Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 6 : History of classical Scholarship - A Biographical Dictionary

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Peter Kuhlmann (Göttingen) and Helmuth Schneider (Kassel)

This compendium gives a comprehensive overview of the history of classical studies. Alphabetically arranged, it provides biographies of over 700 scholars from the fourteenth century onwards who have made their mark on the study of Antiquity. These include the lives, careers and works of classical philologists, archaeologists, ancient historians, students of epigraphy, numismatics, papyrology, Egyptology and the Ancient Near East, philosophers, anthropologists, social scientists, art historians, collectors and writers. The biographies put the scholars in their social, political and cultural contexts while focusing on their scholarly achievements and their contributions to modern classical scholarship.

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Rabelais, François

(420 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
French poet, physician and philologist. Born 1483 (probably) or 1494, died Paris 9. 4. 1553. 1510/11–1520 novice in the Franciscan Couvent de la Baumette, then from 1520 a monk in the Franciscan Friary of Puy-Saint-Martin à Fontenay-le-Comte; 1524 switched to the Benedictine Order. 1528–1530 secular priest in Paris. 1530 studied medicine at Montpellier; 1532–1535 physician in Lyon. Thereafter mainly in the employ of the Bishop and subsequently Cardinal Jean du Bellay, whom he accompanied on seve…

Rader, Matthaeus

(802 words)

Author(s): Lukas, Veronika
German philologist, pedagogue and writer. Born Innichen (now South Tyrol, Italy) 1561, died Munich 22. 12. 1634. School at Innsbruck and Augsburg; entered the Societas Jesu on 12. 9. 1581; studied at Ingolstadt. Prof. of rhetoric at the Augsburg Jesuitengymnasium from 1591. 1612 in the same function at Munich, also court historian to Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria. Work and influence After entering the Society, R. pursued a typical career for a Jesuit, i.e. he was appointed as a schoolteacher while still a student. His teachers included Jacob Pontanus. U…

Ramler, Karl Wilhelm

(549 words)

Author(s): Leonhardt, Jürgen
German literary theorist, poet and translator. Born Kolberg 25. 2. 1725, died Berlin 11. 4. 1798. Studied theology at Halle from 1742, then medicine at Berlin. 1746 tutor in Lähme, 1747 in Berlin. 1748–1790 prof. of philosophy at the Kadettenkorps school in Berlin, where his most important student was Karl von Knebel, future friend of Goethe and translator of Lucretius. From 1786 a member of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. R.’s acquaintances included Ludwig Gleim, Moses Mendelssohn, Friedrich Nicolai and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Work and influence R. was active as a…

Raoul-Rochette, Désiré

(436 words)

Author(s): Sternke, René
French archaeologist. Born Saint-Amand 9. 3. 1790, died Paris 3. 7. 1854. School in Bourges; studied at École normale supérieure (ENS), Paris. 1813 prof. of history at Lycée Louis-le-Grand; prize of the Institut de France for [1]. 1815 standing in for François Guizot as prof. of modern history at the Sorbonne. 1815–1817 lecturer at ENS. 1816 member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres; 1817 editor of the Journal des savants; 1818–1848 successor to Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison as conservator of the Paris Cabinet des médailles at the Bibliothèque royale and prof. of…

Rawlinson, George

(501 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
British antiquarian and historian. Born Chad-lington (Oxfordshire) 23. 11. 1812, died Canter-bury 6. 10. 1902. Brother of Henry Rawlinson. 1834–1841 studied at Trinity College, Oxford; 1841 MA. Holy orders 1842; 1861–1889 Camden Prof. of Ancient History at Oxford. Canon at Canterbury from 1872. Work and influence In the course of his historical research, R. devoted himself to the translation of primary sources of ancient history. His translations of Herodotus’ Histories were especially important. He furnished them with a substantial commentary written jointly wit…

Rawlinson, Henry

(682 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva
British officer, diplomat and archaeologist. Born Henry Creswicke R., Chadlington (Oxfordshire), 11. 4. 1810, died London 5. 3. 1895. Brother of George Rawlinson. Entered the army in 1826, then pursued military career from 1827 in the ¶ service of the British East India Company (EIC), mainly in India and Afghanistan. Active as an EIC agent in various key positions in the Near East, including, from 1843, British Consul at Baghdad, then consul general at Baghdad in 1851. 1851–1855 excavations for British Museum in Near East. From 185…

Reinach, Salomon

(1,017 words)

Author(s): Duchêne, Hervé | Graepler, Daniel
French archaeologist and art historian. Born Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Paris) 29. 8. 1858, died Boulogne-Billancourt (Paris) 14. 11. 1932. 1876 admission as best in year to École normale supérieure; 1879 Agrégé de grammaire (teaching certificate); 1880–1882 member of the École française d’Athènes and researching at Myrina and on Delos and Thasos. 1883–1885 secretary of the Commission archéologique de Tunisie, excavations at Carthage and elsewhere. 1886 assistant, 1893 deputy conservator, 1902 director of the Musée des Antiquités nationales in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 1890–…

Reinhardt, Karl

(1,069 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard
German classical philologist. Born Karl Ludwig R., Detmold, 14. 2. 1886, died Frankfurt 9. 1. 1958. Studied classics from 1905 at Bonn and Berlin; doctorate Berlin 1910 followed by habil. in 1914. From 1916, prof. ext. at Marburg; from 1919 prof. ord. in Greek studies at Hamburg; from 1924 prof. ord. at Frankfurt. Appointed to Univ. of Leipzig 1942; returned to Univ. of Frankfurt 1946. Retired 1951. Scholarly career A grandson of the entrepreneur Carl Johann Freudenberg, R. belonged to an upper middle-class family. His father worked in school education in Frankfu…

Reiske, Johann Jacob

(902 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
German classical philologist and Arabist. Born Zörbig (Leipzig) 25. 12. 1716, died Leipzig 14. 8. 1774. 1728–1732 attended the Gymnasium of the Francke’sches Waisenhaus (orphanage) in Halle; 1733–1738 formally studying theology at Leipzig, really teaching himself Greek and Arabic. 1738–1746 at Leiden; 1746 completed medical training there, but this did not lead to work in practice. Returned to Leipzig 1746; 1747 prof. ext. of Arabic there. Rector of the Nicolaischule at Leipzig from 1758 to his death. Career, works and influence The son of a tanner, R. earned his living prio…

Reitzenstein, Richard

(408 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich | Humar, Marcel
German classical philologist and historian of religion. Born Breslau 2. 4. 1861, died Göttingen 23. 3. 1931. Abitur 1879, then studied theology¶ at Halle, then classical studies there, at Breslau and Berlin. Doctorate Berlin 1884; 1887 prof. ext. at Rostock; 1888 habil. at Breslau; 1892 prof. of classical philology at Giessen, 1893 at Strasbourg, 1911 at Freiburg, finally 1914 at Göttingen. Career, works and influence After leaving school, R. first studied theology, then classics at Halle, where his teachers included Wilhelm Dittenberger and Eduard Hiller, th…

Renan, Ernest

(477 words)

Author(s): Guichard, Laurent
French religious scholar and Orientalist. Born Tréguier (Brittany) 28. 3. 1823, died Paris 2. 10. 1892. 1838–1845 seminary training (1840 Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, 1841 Issy-les-Moulineaux, 1843 Saint Sulpice); 1848 Agrégé de philosophie; 1852 doctorate. 1856 elected to Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres; 1861 prof. at Collège de France, Paris; 1878 elected to Académie française. Work and influence On the death of his father, R. entered a seminary, supported by the abbot Félix Dupanloup. He specialized in philosophy (especially German) a…

Reuchlin, Johannes

(1,640 words)

Author(s): Thurn, Nikolaus
Also Kapnion, Capnio; German Humanist and philosopher. Born Pforzheim 29. 1. 1455, died Stuttgart 30. 6. 1522. 1470 studied at Freiburg, 1473 at Paris, 1474 at Basel. MA 1477 Basel. 1477–1478 in Paris; 1479 studying Greek and law at Orléans, continuing at Poitiers 1480/81. 1481 orator and councillor at the court of Eberhard of Württemberg; 1482 studied at Tübingen, then travelled in Eberhard’s retinue via Florence to Rome. 1484 Doctor legum; 1492 ennobled; 1490 and 1498 further journeys to Italy. At Heidelberg 1496; from 1498 again in Württemberg. 1502–1513 judge …

Reuvens, Caspar Jacob Christiaan

(493 words)

Author(s): Hoijtink, Mirjam H. E.
Dutch archaeologist, Egyptologist and museum founder. Born The Hague 22. 1. 1793; died Rotterdam 26. 7. 1835. School in Amsterdam; studied law in Paris. 1813 doctorate, Paris. 1815 prof. ord. in Greek, Latin and history at Harderwijk; 1818 prof. ext. in archaeology at Leiden and head of the archaeological collection at the univ. 1826 prof. ord. in archaeology there. Work and influence R. founded classical archaeology in the Nether-lands, and was the first prof. whose teaching contract specified this subject. He received formative influences in the summer o…

Revett, Nicholas

(825 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph
British amateur archaeologist, painter and architect. Born 1720 in Brandeston Hall near Framlingham, Suffolk; died there 3. 6. 1804. Work and influence On his Grand Tour, the gentleman R. reached Rome in 1742, and took up the study of painting. He met the Scottish architect James Stuart here, as well as the painter Gavin Hamilton and the dandy Matthew Brettingham Jr. Visiting Naples together in 1748, the three hit upon the idea of an expedition to Greece to make a detailed study of the ancient buildings; the project …