Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barber

(282 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κουρεύς/ koureús; tonsor). It is unknown when the occupation of the barber and hairdresser first became an autonomous profession in Greece. In myth the barber is only rarely mentioned ( Midas); early representation of a barber: Boeotian terracotta in Berlin [1]. The barber is considered to be talkative and curious (Plut. Mor. 2,177a; 508) and knows the latest gossip. The barber's room (κουρεῖον/ koureîon) is the place where people get together (Lys. 24,3,20; Plut. Timoleon 14; Plut. Mor. 716ff.), and where you can also contract business dea…

Barberini Faun

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG)
Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Object (CT) The so-called Barberini Faun is a 2.15 m high Greek sculpture from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC. A youth is portrayed slumbering in a half-seated pose. The youthful, naked, muscular body of the BF reclines relaxed but not enfeebled on an animal skin spread over rocky ground, which combined with the ivy and corymbs in its hair suggests a Dionysian context. It reflects its inherent semi-animality less in its physicality than by  Aalen its ope…

Barbitos

(5 words)

see  Musical instruments

Barbius

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] M.B. Aemilianus, cos. suff. in the year 140 (CIL XVI 177); RMD 1, 39; originated from Aquileia (EOS 2, 332f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Barbucallus, Iohannes

(97 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] with the epithet Γραμματικός ( Grammatikós). Epigram poet of the ‘ kyklos’ of Agathias, lived in the 6th cent. AD, author of 12 reasonable, for the most part ecphrastic and epideictic epigrams (some uncertainty remains, furthermore, concerning Anth. Pal. 7,555-555b and 9, 628f.; the first are titled Ἰωάννου Ποιητοῦ, the others Ἰωάννου Γραμματικοῦ). Noteworthy are the epigrams about the destruction of Berytus (Beirut) by the earthquake of 551 (9,425-427; the influence of Nonnus, Dion. 41 is obvious in 426,1f.). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography Av. & A. Cameron, …

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barcas

(4 words)

see  Barcids

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Barcino(na)

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula The present-day Barcelona was an Iberian settlement of the  Lacetani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6, 18). During the Civil War, B. was on Caesar's side. B. received the name Faventia Julia Augusta Pia (or Paterna?) Immunis. B. reached its highest peak during Roman imperial times. The city attained its special significance not least because of its bishops -- under the  Visigoths, when the decline of Tarraco started. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 438-440 R. W…

Bardas

(86 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine statesman, Armenian, brother of Theodora, mother of Emperor Michael III (AD 842-867). Bearer of the highest court title Caesar (καῖσαρ) since 862. He promoted the mission to the Slavs, founded a school for scientific studies in the imperial palace, furthered the elevation of the learned  Photius to patriarch. B. was murdered by the parvenu  Basilius [5] I, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, on 21.4.866. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1456 ODB 1, 255f. P. Speck, Die kaiserliche Universität von Konstantinopel, 1974.

Bardesanes

(228 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Well known as ‘Aramaic philosopher’ and astrologist, B. (AD 154-222) is the earliest known Syrian author from Edessa, where he worked at the court of  Abgar [3] VIII (177-212). Iulius Africanus (Kestoi 1,20) mentions that he met him there in the year 195. Even though B. wrote against the Marcionites ( Marcion) and the Chaldaeans, his opinions about cosmology drew the disapproval of later writers since  Ephraim. This led to the loss of his writings (both poetry as well as prose). H…

Bardiya

(198 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Elamite Pirtiya; Akkadian Barzija; Greek Σμέρδις, Μάρδος; Smérdis, Márdos, Aesch. Pers. 774). [German version] [1] Younger son of  Cyrus II Younger son of  Cyrus II (and Cassandane), according to the  Bisutun inscription full brother of  Cambyses II [3. 117]; in Ctesias Pers. 12,10,29 Tanyoxarkes, in Xen. Cyr. 8,7,11 Tanaoxares, whom Cyrus supposedly appointed as satrap of Media, Armenia and Cadusia, murdered on orders of Cambyses either before [3. 117.29f.] or during (Hdt. 3,10) his Egyptian military campaign (52…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…

Bargusii

(4 words)

see  Bergistani

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Baris Oros

(81 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάρις ὄρος; Báris óros). The ancient name for the highest mountain of  Armenia, the Ararat (5165 m). The source on which this is based is Nicolaus of Damascus, in Ios. Ant. Iud. 1, p. 95; p. 18 Niese. The Βaris Οros belonged to the Armenian landscape Μινουάς ( Minouás; today Manawazeau) and was located south-west of the old  Artaxata (today Artašat). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World II. Dardanelles, Bosporus, Turkey East, 1959, Pl. 37.

Barium

(275 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Rome | Rome (Βάρις; Báris). Peucetian harbour town (Βάριον, Atbaris: schol. Hor. Sat. 1,5,97; Beroes: It. Burd. 609,15; cf. Liv. 40,18; Str. 5,3,8), founded by Illyrians (Plin. HN 3,102) or by emigrants from Barra (Fest. s.v.), at the junction of the via Traiana and the coastal road (Hor. Sat. 1,5,96-97), modern Bari. Flourished between the 6th and 4th cents. BC (cf. the rich necropolis outside the town to the south, close to the coast). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (inscriptions: IG XIV 687; C…

Barke

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete (Βάρκη; Bárkē). Greek city in  Cyrenaica, 97 km north-east of Benghasi, today Barka, founded by Cyrenaicans in the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Grain and   silphion allowed B. to reach its peak quickly. (Sources: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Aen. Tact. 37,6f.; Heraclid. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompus of Chios F 103; Diod. Sic. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. Pun. 2,62; 3,251; Polyaenus, Strat. 7…

Bar Kochba

(304 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Leader of the great Jewish uprising of 132-135. Documentary evidence exists regarding the name form Simon Bar Kosiba. The name forms Bar Kochba (‘son of the star’) and Bar Koziba (‘son of lies’), known from Christian and rabbinical literature, are tendentious interpretations of the original patronymic. They reflect the Messianic expectations ( Messiah), which are linked with his person and the disappointment about the false Messiah, which followed the failure of the uprising. The …

Barlaam and Ioasaph

(801 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] (Βαρλάαμ, Ἰωάσαφ; Barláam, Iōásaph). Greek novel from Byzantine times; there is uncertainty regarding date and author, (see below). The story of I., an Indian prince, is told; his father, king Abenner, an enemy of Christianity, was worried because of prophecies that his son would take on the new religion and ordered him to live, locked away in a magnificent palace, without learning about human suffering. Despite surveillance, the monk B. succeeds in approaching I. and initiating him …

Barnabas

(144 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The well-off Levite B., who came from Cyprus, belonged temporarily to the closest circle of co-workers of  Paulus and, before that, to the prominent heads of the Antiochene community. After a missionary period together in Cyprus and Galatia with Paulus, it came to a severe conflict between both, as B. together with others in Antioch ( c. AD 48), revoked the table community between Jewish Christians and pagan-Christians (Gal 2,11-16). Whether he then went to Egypt, like some individual traditions seem to believe (e.g. Ps.-Clem. Hom. 1, …

Barnabas, Epistle of

(220 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The writer of this treatise, written in the form of a letter, (CPG I 1050), who belongs to the so-called  Apostolic Fathers, does not give his name. The MSS as well as Christian theologians of the 2nd/3rd cents. like  Clemens and  Origenes (who regarded the letter as καθολικὴ ἐπιστολή: c. Cels. 1,63) state that the author is  Barnabas, the travelling companion of St. Paul. The first part (chs. 2-16) interprets holy Scripture (= the OT) in terms of God, Christ and the new people of…

Baron Thesis, the

(553 words)

Fifty years ago Hans Baron (1900-1988), who had take refuge from Nazi Germany in the United States, put forth a comprehensive theory to explain the beginning of the Renaissance that anchored Florentine political events in the early 14th cent. into the Classical tradition of republican thought.  During its first two generations, Baron argued, Italian humanism had maintained the medieval preference for monarchical government, which was traced back to Julius Caesar and Augustus.  The same humanists…

Baroque

(9,308 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) | Stenzel, Hartmut (Gießen RWG) | Hellwig, Karin (Munich) | Wenzel, Carola (Munich)
Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] I. Germany (CT) Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] A. The Term and its History (CT) The term, baroque, probably derived from the Portuguese word for an off-round, irregular pearl ( barroco), appears from the 18th cent. on as a synonym for such terms as ‘bizarre, bombastic, irregular.’ In its sense as a stylistic term or expression describing a cultural period, baroque did not come into use in the world of art-historical discourse until the second half of the 19th cent. - for the first time with J. …

Barpana

(20 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island between the Etruscan coast and Corsica, possibly Scoglio d'Affrica (Formica di Montecristo). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Bar Pandera

(92 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] Figure who is mentioned in connection with magic and idolatry (bShab 104b; bSanh 67b); name of Jesus in rabbinical literature (KohR 1.1,8; tHul 2,22f.; yAZ 2,2 [40d], ySab 14,4 [14d]; KohR 10,5). Detailed research of the various traditions was able to show that B. did not originally belong to the context of anti-Christian polemics, but was only identified secondarily with Jesus during the repressive Byzantine religious politics before the Arabic conquest.  Adversos Judaeos;  Anti-Semitism Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Maier, Jesus von Nazareth in d…

Barrels (wooden)

(229 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] While in the Mediterranean, liquids such as wine and oil were generally stored in large clay jars (ίθος, dolium) and transported in animal skins or amphorae, we find the increasing use of wooden barrels for the storing and transporting of wine in the western provinces and northern Italy from the early Principate onwards (Upper Italy: Str. 5,1,8; 5,1,12; Alps: Plin. HN 14,132). Numerous reliefs and funerary sculptures show wine barrels being transported on heavy, horse-drawn wagons (funerary reliefs in Langres and Augsburg), or oar-driven shi…

Barsabas

(50 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βαρσάβας; Barsábas). Sapaean dynast who was part of  Andriscus' campaign to Macedonia in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 32,15,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Ch. M. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan von der hell. Zeit bis zur Gründung Konstantinopels, ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185.

Barsaentes

(69 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσαέντης; Barsaéntēs). Under  Darius satrap of Arachosia and Drangiana; commanded the Arachotes and the neighbouring Indians in the battle of Gaugamela. He murdered Darius in mid 330 BC together with  Bessus and  Nabarzanes, then fled to his satrapy and from there to India. When  Alexander [4] reached the Indus, B. was handed over to him and executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 205.

Barsine

(79 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσίνη; Barsínē). Artabazus' daughter, first married to Mentor of Rhodes, then to his brother Memmon. After the battle of Issus, B. was captured in Damascus. She became Alexander the Great's lover and gave birth to his son  Heracles (probably in 327 BC). She and her son returned to Asia Minor, probably soon after Alexander's marriage to Roxane. In 309 she was murdered in Pergamum following  Polyperchon's order. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 206.

Baruch

(193 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] According to Biblical tradition, he was Jeremiah's companion and scribe. A highly significant figure in early Jewish tradition. In the apocryphal Book of B., he appears foremost as a preacher who calls Israel to penance but also promises consolation. In the B. writings (for instance in SyrBar and GrBar, Ethiop. B. apocalypse), B. predominantly acts as a prophetic recipient of revelation, who can even be superior to Jeremiah when telling him about God's decision (SyrBar 10,1ff). B.…

Barygaza

(136 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Βαρύγαζα ἐμπόριον; Barýgaza empórion, Ptol. 7,1,62 and Steph. Byz.), harbour town at the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, Old and Middle Indian: Bharukaccha, modern Broach. Peripl. m. rubr. 43-49 provides an extensive report on route and commerce; a coin find confirms his statements on the validity of Indo-Greek coins [1]. B. was the port of Ozene, and its trade links extended to Gandhāra and  Bactria. Probably identical with Βαργόση ( Bargόsē) in Str. 15,1,73. Karttun…

Barytonesis

(4 words)

see  Accent

Bas

(83 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βᾶς; Bâs). The Bithynian dynast was the son of Boteiras and second successor to  Doedalses. Memnon (FGrH 434 F 12,4) gives him 71 years, of which he ruled for 50 (377/6-328 BC). His victory over Calas, the satrap charged by Alexander [4] the Great with the conquest of  Bithynia, falls in his late phase (between 333 and 328). This event gave rise to an independent Bithynian ‘kingdom’, whose first king was B.'s son  Zipoetes [1] . Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Basic line

(7 words)

see  Writing, styles of

Basileides

(316 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Βασιλείδης; Basileídēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) Epicurean (c . 245-175 BC.), fourth leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) who taught Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus. He studied mathematics and is known for his discussions in Alexandria with the father of the mathematician Hypsicles about a writing by Apollonius [13] of Perge. He is also known for a debate together with Thespis, another Epicurean, about anger, held against Nicasicrates and Timasagoras. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography Testimonia: W. Crönert, Kolotes…

Basileus

(3,191 words)

Author(s): Carlier, Pierre (Nancy) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(βασιλεύς; basileús). I. Mycenaean period up to the Hellenistic Monarchies [German version] A. Mycenaean The word basileus has not yet been sufficiently explained etymologically. It is usually translated as ‘king’ and probably stems from the pre-Hellenistic substratum. The Mycenaean form qa-si-re-u is evidently identical to βασιλεύς, but instead of designating the sovereign of a kingdom (he holds the title of wa-na-ka), it refers to a considerably lower position. Qa-si-re-u and its derivation qa-si-re-wi-ja can be found about 20 times in the Linear-B archives of Cn…

Basilia

(291 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Basle). [German version] I. Celtic The Roman B. was preceded by a Celtic settlement of  Helvetii and  Rauraci. First, a large, open settlement existed in the late 2nd cent. in the Rhine plain (Basel-Gasfabrik), to which also belonged a field of cremation graves. During the early 1st cent., the Münsterhügel housed an  oppidum fortified with murus gallicus, which perhaps was vacated when the Helvetii left the area in 58 BC.  Fortifications;  Celtic archaeology Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography E. Major, Gallische Ansiedlung mit…

Basilica

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG)
Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) A. Terminology and Definition (CT) [German version] 1. Profane Architecture (CT) In the Italian Renaissance (A. Palladio [11. lib. III, cap. 20]) the term basilica was applied to multifunctional communal palaces that contained commercial and meeting spaces (basilicas in Vicenza, Padua, Brescia) thus echoing the function of the ancient Roman basilica as market hall, administrative space, and courthouse. Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] 2. Religious Architecture (CT) The term basilica is first attested for church buildin…

Basilica

(1,856 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition The term basilica goes back to the Greek word βασιλική ( basilikḗ), which means ‘majestic, royal, princely, magnificent, grand’ (Lat. regalis). When referring to a building, the adjective must be supplemented by a noun such as στοά ( stoá), since basilica in Greek texts was often translated as στοά. In Christian times, the meaning of basilica is identical to church. Architecturally, a basilica consists of a long hall, which could be open or closed to the outside and which was divided into a nave and side aisles. …

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Basilica Iulia

(213 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica lulia (BI) in Rome takes up the area between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of the Dioscuri, bordered to the west by the vicus Iugarius and to the east by the vicus Tuscus. It was built on top of the  Basilica Sempronia as well as the house underneath, which was owned supposedly by Scipio Africanus. Remnants of both houses were found. The new BI also displaced the tabernae veteres and it is likely that the bordering streets had to be moved as well. Construction began in the year 54 BC ( Basilica Aemilia) and was completed by Augustus…

Basilica Neptuni

(191 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A building in Rome restored by Hadrian (SHA Hadr. 19,10), possibly the reconstruction of the Poseidonion that had burned down in 80 BC under Titus. The building, now partially covered by the modern Via della Palombella, is located directly south of the Pantheon and west of the Porticus Argonautorum. The main room was a hall of about 45 × 20 m with a round alcove which probably housed a colossal statue. The short sides of the hall are narrower and hold rectangular alcoves, the long…

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Basilica Paulli

(365 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Considered ‘one of the most beautiful buildings in the world’ (Plin. HN 36,102), it took the place of the  Basilica Fulvia on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome (Stat. Silv. 1,1,30) but showed certain differences to the latter in its ground plan. It was restored by members of the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34 and 14 BC, as well as under Tiberius in AD 22.; cf.  Basilica Aemilia), also after the fires of AD 283 and again in the early 5th cent. Initial excavations were performed in 1898-1914. In 1922-1940, the series of tabernae in front and the wall separating the…

Basilica Porcia

(95 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 184 BC near the Curia Hostilia by Cato Censorius, financed from public funds (Plut. Cato mai. 19, 3; Plut. Cato min. 5, 1), Rome's oldest basilica. When Clodius was killed in 52 BC and his followers turned the Curia into his funeral pyre, the Basilica Porcia burned down as well. Two substructural rooms in opus incertum possibly stem from the Sullan building phase; they are located directly on the Clivus Lautumiarum (Clivus Argentarius) across from the carcer. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography E. M. Steinby, in: LTUR 1, 187 Richardson, 56.

Basilica Sempronia

(71 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica on the north side of the  Forum Romanum in Rome, erected by  Sempronius Gracchus (censor in 169 BC). The house of P. Scipio Africanus and the tabernae veteres previously stood on the basilica's building lots, which were purchased with public funds. Remains from this sequence of buildings may have been uncovered under the  Basilica Iulia. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography I. Iacopi, in: LTUR 1, 187-188 Richardson, 56.

Basilica Therma

(44 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Βασιλικὰ Θέρμα, Θέρμα, Θέρμαι Βασιλικαί; Basilikà Thérma, Thérma, Thérmai Basilikaí). City in Cappadocia, in the border region to East Galatia, today Sarıkaya (previously Terzili Haman). Thermal spa, documented as a diocese since AD 451. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 156f.

Basilics

(144 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The ‘Basilics’, after the Greek term basiliká (n.pl.: ‘imperial’; sc. law books), are a compilation in Greek of the most important parts of the   Corpus iurisDigesta and   Codex (II)Iustinianus, as well as extracts from   Institutiones and   Novellae C.) from the time of the Byzantine emperor Leo(n) [9] VI (886-912). For five-and-a-half centuries the Basilics secured the continuance of Roman law in Byzantium (I. B.3). At the same time, they are an invaluable secondary source for the survival of the Corpus iuris, above all the Digesta (A.3). The Basilics also f…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Basilikoi paides

(197 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (βασιλικοὶ παῖδες; basilikoì paîdes). Lat. pueri regii, pages of the Macedonian king: boys recruited from aristocracy as hostages and as a ‘nursery for army leaders and officers’ (Curt. 8,6,6).  Alexander [4] kept more than 50 of them. They accompanied and guarded the king, rendered personal services, and were kept under strict discipline (Curt. 8,6,2-6), hence the Greeks often referred to them as slaves. It is not certain whether the older ones fought at the king's side.  Philippus II …

Basilinda

(101 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (βασιλίνδα; basilínda). Game in which a child is named king by drawing lots, and then the ‘king’ assigns roles to his playmates which they must act out (Poll. 9,110). It is similar to the game of kings of Cyrus as described by Herodotus, except for the fact that the king is elected there (Hdt. 1,114). The game is different from the ball game in which the winner is called the king and the loser is called the donkey (Poll. 9,106); another (different) children's game is mentioned by Horace (Epist. 1,1,59-60).  Ball games;  Children's games Bloch, René (Berne)

Basilinna

(178 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (βασιλίννα; basilínna, ‘queen’) is the designation for the wife of the Athenian  Archon Basileus (‘king’) who is considered to be the democratic successor in the sacred duties of the king (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3 on the origin; 57 on the duties). She must be a citizen of Athens and a virgin at the time of marriage. Her sacred duties include secret rites in the Dionysus cult, particularly at the Anthesteria, which she conducts with the gera(i)rai (‘aged women’ or ‘venerable women’). In the context of these rites, she is given to  Dionysus as wife. More impor…

Basiliscus

(178 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), Flavius. East Roman counter-emperor, brother of the empress Verina who was the wife of emperor  Leo I (457-474). Since 468, he held the office of mag. militum. In 468, he fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals, in 471, he supported Leo in overthrowing and murdering Aspar ( Ardabur), the powerful mag. militum, and revolted against Leo's son-in-law  Zeno (474-491) from January 475 until August 476 with the support of Monophysite groups. During his rule, he issued an edict to abolish the doctrines establi…

Basilisk

(219 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Greek Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), ‘the king of the snakes’, fabulous snake of the Libyan desert, documented from Hellenistic times; detailed descriptions are given by Pliny (HN 8,78f.) and Isidore (12,4,6f.). Recognizable by a white spot on its head, ‘like a diadem’ (Pliny) and by its unsnakelike form of forward motion, the B. kills by its breath and smell: wherever it passes, it burns bushes and grass and breaks stones (Plin.). It can kill humans also by its mere gaze (Plin. HN 29,66…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Basle

(4 words)

see  Basilia

Basle, Antikenmuseum and Ludwig Collection

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG)
Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Although the Basle Antikenmuseum was founded only a few decades ago, making it one of the youngest of its kind in Europe, it houses an archaeological collection of great significance. Various genres of visual art are represented by excellent examples both in terms of their significance for cultural history as well as quality. The museum was founded - and continues to be supported - through a joint effort of municipal and private sponsor…

Basque

(143 words)

Author(s): Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen)
[German version] Basque is not genetically related with any other language. It is close to Iberian in its phonology, but otherwise has few lexical and morphological similarities to it. Essentially, it has created its own forms. However, its vocabulary shows strong exterior influences. The oldest layers include words from the Alps, the Caucasus, and Northern Africa, as well as Indo-European and Celtic imports. The main body of loan words stems from Latin, such as gurutze ‘cross’, lege ‘law’, errota ‘mill’, kale ‘street’, ahate ‘duck’, pago ‘beech’. Additionally, we find Romanism…

Baṣra

(295 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Τερηδών/ Terēdṓn, Ptol. 5,19,5; Ἰρίδωτις/ Irídōtis or Διρίδωτις/ Dirídōtis, Arr. Ind. 41,6). Arabian city in lower Mesopotamia, 420 km south-east of Baghdad on the Šaṭṭ al-Arab (combined course of the Euphrates [2] and Tigris shortly before their mouth). Although B. lies at the site of the Persian settlement of Vahištābāḏ Ardašer (preceded perhaps by ancient Diridotis/Iridotis or Teredon), it is essentially a new foundation originating during the period of the Arab conquest (AD 635), an…

Bassae

(4 words)

see  Phigalia

Bassaeus Rufus, M.

(94 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Of low descent, lacking the usual education (Cass. Dio 71,5,2f.). In the army, he advanced to the office of primus pilus, held procuratorial positions in Spain, Noricum, and Gallia/Germania, and became a rationibus, praef. vigilum, praef. Aegypti in 168/169 [1. 297], praef. praetorio from 169 to before AD 180. He was honoured with the ornamenta consularia and, after his death, with three statues in Rome (CIL VI 1599=ILS 1326 [2. 389-393]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, Lista dei Prefetti d'Egitto dal 30a al 299p, in: ZPE 17, 1975 2 Pflaum, 1.

Bassarai, Bassareus

(5 words)

see  Dionysus

Bassiana(e)

(175 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] [1] City in Pannonia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia City in Pannonia superior (It. Ant. 262,10), 18 miles from Savaria on the road to Arrabona and  Brigetio, near Sárvár on the middle section of the river Raab.   Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) [German version] [2] Roman city of  Pannonia inferior Roman city of  Pannonia inferior, near today's Petrovci and Putinci in eastern Srem on the road from Sirmium to Taurunum, in the region of the Scordisci and the pre-Celtic Amantini (CIL III 3224; Ptol.…

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Bassus

(181 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Friend of Ovid Among his best friends, Ovid mentions  Propertius,  Ponticus, and Bassus quoque clarus iambis (Ov. Tr. 4,10,45-47). This B. could therefore likely be the addressee of Prop. 1,4,1 and perhaps Horace's friend (Carm. 1,36,14). No fragments exist whatsoever. It cannot be determined whether the iambographer is also identical with  Iulius B., the rhetor mentioned by the older Seneca, who consectari ... solebat res sordidas (Contr. 10,1,13). Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography H. Bardon, 2, 52. [German version] [2] Military aid to praef…

Bassus Lollius

(112 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] Epigram poet in the early 1st cent. AD (cf. Anth. Pal. 7,391 on the death of Germanicus in AD 19), born perhaps in Smyrna (according to the lemma of Anth. Pal. 11,72; the poem's authorship is, however, not certain). At least nine poems by B. are extant from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus (with the addition of several incerta, cf. Anth. Pal. 9,30 as well), all of which rather mediocre, most of them either epideictic (9,236 is a panegyrical poem about imperial Rome, ‘the home of the entire universe’) or funeral epigrams (7,372 = GVI 1580 is possibly an actual inscription). Degani, Enz…

Bast

(5 words)

see  Writing utensils

Bastarda

(590 words)

Author(s): Zamponi, Stefano (Pistoia)
[German version] In addition to the litterae textuales, the cursive scripts, and chancellery scripts, a third modus scribendi emerged between the end of the 13th cent. and the first few decades of the 14th cent. Late medieval and Renaissance sources referred to it by the names of littera bastarda, lettre bastarde, textus bastardus, b. Bastarda designates a type of writing which combines the two graphic traditions of the 13th cent.: cursive, as far as the forms of letters and their joining in a system of writing is concerned, and the tradition of littera textualis in what concerns writin…

Bastarnae, Basternae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Germanic tribal group (Plin. HN 4,81; Str. 7,3,17) originally from the upper Vistula (face urns). Since c. 233 BC, they have been found in the area between Olbia and the Danube delta (IOSPE 12 32; Pomp. Trog. 28). In the period before the change from BC to AD, the B. were one of the largest south-east Germanic tribes. The B. who settled in the Carpathian Basin until late antiquity were known under the name of Peucini. In 182 BC, Philip V required the B. to move into the area of the Dardani. In 179, they attacked …

Bastet

(193 words)

Author(s): von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Bst.t). Chief goddess of  Bubastis, represented as a cat or a cat-headed woman. B. is syncretistically associated with  Sachmet,  Hathor,  Isis and similar goddesses [1. 11-69]. In the   interpretatio [2] graeca she is seen as  Artemis (e.g. Hdt. 2,137), infrequently also as  Aphrodite (e.g. Pistis Sophia 139-140, [5]). B. can be understood as a more benign aspect of Sachmet, but she herself may be said to be mistress of a particular class of demon. In this capacity, she is assigned the lion god Maih…

Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its principal location (Ptol. 2,6,13; 60). After his conquest of Carthago Nova in AD 207, P.  Scipio sent his brother L. to the B., where the latter defeated the Carthaginian  Mago (Liv. 28,1f.; Zon. 9,8,8). On the role of the B. in the revolt of  Viriatus, cf. App. Ib. 66. There is evidence for Bastetania still for the time of the West Goths, when Leovigild fought the Byzantines there (Chron. min. 2,212,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3,26f.

Bat

(402 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Because of its appearance in the evening it was called νυκτερίς ( nykterís) or vespertilio. From the Orient, the flying fox ( Pteropus medius Tem.) apparently was also known under the name of ἀλώπηξ ( alṓpēx, Aristot. Hist. an. 1,5,490a 7) or νυκταλώπηξ ( nyktalṓpēx, Ps.-Callisthenes 3,17,21; Str. 16,1,7 = p.739; cf. Hdt. 3,110, accordingly Plin. HN 12,85). The order of Chiropterais described as ‘skin-winged’ (δερμόπτερα, cf. Plin. HN 11,228: siccis membranis volat) by Aristot. Hist. an. 1.1.487b 22f. and 490a 7f., and thus seen as being close to that…

Batanaea

(319 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] High plain, bordered to the west by the Golan Mountains (Γαυλανῖτις), to the north-west by Mount Hermon, to the north-east by the basalt desert of Laǧā (Τραχωνῖτις), to the south-east by the Ḥaurān Mountains (Αὐρανῖτις), and to the south by the river Yarmuk (Hieromykes) and its tributary wadis, thus occupying the same area as today's Nuqra. The name goes back to OT Bāšān (therefore Greek Βασάν; Basán and Βασανῖτις; Basanîtis). The dissolution of the Seleucid government in Syria and Palestine in the late 2nd cent. BC briefly brought B. under Nabataea…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Batavian Revolt

(604 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Final phase in the civil war that took place after Nero's death between August of AD 69 and September/October 70 north of the Alps (sources in [1]). Tacitus is the main source for a description of the complex chain reactions entailing breaches of faith and new solidarities (Hist. 4,12-37; 54-79; 5,14-26). Some authors (for instance Brunt) claim that Tacitus depicts a believable and consistent overview of the separatist movement against Rome which aimed at a Gallic world empire (cf…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…

Bate

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βατή; Batḗ). Attic asty(?)-demos (  asty ) of the phyle Aegeis; one (two) bouleutes/ai. Location unknown (near Ambelokipi?); the decree of the mesogeioi IG II2 1245, found near the Acharnaean Gate, i.e. at the street corner of Sophokleous and Aiolou, does not aid the localization of B. In IG II2 2776 Z. 53, an σχαστηρία is pawned in B. [1. 81] (further documentary evidence for σχαστηρίαι [1. 8123]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora, in: Hesperia, 41, 1972, 50-95. Traill, Attica, 5, 7, 15f., 39, 69, 109 (n…

Bathing costume

(98 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ᾤα λουτρίς; ṓia loutrís, subligar). Men and women wore loin cloths or bath towels made from sheepskins or cloth during the communal bath in bath houses (Poll. 7,66; 10,181,   perizoma ,   subligaculum ), women also wore a breast band (vase paintings, ‘bikini girl’ of  Piazza Armerina). Men's bathing costumes could also be made from leather ( aluta, Mart. 7,35,1). In Pap. Cair. Zen. 60,8, there is mention of an ἐκλουστρίς ( ekloustrís). It is uncertain if bonnets ( vesica) were worn. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography R. Ginouvès, Balaneutikè, 1962, 223-225 W. Hein…

Bathing culture

(7 words)

see  Baths;  Thermae [1]

Baths

(969 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition In Greek baths were called βαλανεῖον ( balaneîon) or λουτρόν ( loutrón), in Latin lavatrina, balneum, balnea, balnae. In the Graeco-Roman period there were private baths in dwelling houses as well as public baths, whilst in the ancient Orient only private baths were known. The public baths were mostly privately owned and rather modest in size; for the monumental public baths, see  Thermae [1]. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) [German version] B. Greece There were private baths in Greece from the Minoan-Mycenaean period onwards; the…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Batis

(58 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βάτις; Bátis). Supposedly a eunuch, he was commander of Gaza under Darius. He stopped Alexander the Great at Gaza in 332 BC for two months by keeping up a courageous and hopeless resistance. After the fall of the city, he was gruesomely executed by the victor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 209.

Bato

(348 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dardanian king, around 200 BC Dardanian king who supported the Romans by providing reinforcements in 200 BC in the battle against  Philip V (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262 Errington 187. [German version] [2] Rebelling Dalmatian, 6-9 AD Dalmatian from the tribe of Daesidiates. Leader in the Pannonian-Dalmatian revolt of AD 6-9, whose causes Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) and Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) located in the tax burden and in recruitment practices. After his…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Batrachomyomachia

(806 words)

Author(s): Glei, Reinhold F. (Bochum)
[German version] A. In literary history Homeric parody from the late Hellenistic period [1]. As was the case for the   Margites , it was attributed to Homer (Stat. Silv. I praef.; Mart. 14,183; Vita Herodotea 24) or to Pigres of Halicarnassus (Suda s.v. Πίγρης 1551 Adler; Plut. de Herodoti malignitate 873f was attributed through interpolation [2. 25-27]); the title was first Βατραχομαχία ( Batrachomachía) or -ίη respectively, to which the element -μυο- was added either for reasons of pedantry or parody [2. 23-33]. The animal  epic of about 300 hexameters (…

Battiads

(161 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Βαττιάδαι; Battiádai). Designation for the dynasty of Cyrene that lasted for eight generations; four kings by the name of  Battus alternated with four others by the name of  Arcesilaus (Hdt. 4,159). The eponym is Battus I (since c. 630 in Cyrene). The king's privileges mentioned by Herodotus (4,161) are unusual. Since  Arcesilaus II ( c. 560), we find the typical aristocratic divisions in Cyrene which led to tyrannis in Greek cities of that time. The successors either tried to dominate or pushed for agreement. In order to stay in power, the king…

Battlefields

(7,551 words)

Author(s): Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo
Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo A. History of the Reception of Ancient Battles (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The interest in war in Antiquity encompasses a whole range of areas such as military technology, tactics and strategy, the great generals, as well as the impact of war on historical processes. Although military conflicts cannot be understood in terms of the military operations alone, the compressed events of bloody battle in time and space were seen as a key to the understanding of the history of war.…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Baubo

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Βαυβώ; Baubṓ). According to a version of the Eleusinic myth attributed to Orpheus, she was an original inhabitant of Eulisis with the heroes Triptolemus, Eumolpus, Eubuleus and her husband Dysaules, who are visited by  Demeter on her search for his daughter. Like  Iambe in the version of the myth in the Homeric hymn, B. entertains the goddess with food and drink and then obscenely exposes her lower body in order to cheer her up (Clem. Protrepticus 20f.; Arnob. 5,25, who describes …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…
▲   Back to top   ▲