Brill’s New Pauly Supplements II - Volume 9 : The Early Mediterranean World, 1200–600 BC

Get access Subject: Classical Studies

Ranging in time from the end of the Bronze Age to the dawn of the so-called historical period (12th-6th centuries BC), this compendium presents the first complete survey of the early history of all the cultures along the coasts of the Mediterranean. In addition to the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans, these also include many other peoples, such as the Iberians, Ligurians, Thracians, Phrygians, Luwians, Aramaeans and Libyans. The volume brings together the knowledge gained from material, textual and pictorial sources in all disciplines working in this field, including Near Eastern, Phoenician, Carthaginian and biblical archaeology, Aegean and North African studies, Villanovan studies and Etruscology, Iberology, early Greek historiography and Dark Ages studies. As a whole, this period was characterized by the intermingling of cultures around the Mediterranean Rim, and the main focus of content is therefore on contacts, the transfer of culture and knowledge and key common themes, such as mobility, religion, resources, languages and writing. With indices and numerous tables and maps of Pauly quality.

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2.3.2. Golasecca Culture

(1,508 words)

Author(s): Stech, Angelika
A. Geography and chronology [German source] The Italic Golasecca Culture [3]; [4]; [7]; [10], known primarily through burials, dominated the western northern Italy and southern Switzerland in the IA. At its greatest extent, its territory extended from the Po to the Alpine passes and from the Sesia in the west to the Serio in the east [2fig. 9].Following a supposed (slight) infiltration from the territory of the Urnfield Culture (Western Urnfield Culture 2.2.2.; regional  Canegrate stage [3160–165]) and a period of regression, a new phase of settlement growth began in t…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.4.4. Greek settlements in continental Southeastern Europe

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Gimatzidis, Stefanos
A. Introduction [German source] A glance at a historical map of the Mediterranean and Black Sea showing the many Greek apoikiai scattered around them is enough to make clear why Plato compares the Greeks to ‘ants or frogs around a pond’ (Pl. Phd. 109 a–b). The Balkan coasts of the Adriatic, the northern Aegean and Propontis ( Northern Greece 2.5.2.) and the Black Sea all were destinations for Greek settlements in the Archaic Period. Each individual settlement, however, had its own origins and motivations (BNP Atlas 69).Stefanos GimatzidisB. Illyrian coast [German source] The coloniza…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.6.12. Greeks in Asia Minor

(4,945 words)

Author(s): Kerschner, Michael
A. Greek settlement areas [German source] During the first half of the 1st millennium, settlement areas where the majority language and culture were Greek existed along the coasts of Asia Minor. The oldest and densest of them lay on the western, Aegean coast, which had maintained close contact with Minoan Crete and the Mycenaean mainland in the BA (BNP Atlas 25–29). From the 14th century to the early 12th century,  Mycenaean settlements stood on the southwestern coast from  Miletus to  Halicarnassus and on the offshore islands from  Samos to  Rhodes [73]; [55]; [56]. Archaeological evi…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.3.17. Greeks in Southern Italy

(2,273 words)

Author(s): Osanna, Massimo
A. Introduction [German source] Scholarly debate over what is traditionally known as  Greek colonization of western Mediterranean has intensified considerably over recent years [13]. Regardless of individual positions, there is a general consensus today that it is imperative to view the cultures of the early historical period in all their diversity, whereas interest formerly was focused primarily on the Greek component [19]. The  mobility of local communities of the High Archaic Mediterranean (ca. 750–600) led to early contacts between various cultures. As…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.11. Greeks in the Levant

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Vacek, Alexander
A. Introduction [German source] Geographically speaking, the Levant encompasses the region between the Amanus Mountains in the north and Palestine/Palaestina in the south (Syria and Palaestina: Overview 2.7.1.). The eastern frontier is less clearly defined, but possible contact zones are in any case confined to the littoral. In discussing Greek settlements, a distinction is drawn between an  apoikia (‘[new] settlement far from home’), an  enoikismos (‘a settlement established within an existing settlement’) and an  emporion (‘trading station’). In addition to these an…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.3.24. Greeks on Sicily

(3,190 words)

Author(s): Kistler, Erich
A. Research models [German source] More and more Greeks arrived in the western central regions of the Mediterranean over the course of the 8th century, seeking to carve out new lives far from home (Greek  apoikía, ‘colony’, literally ‘settlement far from home’). Debate has long raged over the motives behind the foundation of such apoikiai and over settlement patterns in the foundation period. Three models dominate this discussion.The first model, that of the  ‘colony’, was established between ad 1448 and 1452 when the Italian Humanist Lorenzo Valla decided to use the word colonia t…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.1.14. Greeks on the Iberian Peninsula

(807 words)

The Iberian Peninsula, which the Greeks called  Ibēría (on the derivation of the name from the Phoenician, see [3618]), is one of the most important Mediterranean regions. It also links the Mediterranean to the Atlantic world. In ancient times, the cultural profile of the Iberian Peninsula was highly heterogeneous, both in the interior, where the influence of the Greek presence was negligible, and on the coasts.Some ancient authors (Str. 3,4,8; 14,2,10, Ps.-Scym. 204) believed that  Rhodian Greeks were already on the Iberian Peninsula before the first ‘Olympic Games’ …
Date: 2018-08-16