Brill’s New Pauly Supplements II - Volume 8 : The Reception of Antiquity in Renaissance Humanism

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by : Manfred Landfester

For the thinkers, artists and scholars of the Renaissance, antiquity was a major source of inspiration; it provided renewed modes of scholarship, led to corrections of received doctrine and proved a wellspring of new achievements in almost every area of human life. The 130 articles in this volume cover not only well known figures of the Renaissance such as Copernicus, Dürer, and Erasmus but also overall themes such as architecture, agriculture, economics, philosophy and philology as well as many others.

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Machiavelli, Niccolò

(2,197 words)

Author(s): Hoeges, Dirk (Hannover)
A. Life and careerThe Florentine official and diplomat and Italian political writer and poet Niccolò M. was born on May 3, 1469 at Florence, where he also died on June 21, 1527. His father was the notary Bernardo Machiavelli, who wrote a diary ( Libro di ricordi, 1474–1487). After studying the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialectics) via the Ars minor/Ars maior of the Late Antique Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus, and parts of the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy), he gained early knowledge of ancient (e.g. Aristotle, Cicero, Ptolemy) and medieval…
Date: 2016-11-24

Mantua

(2,094 words)

Author(s): Ruby, Sigrid (Gießen)
A. IntroductionMantova, (English M.), a city of Northern Italy on the River Mincio, was from the Middle Ages surrounded by dammed-up lakes, some of which have since silted up. The first settlement was Etruscan or Roman. The city was an episcopal see from AD 804, and from the late 10th cent. it belonged to the territory of the Attoni of Canossa. It became a signoria with the assumption of power by Pinamonte de Bonacolsi in 1272, but in 1328 the Bonacolsi were expelled by the Gonzaga and in 1329, Ludovico I Gonzaga was made Imperial vicar of M. by the Emperor.…
Date: 2016-11-24

Mathematical sciences

(2,201 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (München)
A. Concept and ancient originsThe M. are considered to be arithmetic, geometry and algebra, but not fields of applied mathematics like geodesy or cartography. In Antiquity, they comprised the quadrivium, i.e. arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music theory. Arithmetic concerned the integers and their relationships,  but not practical calculation. At its heart was the divisibility of integers (prime numbers, perfect numbers) and the theory of proportion. The Greeks knew that there were magnitudes that lacked a common meas…
Date: 2016-11-24

Medicine

(4,340 words)

Author(s): Maike, Rotzoll (Heidelberg)
A. TerminologyThe innovative aspect of Humanist M. was the nature and intensity of its recourse to ancient models, especially the  principes medicinae of Hippocrates ( c. 460–370 BC) and Galen (2nd cent. AD). With their cyclical view of history, the Humanists anticipated no linear development of knowledge, but a 'rebirth', and in M. this was to come through the return to its 'golden age' in Classical Greece, where the supposed author of the  Corpus Hippocraticum lived at around the same time as Plato [27.42]. The revelation of archetypical ancient knowledge promised univ…
Date: 2016-11-24

Melanchthon, Philipp

(2,429 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. LifeThe German Humanist, religious reformer and polymath Philipp M. was born Philipp Schwarzerdt on February 16, 1497 at Bretten (near Karlsruhe). His patron Philipp Schwarzerdt (Johannes Reuchlin honoured him with the Hellenized Humanist surname M. in 1509), M. died on April 19, 1560 at Wittenberg. After studying Latin at the town Lateinschule and with the private tutor Johannes Unger in 1508/09, he obtained an excellent education at the Pforzheim Lateinschule, including learning Greek. He studied the artes liberales at Heidelberg from October 14, 1509, joining the…
Date: 2016-11-24