Brill’s New Pauly Supplements II - Volume 9 : The Early Mediterranean World, 1200–600 BC

Get access Subject: Classical Studies

Ranging in time from the end of the Bronze Age to the dawn of the so-called historical period (12th-6th centuries BC), this compendium presents the first complete survey of the early history of all the cultures along the coasts of the Mediterranean. In addition to the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans, these also include many other peoples, such as the Iberians, Ligurians, Thracians, Phrygians, Luwians, Aramaeans and Libyans. The volume brings together the knowledge gained from material, textual and pictorial sources in all disciplines working in this field, including Near Eastern, Phoenician, Carthaginian and biblical archaeology, Aegean and North African studies, Villanovan studies and Etruscology, Iberology, early Greek historiography and Dark Ages studies. As a whole, this period was characterized by the intermingling of cultures around the Mediterranean Rim, and the main focus of content is therefore on contacts, the transfer of culture and knowledge and key common themes, such as mobility, religion, resources, languages and writing. With indices and numerous tables and maps of Pauly quality.

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3.4. War and warfare

(7,291 words)

Author(s): Madreiter, Irene
A. Introduction [German source] ‘It is beautiful for a brave man to fall by the enemy’s hand in the fight for the homeland’, declared the lyric poet Tyrtaeus (Fr. 6 Diehl) in the mid-7th century. Military conflict indeed appears to have been a decisive factor in the history of the ancient Mediterranean. The period under scrutiny in this volume begins with the attacks of the ‘Sea Peoples’, and most of the oldest surviving Greek epic, the  Iliad, consists of battles descriptions. No fewer than two out of every three years were years of war during the Greek Archaic and Classical Periods.But what…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.2.6. Western Hallstatt zone

(3,301 words)

Author(s): Wendling, Holger
A. Definition, dates and extent [German source] The Western Hallstatt zone (or Western Hallstatt Culture) covers a conglomeration of EIA cultural groups characterized (despite structural variations) by a relatively uniform material culture featuring similar belt, arm-ring and leg-ring accoutrements, weaponry and a style of fibulae that transcended regional boundaries. Its most prominent cult and ritual element is inhumation within and beneath  tumuli. A clear increase in cultural contacts with the Mediterranean to the south is also significant. The Wester…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.8.7. Western Maghreb

(4,467 words)

Author(s): Ardeleanu, Stefan
A. Geography, names, languages [German source] Neither the literary tradition nor classical studies has a consistent cultural-geographical designation for the western Maghreb during the early historical period. Ancient Egyptian sources mention  Rbw (BNP Atlas 33), while Greek authors in the 6th century simply began to call all peoples between the Nile and the Atlantic  Líbyoi and  Líbyes (Pind. Pyth. 9,105 and 117; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 357; Scyl. 112,2). In the 5th century, Herodotus divided the Libyans into a sedentary western group (4,186,1) and a noma…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.2.2. Western Urnfield Culture

(2,555 words)

Author(s): Brandherm, Dirk
A. Definition, distribution and geographical divisions [German source] The term Western  Urnfield Culture denotes a series of regional LBA groups in the territory between Upper Austria and the Paris Basin. They differed from other Urnfield groups with respect to their repertoire of material forms and settlement and burial customs, thus forming a coherent cultural entity.  The characteristic feature of the Urnfield Culture as a whole is a shift, occurring between circa 1320 and 1200 across almost all communities, from inhumation in  tumuli (MBA barrow culture) to cremation on…
Date: 2018-08-16