Brill’s New Pauly Supplements II - Volume 9 : The Early Mediterranean World, 1200–600 BC

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Ranging in time from the end of the Bronze Age to the dawn of the so-called historical period (12th-6th centuries BC), this compendium presents the first complete survey of the early history of all the cultures along the coasts of the Mediterranean. In addition to the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans, these also include many other peoples, such as the Iberians, Ligurians, Thracians, Phrygians, Luwians, Aramaeans and Libyans. The volume brings together the knowledge gained from material, textual and pictorial sources in all disciplines working in this field, including Near Eastern, Phoenician, Carthaginian and biblical archaeology, Aegean and North African studies, Villanovan studies and Etruscology, Iberology, early Greek historiography and Dark Ages studies. As a whole, this period was characterized by the intermingling of cultures around the Mediterranean Rim, and the main focus of content is therefore on contacts, the transfer of culture and knowledge and key common themes, such as mobility, religion, resources, languages and writing. With indices and numerous tables and maps of Pauly quality.

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2.3.10. Campania

(1,681 words)

Author(s): Thiermann, Ellen
A. Geography and settlement [German source] Campania is clearly defined by the natural frontiers of the Mons Massicus to the north, the Apennines to the east and the Sorrentine Peninsula to the south. The landscape is  volcanic, dominated by Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields ( Phlegraei campi) and the exceedingly fertile plains of the ager Campanus ( Capua) and  ager Falernus. South of the Sorrentine Peninsula is the  ager Picentinus, with the centre of  Pontecagnano.In the EIA, Campania was part of the  Fossa Culture (BNP Atlas 65) that extended across the whole of southern…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.4. Canaan

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Name, geography and history [German source] The province of Canaan (Phoenician  knʿn, Hebrew kenaʿan, Akkadian kinaʿanu/kinaḫḫu/kinaḫnu; Greek  Kanaán; [29352]; etymology uncertain [29352]) stretched from the environs of its main city,  Gaza, in the southwest, to north of  Beirut, where it met its northern neighbour  Amurru (capital  Ṣumur). It was bordered on the east by the province of  Upe, with its capital at  Kumidi in the  Beqaʿ Valley, and the Dead Sea [14555–557]. The territory of  Ammonitis (Ammon 2.7.8.) did not belong to Canaan [10162 f.].The earliest evidence of …
Date: 2018-08-16

2.6.4. Caria

(1,695 words)

Author(s): Klinkott, Hilmar
A. Location, name and settlements [German source] Greek sources use the name Caria (Greek Karía, tribes: Káres and Léleges; Hittite/Luwian Karkiša/Karkija, Egyptian Krkā) to denote a territory in southwestern Asia Minor, the settlement area of the Carians between Lydia (2.6.3.), Lycia (2.6.5.) and Phrygia (2.6.7.). Unlike neighbouring  Mirā, Caria was not a Hittite vassal state in the 2nd millennium. Indeed, in this period it was undefined as both a political  and a geographical entity. In the pre-Homeric period, it was also sometimes said to be the home of the non-Greek  Leleges.…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.8.9. Carthage

(4,037 words)

Author(s): Mansel, Karin
A. Cultural history [German source] Carthage (Phoenician  Qart-ḥadašt, ‘new town’; Greek  Karchedṓn; Latin Carthago) lies at the southern tip of a large peninsula jutting into the Gulf of Tunis, with the Arina Lagoon to its north and the Lake of Tunis to the south. The Byrsa, a hill 56 m in height, forms the southern extremity of an elevation running along the coast. Because the sea in the early Punic period (8th–6th cents.) was some 80 cm higher than today, the shore was some way inland of its present position. Lagoons spread across the coastal plain, offering landing places and harbours [3…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.5. Castro Culture

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Brandherm, Dirk
A. Distribution area [German source] The term Castro Culture (Spanish  cultura castreña, Portuguese  cultura castreja, Galician  cultura castrexa, Asturian  cultura castriega) is applied to a number of regional groups of the LBA and IA in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula. The name refers to the typical settlement form of this region: the  castro, a fortified hilltop settlement with a number of specific architectural characteristics [1]; [6]; [13] (for criticism of this concept, cf. [9]; [15]). Another hallmark is the absence of archaeologically detectable burial customs.T…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.2. Catalan Urnfield Culture

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Bartelheim, Martin
A. Geography and cultural history [German source] Catalonia makes up the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula and thus is directly connected by land with southern France and thence with Central Europe (Southern France and Central Europe 2.2.). Cultural contacts with the heart of Europe are thus strongest here. The Pyrenees separate Catalonia from southern France but can be crossed via many passes. The topography and climate of the region varies dramatically. Behind the flat, fertile littoral…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.3.6. Cerveteri/Caere and Pyrgi

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Bentz, Martin
A. Cerveteri/Caere [German source] Cerveteri (Greek Kairéa/Kairḗ, Ágylla, Etruscan Caisra/Cisra, Latin Caere) lies on a tufa plateau some 150 ha in area about 45 km north of Rome and 6 km from the sea. The plateau is surrounded by cemeteries (e.g. Banditaccia, Sorbo, Monte Abetone) [11]; [12] (cf. BNP Atlas 75, 77). In the north, the territory bordered on that of Tarquinia (2.3.7.) at the River Mignone, and the River Arrone marked the boundary with Veii in the south. The frontier with Faliscan territory in the east was Lake Bracciano (Fali…
Date: 2018-08-16