone to criticism. For the purposes of this encyclopedia, the editors decided that the end of the 6th century CE should be the cut-off point, as by that time Christianity was established as the Orthodox, Catholic Church in both the West as well as in the East. The formative debates on the nature of God and Christ had been more or less settled, and the biblical canon had been selected and approved by church councils. In the West, the demise of the Roman Empire had led to a new political constellation, and in the East, the rise of the Byzantine Empire ushered in a new era. Late antiquity may not have a clear beginning nor a well-defined end, but it is clear that the 6th century CE belongs to late antiquity and ushered in the start of the Middle Ages. These terms are also modern labels, of course, and also subject to debate. And yet the 6th century CE has the characteristics of a transitional age in the history of early Christianity and, as such, the editors decided to include it within the scope of the encyclopedia.

Early Christianity, in all its variety, did not originate in a vacuum. It started as an intra- Jewish reform movement in Palestine, led by Jesus of Nazareth. Within one generation after Jesus’ ministry it spread over large parts of the Roman Empire, reaching Rome even before Paul. As more and more non-Jews joined the movement, Greco-Roman customs and ideas also came to play an important role. For this reason, early Christianity is just as connected with the Greco-Roman context within which it grew as with its Jewish roots. However, notwithstanding these connections, the focus of the encyclopedia is early Christianity, and Jewish and Greco-Roman topics feature only where strictly relevant.

Two other choices were important for the scope and form of BEEC: the need to bridge the divide between the fields of New Testament studies and Patristics, and the history of scholarship of the entries.

The fields of New Testament studies and Patristics have, over the years, grown into two separate specializations, organized into two different disciplines with their own methodologies and scholarly traditions. This makes collaboration on a project such as this a sometimes complicated task. And yet, there is no logical reason to divide early Christianity into these two separate fields. For this encyclopedia, the period covered is seen as an organic whole in which a large number of developments took place that led to the formation of the Christian church as a recognizable entity, and to the formulation of the orthodox Christian creeds as guidelines for the faith tradition.

The second decision was to include in each entry some discussion of the modern history of scholarship. Often, this historiographical discussion is included as a separate paragraph; sometimes it is interwoven with the description of the topic of the entry. Our hope is that students of early Christianity who intend to research a particular subject will find their first information in BEEC, and will be able to proceed with their research on the basis of the information found here. The articles included in the BEEC are based on exhaustive research, using both primary and secondary sources. Wherever relevant, we also include an overview of the historiography of the subject of a particular entry. If the subject of an entry has been extensively studied in the past, its historiography is included in a separate paragraph. In all other cases, the historiography is referred to where necessary. In several cases, no historiography was required, as only one or two studies on the particular subject have been published.

The editors of BEEC hope that this encyclopedia will find its way into the libraries of universities, colleges, religious, and other institutions, as well as the studies of many individual scholars. The digital version of the encyclopedia will not require much space on the shelves of a library or study, and will be easy to access and search. May it prove to be a useful and inspiring tool for the study and further understanding of early Christianity.

The General Editors

David G. Hunter
Paul J.J. van Geest
Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte

General Editors:
David G. Hunter, University of Kentucky, United States
Paul J.J. van Geest, Tilburg University, Netherlands
Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Consultant Editor:
Angelo di Berardino, Augustinianum, Italy

Section Editors:
Juliette Day, University of Helsinki, Finland
David Eastman, Ohio Wesleyan University, United States
Robin M. Jensen, University of Notre Dame, United States
Robert Kitchen, Sankt Ignatios Theological Academy, Sweden
Rebecca Krawiec, Canisius College, Buffalo, New York, United States
Jacob AbrahamLatham, University of Tennessee, United States
Outi Lehtipuu, University of Helsinki, Finland
Christoph Markschies, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
Bronwen Neil, Macquarie University, Australia
Karin Berber Neutel, University of Oslo, Norway
Geert van Oyen, University of Louvain, Belgium
Karla Pollmann, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
Joshua Schwartz, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Kristina Sessa, Ohio State University, United States
Tarmo Toom, John Leland Center for Theological Studies & Georgetown University, United States

  • 'Messianism and Messianic Movements
  • Aba (Mar)
  • Abbreviations in Journals and Series
  • Abbreviations in Lexicons.
  • Abbreviations in Primary Sources
  • Abdon and Sennen
  • Abelites
  • Abercius
  • Abgarids
  • Ablution
  • Abortion
  • Abraham
  • Abraham of Pbou
  • Abraham, Testament of
  • Abrasax
  • Acacian Schism
  • Acacius of Constantinople
  • Acedia
  • Acheiropoietai
  • Acilius Glabrio
  • Acoemeti
  • Acolyte
  • Acts, Book of
  • Ad Metalla (Damnatio)
  • Ad Novatianum
  • Ad Sanctos
  • Adam
  • Adam (Vita Adae et Evae)
  • Adam and Eve
  • Adam, Testament of
  • Adamantius, Dialogue on the True Faith in God
  • Adamites
  • Addai
  • Adiabene
  • Adimantus
  • Adoption
  • Adoptionists
  • Adrian
  • Adultery
  • Aelius Donatus
  • Aeon
  • Africa
  • Afterlife
  • Agape
  • Agatha
  • Agathangelos
  • Agathangelus of Rome
  • Agilulf
  • Agnes
  • Agnus Dei
  • Agrapha
  • Agraphon
  • Agrestius
  • Agrippa Castor
  • Agrippa I and II
  • Akathistos
  • Aksum (Axum)
  • Alaric I
  • Alexander I
  • Alexander I of Alexandria
  • Alexander of Aphrodisia
  • Alexander of Constantinople
  • Alexander of Jerusalem
  • Alexander Severus
  • Alexandria, 01: City
  • Alexandria, 02: Archaeology
  • Alexandria, 03: School of
  • Alexandria, 04: Councils of
  • Alexandria, 05: Libraries of
  • Alexandrians, Epistle to the
  • Allegory
  • Allogenes, Book of
  • Alms/Almsgiving
  • Altar of Victory
  • Altercatio Heracliani
  • Amandus
  • Amasea
  • Amastris
  • Ambrose (Disciple of Didymus)
  • Ambrose (Friend of Origen)
  • Ambrose of Milan
  • Ambrosian Liturgy
  • Ammianus Marcellinus
  • Ammon
  • Ammonas/Amun
  • Ammonius Saccas
  • Amphilochius
  • Amphipolis
  • Anacletus
  • Ananias and Sapphira
  • Anaphora
  • Anastasia Pharmacolitria
  • Anastasius (Emperor)
  • Anastasius of Thessalonica
  • Anatolius of Constantinople
  • Anazarbus
  • Anchorite
  • Ancyra
  • Andrew (Apostle)
  • Andrew of Samosata
  • Andrew, Acts of
  • Anemius
  • Angel
  • Angers
  • Anianus of Orléans
  • Anicetus
  • Animals
  • Anisius Boethius
  • Anointing
  • Anonymous Appolinarist/Apollinarian Forgeries
  • Anthony (Poet)
  • Anthropology
  • Anthropomorphism
  • Anti-Judaism
  • Antichrist
  • Antidicomarianites
  • Antioch of Caria, Synods of
  • Antioch, Church of
  • Antioch, Councils of (264–389 CE)
  • Antipater
  • Antony the Great
  • Apatheia
  • Apelles
  • Aphrahat
  • Apocalypse/Apocalypticism
  • Apocrisarius
  • Apocriticus
  • Apokatastasis
  • Apollinaris of Hierapolis
  • Apollinaris of Laodicea
  • Apollinaris of Valence
  • Apollonius of Tyana
  • Apologetics
  • Aponius
  • Apopathic Theology
  • Apophthegmata Patrum
  • Apostasy/Apostates
  • Apostle/Disciple
  • Apostles' Creed
  • Apostles, Apocryphal Acts of the
  • Apostles, Epistle of the
  • Apostolic Canons
  • Apostolic Church Order
  • Apostolic Constitutions
  • Apostolic Council
  • Apostolic Fathers
  • Apostolic Tradition (Traditio Apostolica)
  • Apostolicity
  • Apotheosis
  • Arabic
  • Arator
  • Arbela, Chronicle of
  • Arbogast
  • Archaeology, Christian
  • Archaeus
  • Archbishop
  • Archelaus, Acts of
  • Archimandrite
  • Archpriest
  • Arian Sermons
  • Arianism
  • Aristides of Athens
  • Aristo of Pella
  • Aristotelianism
  • Arles
  • Armageddon
  • Arnobius of Sicca
  • Art and Sculpture
  • Asarbus
  • Ascension of Christ
  • Ascesis
  • Ascitae
  • Asia, Central
  • Assembly/Meeting
  • Asterius of Petra
  • Asterius the Sophist
  • Asterius Turcius Rufus
  • Astrology
  • Asylum, Right of
  • Ataraxia
  • Athanasius of Alexandria
  • Atheism/Atheist
  • Athenagoras
  • Athens
  • Atonement
  • Atonement, Day of
  • Atticus
  • Attila
  • Audentius
  • Audiani
  • Augustine of Hippo
  • Augustus
  • Ausonius
  • Auspicius of Toul
  • Authority
  • Autobiography
  • Auxentius of Milan
  • Axiopolis
  • Aërius
  • Aëtius Flavius
  • Baetica
  • Balaam
  • Balai
  • Baleares
  • Baptism
  • Bar Kochba
  • Barbarians
  • Barbelo
  • Barcelona
  • Bardaisan
  • Barnabas
  • Barnabas, Epistle of
  • Bartholomew (Apostle)
  • Bartholomew, Questions of
  • Basil of Caesarea
  • Basileiad
  • Basilides
  • Basiliscus
  • Basilius
  • Bath/Mikveh
  • Beatitude
  • Belisarius (Scholasticus)
  • Benedict I
  • Benedict of Nursia
  • Bethany
  • Bethlehem
  • Bethphage
  • Bethsaida
  • Bibiana
  • Bible, 01: Old Testament
  • Bible, 02: New Testament
  • Bible, 03: Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
  • Bible, 04: Formation of Canons
  • Bible, 05: Old Testament Translations
  • Bible, 06: Septuagint/Old Greek
  • Bible, 07: Recentiores and Hexapla
  • Bible, 08: Peshitta
  • Bible, 09: Targums
  • Bible, 10: Vetus Latina
  • Bible, 11: Vulgate
  • Bible, 12: Armenian
  • Bible, 13: Georgian
  • Bible, 14: Coptic
  • Bible, 15: Arabic Versions
  • Bible, 16: Vetus Syra
  • Bible, 17: Diatessaron/Syriac
  • Bible, 18: and Christian Worship
  • Biblical Interpretation
  • Biography
  • Birds
  • Bishop (Episcopos)
  • Bishops of Rome, Pre-Constantinian
  • Blandina
  • Blessing
  • Bnay/Bnat Qyama
  • Bodmer Papyri
  • Body
  • Boethius
  • Boniface I
  • Boniface II
  • Bonosus
  • Book (Material)
  • Book of Life
  • Book of Steps
  • Borboriani
  • Braga
  • Breviarum Hipponense
  • Breviarum in Psalmos
  • Bride of Christ
  • Brigid of Kildare
  • Burgundy
  • Byzantine Liturgy
  • Byzantium
  • Caecilian
  • Caesarea in Cappadocia
  • Caesarea in Palestine
  • Caesarius of Arles
  • Caesaropapism
  • Calcidius
  • Canaan
  • Candidus
  • Cannibalism, Accusation of
  • Canon Muratori
  • Canon Romanus
  • Canon Tables, Eusebian
  • Canon, Hippolytus
  • Capernaum
  • Cappadocians
  • Capreolus
  • Carmen adversus Marcionitas
  • Carmen de Sodoma/Carmen de Iona
  • Carthage, 01: City
  • Carthage, 02: Councils
  • Cassiodorus
  • Cataphrygians
  • Catechesis
  • Catenae
  • Catharsis
  • Cathedra, Episcopal
  • Catherine of Alexandria
  • Catholicos
  • Celibacy
  • Celsus
  • Celtic Liturgy
  • Cemetery
  • Cerdo
  • Cerealis
  • Cerinthus
  • Chalcedon
  • Charm
  • Cherubs
  • Chiliasm
  • China
  • Chorbishop
  • Christ, Jesus, 01: Survey
  • Christ, Jesus, 02: Birth and Infancy Narratives
  • Christ, Jesus, 03: Descent into Hell
  • Christ, Jesus, 04: Genealogy of
  • Christ, Jesus, 05: Wisdom of
  • Christ, Jesus, 06: Quests for the Historical
  • Christianity and Classical Culture
  • Christians and Jews, 01: Parting of the Ways
  • Christians and Jews, 02: Legislation
  • Christmas
  • Christology, 01: First–Second Centuries CE
  • Christology, 02: Third Century CE
  • Christology, 03: Fourth Century CE and Later
  • Chromatius of Aquileia
  • Chronograph of 354
  • Church and Empire
  • Church Authority
  • Church Buildings, 01: Survey
  • Church Buildings, 02: Development
  • Church Buildings, 03: Basilica and Baptistry
  • Church of Rome
  • Church Organization
  • Church Property
  • Church/Ecclesia
  • Churches of Lyons and Vienne, Letter of the
  • Circumcision
  • Citation/Quotation
  • Claudian
  • Claudius
  • Cleanthes
  • Clement of Alexandria
  • Clement, 1
  • Clement, 2
  • Clementine Literature, Pseudo-
  • Clovis
  • Codex
  • Codex Justinianus
  • Codex Theodosianus
  • Coenobium/Coenobite
  • Collatio Alexandri et Dindimi
  • Collatio cum Donatistis
  • Collatio Legum
  • Collects
  • Color
  • Columba of Iona
  • Columbanus
  • Comfort
  • Comma Johanneum
  • Commodianus
  • Community Letters
  • Complaint
  • Conon
  • Conon of Bidana
  • Conscience, Freedom of
  • Constantia (Flavia Iulia Constantia)
  • Constantine I
  • Constantine II
  • Constantinople, 01: Council of (359/360 CE)
  • Constantinople, 02: First Council of (Second Ecumenical; 381 CE)
  • Constantinople, 03: Second Council of (Fifth Ecumenical Council; 553 CE)
  • Constantius I
  • Constantius II
  • Constantius III
  • Constitutions of Hippolytus
  • Consultationes Zacchaei et Apollonii
  • Contemplation
  • Continentes
  • Contra Origenem de Visione Isaiae
  • Conversion
  • Coptic
  • Corinth
  • Corinthians, Third Epistle to the
  • Cornelius (Bishop of Rome)
  • Cornelius (Centurion)
  • Corsica
  • Cosmas
  • Cosmas and Damian
  • Cosmos/Cosmology
  • Councils/Synods
  • Creation
  • Creation (Double)
  • Creeds
  • Cresconius
  • Crispina
  • Crispinus and Crispinianus
  • Cross/Crucifixion
  • Cryptography
  • Cubicularius
  • Cyprian and Justina
  • Cyprian of Carthage
  • Cyprus
  • Cyril of Alexandria
  • Cyril of Jerusalem
  • Cyrillona
  • Dadisho‘ I
  • Dalmatia
  • Damasus
  • Daniel
  • David
  • De bono pudicitiae
  • De gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus
  • De recta in Deum fide
  • Deacon/Deaconess
  • Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Dead, Care for the
  • Dead, Cult of the
  • Dead, Realm of the
  • Death
  • Decapolis
  • Decius
  • Decretum Gelasianum
  • Dedication
  • Dedication, Council of the
  • Deer
  • Deities
  • Delphinus of Bordeaux
  • Demetrian of Antioch
  • Demetrias
  • Demonology/Demons
  • Dendritae
  • Deo laudes
  • Deogratias
  • Deportation/Exile
  • Depositio episcoporum
  • Depositio martyrum
  • Desert
  • Desert Fathers
  • Devil
  • Dexter (Nummius Emilianus)
  • Diakonia
  • Dialogue
  • Diaspora
  • Diatribe
  • Didache
  • Didascalia Apostolorum
  • Didaskaleion
  • Didaskalos
  • Dietary Laws (Kashrut)
  • Diocletian
  • Diodore of Tarsus
  • Diognetus, Epistle to
  • Dionysius Exiguus
  • Diptych
  • Disability
  • Disciplina arcani
  • Discipline
  • Divination
  • Divorce
  • Docetism
  • Doctrina Apostolorum
  • Doctrina patrum
  • Domestic Worship
  • Domitilla
  • Donatism/Donatists
  • Donatus the Great
  • Dormition and Assumption Apocrypha
  • Dorotheus of Gaza
  • Doxology
  • Dream
  • Dumium
  • Dura-Europos
  • Early Christian Churches of the Holy Land
  • Easter
  • Ebionites, Gospel of the
  • Ebionites/Ebionitism
  • Ecclesiastical Dress
  • Ecclesiastical Law
  • Ecclesiology
  • Ecstasy
  • Edessa
  • Edict of Claudius
  • Edict of Milan
  • Egeria (Aetheria)
  • Egypt
  • Egyptians, Gospel of the (Greek)
  • Egyptians, Gospel of the (Nag Hammadi)
  • Elchasaites
  • Elements (Stoicheia)
  • Eleusinian Mysteries
  • Elijah
  • Elvira
  • Emilia
  • Emotion
  • Emperor/Imperial Cult
  • Encratism/Encratites
  • Enhypostasis
  • Ennodius
  • Ephebeion
  • Ephesus
  • Ephesus, First Ecumenical Council
  • Ephrem the Syrian
  • Epictetus
  • Epicurus/Epicureans
  • Epiphanius of Salamis
  • Epiphany
  • Epistle
  • Eschatology
  • Esdras, Apocalypse of 
  • Essenes
  • Ethics
  • Etimasia/Hetoimasia
  • Eucharist
  • Eucherius of Lyon
  • Eudoxius of Antioch
  • Eugenius
  • Eugenius of Ancyra
  • Eugenius of Carthage
  • Eugippius
  • Eugnostos the Blessed, Epistle of
  • Eunomianism
  • Eunomius of Cyzicus
  • Euphemia and the Goth
  • Euphemius of Constantinople
  • Eusebians
  • Eusebius of Alexandria
  • Eusebius of Caesarea (Cappadocia)
  • Eusebius of Caesarea (Palestine)
  • Eusebius of Vercelli
  • Eustochium
  • Eutyches
  • Evagrius (Monk)
  • Evagrius of Antioch
  • Evangelists
  • Evil
  • Excerpta Latina Barbari
  • Excommunication
  • Ezana
  • Ezekiel
  • Eznik of Kolb
  • Fable
  • Faculties
  • Faith, 01: New Testament
  • Faith, 02: Apostolic Fathers
  • Faith, 03: Apologists
  • Faithfulness
  • Fall
  • Family
  • Fan
  • Fasting/Abstinence
  • Faustinus
  • Faustus of Riez
  • Felicity
  • Festal Letters
  • Festivals
  • Festus
  • Fever
  • Fire
  • Firmicus Maternus
  • Firmilian of Caesarea
  • First Thought, Three Forms of (Trimorphic Protennoia)
  • Fish
  • Flaccilla
  • Flavianus
  • Flavius Clemens
  • Flavius Josephus
  • Flesh
  • Flight
  • Foolishness
  • Forgery
  • Forgiveness of Sins
  • Fortunatianus of Aquileia
  • Forty Martyrs of Sebaste
  • Fossor
  • Franks
  • Friendship
  • Fructuosus of Braga
  • Frumentius
  • Fulfillment
  • Fulgentius of Ruspe
  • Funeral
  • Gaius
  • Galatia
  • Galen
  • Galerius
  • Galicia
  • Galilee
  • Galla Placidia
  • Gallican Liturgy
  • Gallienus
  • Gamaliel
  • Gangra
  • Gaudentius of Brescia
  • Gaul
  • Gaza
  • Gehenna
  • Gelasius I
  • Gender
  • General abbreviations
  • Gennadius of Marseilles
  • Gennesareth
  • Genovefa (Genevieve) of Paris
  • Genre
  • George, Bishop of the Arabs
  • Georgia
  • Gerontius
  • Gervasius and Protasius
  • Gesta martyrum
  • Gildas the Wise
  • Glossolalia
  • Gnosis/Gnosticism
  • Gnosis/Knowledge
  • God
  • Gog/Magog
  • Golgotha
  • Gordius
  • Goths
  • Great Invisible Spirit, Holy Book of the
  • Gregory of Nazianzus
  • Gregory of Nyssa
  • Gregory of Tours
  • Gregory Thaumaturgus
  • Gregory the Great
  • Hades
  • Hadrian, Rescript of
  • Hagiography
  • Halakhah
  • Hegesippus
  • Hegesippus, Pseudo-
  • Hegumen/Hegumenos/Igumen (Praepositus)
  • Hellenism and Christianity
  • Helvidius
  • Heresy/Heretical
  • Hermas, Shepherd of
  • Hermenegild
  • Hermes Trismegistus
  • Hermeticism
  • Hermogenes
  • Herod
  • Herodians
  • Hexaemeron
  • Hilary of Arles
  • Hilary of Poitiers
  • Himerius of Tarragona
  • Hippo
  • Historia Acephala
  • Historia Augusta
  • Historia monachorum
  • Holiness
  • Holy Spirit
  • Honoratus Antoninus
  • Hope
  • Hospitality
  • Humility
  • Huns
  • Hymnography (Greek)
  • Hymnography (Latin)
  • Hypostasis/Hypostatic Union
  • Hypsistarians
  • Iamblichus
  • Ibas of Edessa
  • Iberia of Caucasus
  • Iconoclasm
  • Iconography
  • Iconology/Icons/Iconicity
  • Ignatians, Pseudo-
  • Ignatius, Epistles of
  • Immortality
  • Immunity and Privileges of Clerics
  • Incarnation
  • Incense
  • Innocent I
  • Ioca monachorum
  • Ireland
  • Irenaeus of Lyon
  • Isaiah of Scetis
  • Isaiah, Ascension of
  • Isaiah: 01. Iconography
  • Isaiah: 02. in the New Testament
  • Isaiah: 03. in the Fathers
  • Isauria
  • Isidore of Pelusium
  • Isidore of Seville
  • Israel
  • Italy, 01: Origins
  • Italy, 02: Diffusion of Christianity
  • Italy, 03: Archaeology
  • Itineraries
  • Jacob
  • Jacob of Serug
  • Jairus
  • James the Great
  • James the Less
  • James, Apocalypse of
  • James, Epistle of
  • James, First Revelation of
  • James, Protevangelium of
  • James, Second Revelation of
  • James, Secret Book of
  • Jerome
  • Jerusalem
  • Jewish Christians
  • Job
  • John Arkaph
  • John Cassian
  • John Chrysostom
  • John Mark
  • John of Antioch
  • John the Baptist
  • John the Deacon
  • John, Acts of
  • John, Epistles of
  • John, Gospel of
  • John, Revelation of
  • John, Secret Revelation of
  • Jonah
  • Joppa (Jaffa)
  • Joseph of Arimathea, Narrative of
  • Jovinian
  • Judaeo-Hellenism
  • Judaism
  • Judaizers
  • Judas Thaddaeus
  • Judas, Gospel of
  • Judgment, Biblical Concept
  • Julian of Eclanum
  • Julian the Apostate
  • Julian the Arian
  • Julius of Aqfahs
  • Justin II
  • Justin Martyr
  • Justin the Gnostic
  • Justin, Acts of
  • Justin, Pseudo-
  • Justina of Padua
  • Justinian
  • Juvencus
  • King/Kingdom
  • Kingdom of God
  • Kiss
  • Knowledge, Interpretation of
  • Kyrie Eleison
  • Labor
  • Lactantius
  • Laity
  • Lamb
  • Laodicea
  • Laodiceans, Epistle to the
  • Latin
  • Latin Anthologies
  • Laurence
  • Laurentian Schism
  • Law/Decalogue/Torah
  • Lawlessness
  • Lazarus
  • Lectio divina
  • Legal Traditions (Christian)
  • Lent
  • Leo I (Bishop of Rome)
  • Leo III (Emperor)
  • Leontius
  • Libelli pacis (libellatici)
  • Liber diurnus
  • Liber enormis
  • Liber genealogus
  • Liber monstrorum
  • Liber orationum psalmographus
  • Liber pontificalis
  • Liberius (Bishop of Rome)
  • Libya
  • Life of Paul
  • Life, Tree of
  • Liturgical Language
  • Liturgical Year
  • Longobards (Lombards)
  • Lord
  • Lord, Day of the
  • Lord’s Prayer
  • Love (Biblical Concept)
  • Love (Eros and Agape)
  • Luciferians
  • Luke, Gospel of
  • Lying
  • Lérins
  • Maccabees
  • Macedonius (Vicarius Africae)
  • Macrina, the Elder and the Younger
  • Magi (Kings)
  • Magic
  • Magnificat
  • Mandaeans/Mandaeism
  • Mani/Manichaeism
  • Manna
  • Manumissio in ecclesia
  • Mara bar Serapion
  • Maranatha
  • Marcella
  • Marcian
  • Marcion/Marcionites/Marcionism
  • Marcrina, the Elder and the Younger
  • Marcrina, the Elder and the Younger
  • Marcrina, the Elder and the Younger
  • Marculus
  • Marcus Gnosticus/Marcosians
  • Marinus of Constantinople
  • Marius Claudius Victorius
  • Marius Victorinus
  • Mark, Gospel of
  • Mark, Secret Gospel of
  • Maron
  • Marriage
  • Marseilles
  • Martin of Braga
  • Martin of Tours
  • Martyrium Polycarpi (Martyrdom of Polycarp)
  • Martyrologium Hieronymianum
  • Martyrs, Acts of the
  • Martyrs, Cult of
  • Mary
  • Mary, Gospel of
  • Masculinity
  • Masona of Mérida
  • Matthew, Gospel of
  • Matthew, Pseudo-
  • Matthias (Apostle)
  • Mauricius
  • Maxentius
  • Maximinus Thrax
  • Maximus Confessor
  • Meditation
  • Melania Junior
  • Melania Senior
  • Melchizedek/Melchizedekians
  • Melito of Sardis
  • Memnon of Ephesus
  • Memoria
  • Mensa
  • Mercy
  • Merobaudes
  • Mesrop (Mashtoc‘)
  • Messalians/Euchites
  • Messianism/Messianic Movements
  • Metropolitan
  • Miaphysites/Miaphysitism
  • Micah
  • Middle Platonism
  • Midrash
  • Milan
  • Milevis
  • Military
  • Militia
  • Minucius Felix
  • Miracles
  • Mission
  • Mithras/Cult of Mithras
  • Modalism
  • Monachism
  • Monarchianism
  • Monarchians
  • Monastery of Mor Gabriel (Qartmin)
  • Monastery, Double
  • Monastic Prayer
  • Monastic Rules
  • Monasticism, Egyptian
  • Monasticism, Palestinean
  • Monotheism
  • Montanism/Montanists
  • Montanus, Lucius, and Companions
  • Mopsuestia, Council of
  • Mors Pilati
  • Mosaic
  • Moses
  • Mother
  • Mourning
  • Mozarabic (Hispanic) Liturgy
  • Muirchú
  • Music
  • Mystagogy
  • Mystery Cults
  • Mysticism
  • Myth/Mythology
  • Mérida
  • Nabor and Felix
  • Nag Hammadi, Writings
  • Name, Divine
  • Narsai
  • Nazarenes, Gospel of
  • Nazarenes, Sect of
  • Nazareth
  • Nazirite
  • Necromantics/Necromancy
  • Nemesius of Emesa
  • Neo-Pythagoreanism
  • Neocaesarea
  • Neonicaeanism
  • Neoplatonism
  • Nestorianism/Nestorius
  • Nicaea
  • Nicodemus
  • Nicolaitans
  • Nike
  • Nimbus
  • Nimes, Council of
  • Nomina sacra
  • Norea, Thought of
  • Notarius
  • Notitiae Ecclesiarum
  • Nous
  • Novatian
  • Novatus of Carthage
  • Novatus the Catholic
  • Numenius of Apamea
  • Numidia
  • Oath
  • Odilia
  • Ogdoas
  • Old Syriac
  • Olympias
  • Ophites/Naassenes
  • Optatus of Milevis
  • Optatus of Thamugadi
  • Opus imperfectum in Mattheum
  • Oracles
  • Orange
  • Orans
  • Ordination
  • Origen
  • Origenism/Origenist Controversy
  • Orthodoxy
  • Ousia
  • Oxyrhynchus-Papyri
  • Pachomius of Tabennese
  • Pacianus
  • Pagan/Paganism
  • Paideia
  • Paleo-Slavonic
  • Palestine
  • Pammachius
  • Pancras
  • Panthera
  • Papal Schism
  • Papias of Hierapolis
  • Parable
  • Paraclete
  • Paradise
  • Parousia
  • Parrhesia
  • Pascentius
  • Passio Martyrum Scillitanorum
  • Passion Narrative
  • Passion of Perpetua and Felicity
  • Passover
  • Patriarchs
  • Patrick
  • Patrimony of Saint Peter
  • Patripassians
  • Patristic Exegesis
  • Patrology/Patristics
  • Paul (Apostle)
  • Paul and Thecla, Acts of
  • Paul of Antioch
  • Paul of Mérida
  • Paul of Samosata
  • Paul, 1 Corinthians
  • Paul, 1 Thessalonians
  • Paul, 1 Timothy
  • Paul, 2 Corinthians
  • Paul, 2 Thessalonians
  • Paul, 2 Timothy
  • Paul, Acts of
  • Paul, Apocalypse of (Visio Pauli)
  • Paul, Colossians
  • Paul, Ephesians
  • Paul, Galatians
  • Paul, Philemon
  • Paul, Philippians
  • Paul, Prayer of the Apostle
  • Paul, Revelation of
  • Paul, Romans
  • Paul, Titus
  • Paula
  • Pauline Pseudepigraphic Letters
  • Paulinus of Nola
  • Paulinus of Pella
  • Peace
  • Pedagogue
  • Pelagia
  • Pelagians/Pelagianism
  • Pelagius
  • Pelagius I
  • Pella, Flight to
  • Penitence/Reconciliation
  • Pentecost
  • Perfect Discourse, Excerpt from the
  • Perfection
  • Perichoresis
  • Persecution of Christians
  • Persona
  • Peter (Apostle)
  • Peter (Patriarch of Jerusalem)
  • Peter and the Twelve Apostles, Acts of
  • Peter Chrysologus
  • Peter to Philip, Letter of
  • Peter, 1 Peter
  • Peter, 2 Peter
  • Peter, Acts of
  • Peter, Apocalypse of
  • Peter, Gospel of
  • Pharisees
  • Philip (Apostle)
  • Philip, Gospel of
  • Philippi
  • Philo of Alexandria
  • Philocalia
  • Philosophical Opposition to Early Christianity
  • Philosophy
  • Philoxenos of Mabbug
  • Phoenix
  • Photinus of Sirmium
  • Phronesis
  • Phōs Hilaron
  • Piety
  • Pilate and Herod, Letters of
  • Pilate and Tiberius, Letters of
  • Pilate to Claudius, Letter of
  • Pilate, Acts of
  • Pilate, Pontius
  • Pilati vindicta Salvatoris, Anaphora
  • Pilgrim/Pilgrimage
  • Pimenius
  • Pisidia
  • Pistis Sophia
  • Platonism and the Fathers
  • Pleroma
  • Pliny the Younger
  • Plotinus
  • Pneuma
  • Pneumatomachi
  • Polemon (Polemios)
  • Politics
  • Polycarp of Smyrna
  • Pomerius Julianus
  • Pomponia Graecina
  • Pontianus
  • Pontifex Maximus
  • Pope Letters and Archives
  • Pope/Father
  • Porphyry of Tyre
  • Portrait
  • Possidius
  • Potamion of Heraclea
  • Potamius of Lisbon
  • Power
  • Prayer
  • Preacher
  • Predestination, Doctrine of
  • Presentation in the Temple
  • Priest/Presbyter
  • Priesthood of Believers
  • Primacy
  • Priscillian of Avila
  • Priscillianism
  • Processions
  • Procopius of Caesarea
  • Prophecy
  • Prophet
  • Proselyte
  • Prosper of Aquitaine
  • Prostitution
  • Protevangelium Jacobi
  • Protology
  • Proverbia graecorum
  • Providence
  • Prudentius
  • Psalms/Psalmody/Psalmus responsorius
  • Pseudo Epigraphy
  • Ptolemy
  • Pudens/Pudentiana/Praxedis
  • Purity/Purification/Cleansing
  • Q (Quelle)/Two Source Hypothesis
  • Quercia
  • Quirinius
  • Qumran Community
  • Quodvultdeus of Carthage
  • Rabbi
  • Rabbula of Edessa
  • Rapture
  • Rationes seminales
  • Ravenna
  • Recapitulation
  • Reconciliation
  • Redemption
  • Refrigerium
  • Relics
  • Rememberance
  • Remnant of Israel
  • Repentance
  • Resurrection (General)
  • Resurrection of Jesus Christ
  • Resurrection, Treatise on
  • Revelation
  • Rhetoric
  • Riez, Council of
  • Righteousness/Justice/Justification
  • Rimini
  • Romanos the Melodist
  • Rome
  • Rufinus of Aquileia
  • Rufinus the Syrian
  • Ruricius of Limoges
  • Sabbath/Sabbatical Year
  • Sabellians
  • Sacramentaries
  • Sacramentarium Gelasianum
  • Sacrifice
  • Sadducees
  • Salvation
  • Samson
  • Sanctus
  • Saragossa/Zaragossa
  • Sarcophagi, Christian
  • Sardica
  • Sarepta (Zarephath)
  • Saviour, Dialogue of the
  • Scala Coeli
  • Scapula
  • Schism/Schismatic
  • Scholia
  • School, Christianity and Pedagogics
  • School, Difference Christianity and Pagan Schools
  • Scribes
  • Sebastian
  • Sedulius
  • Seneca, Correspondence of Paul and
  • Serapion of Thmuis
  • Sermon on the Mount
  • Sermon/Homiletics
  • Servatius of Tongres
  • Seth, Second Discourse of the Great
  • Seth, Three Steles of
  • Sethians
  • Seven Sleepers of Ephesus
  • Seville
  • Sextus, Sentences of
  • Sexuality
  • Shem, Paraphrase of
  • Shenoute of Atripe
  • Shepherd, The Good
  • Ship
  • Sidonius Apollinaris
  • Simeon Stylites
  • Simon Magus
  • Simplician of Milan
  • Sin
  • Sin/Sinfulness
  • Sinai
  • Singer(s)
  • Siricius
  • Sirmium
  • Slave/Slavery
  • Smaller Unknown Early Christian Latin Poetry
  • Smyrna
  • Socrates Scholasticus
  • Sodom
  • Solidarity
  • Solomon
  • Solomon, Odes of
  • Son of Man
  • Son(s) of God
  • Sophia Jesu Christi
  • Soteriology
  • Soul
  • Sozomen
  • Spain
  • Spiritual Gifts (Charismata)
  • Spiritual Warfare
  • Spirituality
  • State
  • Statuta ecclesiae antiqua
  • Stephen the Martyr
  • Stilicho
  • Stoicism and the Fathers
  • Stylite/Stylitism
  • Subordinationism
  • Suetonius
  • Suicide
  • Sulpicius Severus
  • Sunday
  • Superstition
  • Susanna
  • Syagrius
  • Sylvester I
  • Symbols, Early Christian
  • Symmachians
  • Symmachus (Bishop of Rome)
  • Symmachus Aurelius Anicius
  • Symmachus Quintus Aurelius Memmius
  • Synagogue
  • Syncletica
  • Syncretism
  • Synesius of Cyrene
  • Syria
  • Tabernacle
  • Tabitha
  • Tacitus
  • Talmud
  • Tannaim
  • Tarraconensis
  • Tarragona
  • Tarsus
  • Tatian
  • Te Deum
  • Temple, Jerusalem
  • Temptation
  • Tertium genus
  • Tertullian
  • Testamentum Domini
  • Testimonia
  • Thamugadi
  • Thanksgiving, Prayer of
  • Theatre
  • Theodore of Heraclea
  • Theodore of Mopsuestia
  • Theodore of Raith
  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus
  • Theodoric the Great
  • Theodosius I 
  • Theodotion
  • Theopaschites
  • Theophilus of Alexandria
  • Theosis
  • Thomas (Apostle)
  • Thomas Christians
  • Thomas the Contender, Book of
  • Thomas, Acts of
  • Thomas, Apocalypse of
  • Thomas, Gospel of
  • Tiberius
  • Time
  • Timotheus of Beirut
  • Tithing
  • Titulus
  • Titus
  • Toledo
  • Tomb of Jesus
  • Tonsure
  • Tosefta
  • Toulouse
  • Tours
  • Trade
  • Tradition
  • Traditor
  • Traducianism
  • Trajan
  • Transcendence
  • Transfiguration
  • Translatio imperii
  • Trinity
  • Tripartite Tractate
  • Tritheism
  • Truth
  • Truth, Gospel of
  • Truth, Testimony of
  • Turin
  • Two Ways Doctrine
  • Tyconius
  • Tzitzit/Tefillin
  • Usury
  • Vaison
  • Valens
  • Valentinian Exposition
  • Valentinians
  • Valentinus
  • Valentinus the Gnostic
  • Vandals
  • Vannes
  • Vatican
  • Venantius Fortunatus
  • Verona Sacramentary 
  • Vespasian
  • Victor of Vita
  • Victorinus of Petovium (Pettau)
  • Vincent of Lérins
  • Virga
  • Virgil
  • Virgin/Virginity/Velatio
  • Virtue
  • Vision/Visionary Experience
  • Vitae Patrum
  • Water, in the Bible
  • Wealth
  • Wedding
  • White Monastery Federation
  • Widow/Widower
  • Will
  • Wine
  • Wisdom
  • Witness
  • Word
  • Works of Relief and Charity
  • World, On the Origin of the
  • Writing Materials
  • Wulfila
  • Zacchaeus
  • Zealots
  • Zebulon
  • Zion
  • Zosimus (Bishop of Rome)
  • Zosimus (Historian)