Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Basileus

(3,191 words)

Author(s): Carlier, Pierre (Nancy) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(βασιλεύς; basileús). I. Mycenaean period up to the Hellenistic Monarchies [German version] A. Mycenaean The word basileus has not yet been sufficiently explained etymologically. It is usually translated as ‘king’ and probably stems from the pre-Hellenistic substratum. The Mycenaean form qa-si-re-u is evidently identical to βασιλεύς, but instead of designating the sovereign of a kingdom (he holds the title of wa-na-ka), it refers to a considerably lower position. Qa-si-re-u and its derivation qa-si-re-wi-ja can be found about 20 times in the Linear-B archives of Cn…

Basilia

(291 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Basle). [German version] I. Celtic The Roman B. was preceded by a Celtic settlement of  Helvetii and  Rauraci. First, a large, open settlement existed in the late 2nd cent. in the Rhine plain (Basel-Gasfabrik), to which also belonged a field of cremation graves. During the early 1st cent., the Münsterhügel housed an  oppidum fortified with murus gallicus, which perhaps was vacated when the Helvetii left the area in 58 BC.  Fortifications;  Celtic archaeology Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography E. Major, Gallische Ansiedlung mit…

Basilica

(1,856 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition The term basilica goes back to the Greek word βασιλική ( basilikḗ), which means ‘majestic, royal, princely, magnificent, grand’ (Lat. regalis). When referring to a building, the adjective must be supplemented by a noun such as στοά ( stoá), since basilica in Greek texts was often translated as στοά. In Christian times, the meaning of basilica is identical to church. Architecturally, a basilica consists of a long hall, which could be open or closed to the outside and which was divided into a nave and side aisles. …

Basilica

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG)
Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) A. Terminology and Definition (CT) [German version] 1. Profane Architecture (CT) In the Italian Renaissance (A. Palladio [11. lib. III, cap. 20]) the term basilica was applied to multifunctional communal palaces that contained commercial and meeting spaces (basilicas in Vicenza, Padua, Brescia) thus echoing the function of the ancient Roman basilica as market hall, administrative space, and courthouse. Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] 2. Religious Architecture (CT) The term basilica is first attested for church buildin…

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Basilica Iulia

(213 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica lulia (BI) in Rome takes up the area between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of the Dioscuri, bordered to the west by the vicus Iugarius and to the east by the vicus Tuscus. It was built on top of the  Basilica Sempronia as well as the house underneath, which was owned supposedly by Scipio Africanus. Remnants of both houses were found. The new BI also displaced the tabernae veteres and it is likely that the bordering streets had to be moved as well. Construction began in the year 54 BC ( Basilica Aemilia) and was completed by Augustus…

Basilica Neptuni

(191 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A building in Rome restored by Hadrian (SHA Hadr. 19,10), possibly the reconstruction of the Poseidonion that had burned down in 80 BC under Titus. The building, now partially covered by the modern Via della Palombella, is located directly south of the Pantheon and west of the Porticus Argonautorum. The main room was a hall of about 45 × 20 m with a round alcove which probably housed a colossal statue. The short sides of the hall are narrower and hold rectangular alcoves, the long…

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Basilica Paulli

(365 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Considered ‘one of the most beautiful buildings in the world’ (Plin. HN 36,102), it took the place of the  Basilica Fulvia on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome (Stat. Silv. 1,1,30) but showed certain differences to the latter in its ground plan. It was restored by members of the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34 and 14 BC, as well as under Tiberius in AD 22.; cf.  Basilica Aemilia), also after the fires of AD 283 and again in the early 5th cent. Initial excavations were performed in 1898-1914. In 1922-1940, the series of tabernae in front and the wall separating the…

Basilica Porcia

(95 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 184 BC near the Curia Hostilia by Cato Censorius, financed from public funds (Plut. Cato mai. 19, 3; Plut. Cato min. 5, 1), Rome's oldest basilica. When Clodius was killed in 52 BC and his followers turned the Curia into his funeral pyre, the Basilica Porcia burned down as well. Two substructural rooms in opus incertum possibly stem from the Sullan building phase; they are located directly on the Clivus Lautumiarum (Clivus Argentarius) across from the carcer. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography E. M. Steinby, in: LTUR 1, 187 Richardson, 56.

Basilica Sempronia

(71 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica on the north side of the  Forum Romanum in Rome, erected by  Sempronius Gracchus (censor in 169 BC). The house of P. Scipio Africanus and the tabernae veteres previously stood on the basilica's building lots, which were purchased with public funds. Remains from this sequence of buildings may have been uncovered under the  Basilica Iulia. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography I. Iacopi, in: LTUR 1, 187-188 Richardson, 56.

Basilica Therma

(44 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Βασιλικὰ Θέρμα, Θέρμα, Θέρμαι Βασιλικαί; Basilikà Thérma, Thérma, Thérmai Basilikaí). City in Cappadocia, in the border region to East Galatia, today Sarıkaya (previously Terzili Haman). Thermal spa, documented as a diocese since AD 451. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 156f.

Basilics

(144 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The ‘Basilics’, after the Greek term basiliká (n.pl.: ‘imperial’; sc. law books), are a compilation in Greek of the most important parts of the   Corpus iurisDigesta and   Codex (II)Iustinianus, as well as extracts from   Institutiones and   Novellae C.) from the time of the Byzantine emperor Leo(n) [9] VI (886-912). For five-and-a-half centuries the Basilics secured the continuance of Roman law in Byzantium (I. B.3). At the same time, they are an invaluable secondary source for the survival of the Corpus iuris, above all the Digesta (A.3). The Basilics also f…

Basilicus

(169 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βασιλικός; Basilikós). [German version] [1] Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD Rhetor in the 2nd cent. AD who lived past the year 200. He taught in Nicomedia in Bithynia (Suda s.v. Apsines). His student  Apsines refers to him and Aristides as the only sources for his study of rhetoric. In addition to a commentary on Demosthenes, B. is attributed with the authorship of several rhetorical works (περὶ τῶν διὰ λέξεως σχημάτων, περὶ ῥητορικῆς παρασκευῆς ἤτοι περὶ ἀσκήσεως, περὶ μεταποιήσεως). Only few remnants of these works are preserved in the Hermogenes scholia. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswa…

Basilikoi paides

(197 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (βασιλικοὶ παῖδες; basilikoì paîdes). Lat. pueri regii, pages of the Macedonian king: boys recruited from aristocracy as hostages and as a ‘nursery for army leaders and officers’ (Curt. 8,6,6).  Alexander [4] kept more than 50 of them. They accompanied and guarded the king, rendered personal services, and were kept under strict discipline (Curt. 8,6,2-6), hence the Greeks often referred to them as slaves. It is not certain whether the older ones fought at the king's side.  Philippus II …

Basilinda

(101 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (βασιλίνδα; basilínda). Game in which a child is named king by drawing lots, and then the ‘king’ assigns roles to his playmates which they must act out (Poll. 9,110). It is similar to the game of kings of Cyrus as described by Herodotus, except for the fact that the king is elected there (Hdt. 1,114). The game is different from the ball game in which the winner is called the king and the loser is called the donkey (Poll. 9,106); another (different) children's game is mentioned by Horace (Epist. 1,1,59-60).  Ball games;  Children's games Bloch, René (Berne)

Basilinna

(178 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (βασιλίννα; basilínna, ‘queen’) is the designation for the wife of the Athenian  Archon Basileus (‘king’) who is considered to be the democratic successor in the sacred duties of the king (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3 on the origin; 57 on the duties). She must be a citizen of Athens and a virgin at the time of marriage. Her sacred duties include secret rites in the Dionysus cult, particularly at the Anthesteria, which she conducts with the gera(i)rai (‘aged women’ or ‘venerable women’). In the context of these rites, she is given to  Dionysus as wife. More impor…

Basiliscus

(178 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), Flavius. East Roman counter-emperor, brother of the empress Verina who was the wife of emperor  Leo I (457-474). Since 468, he held the office of mag. militum. In 468, he fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals, in 471, he supported Leo in overthrowing and murdering Aspar ( Ardabur), the powerful mag. militum, and revolted against Leo's son-in-law  Zeno (474-491) from January 475 until August 476 with the support of Monophysite groups. During his rule, he issued an edict to abolish the doctrines establi…

Basilisk

(219 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Greek Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), ‘the king of the snakes’, fabulous snake of the Libyan desert, documented from Hellenistic times; detailed descriptions are given by Pliny (HN 8,78f.) and Isidore (12,4,6f.). Recognizable by a white spot on its head, ‘like a diadem’ (Pliny) and by its unsnakelike form of forward motion, the B. kills by its breath and smell: wherever it passes, it burns bushes and grass and breaks stones (Plin.). It can kill humans also by its mere gaze (Plin. HN 29,66…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Basle

(4 words)

see  Basilia

Basle, Antikenmuseum and Ludwig Collection

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG)
Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Although the Basle Antikenmuseum was founded only a few decades ago, making it one of the youngest of its kind in Europe, it houses an archaeological collection of great significance. Various genres of visual art are represented by excellent examples both in terms of their significance for cultural history as well as quality. The museum was founded - and continues to be supported - through a joint effort of municipal and private sponsor…

Basque

(143 words)

Author(s): Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen)
[German version] Basque is not genetically related with any other language. It is close to Iberian in its phonology, but otherwise has few lexical and morphological similarities to it. Essentially, it has created its own forms. However, its vocabulary shows strong exterior influences. The oldest layers include words from the Alps, the Caucasus, and Northern Africa, as well as Indo-European and Celtic imports. The main body of loan words stems from Latin, such as gurutze ‘cross’, lege ‘law’, errota ‘mill’, kale ‘street’, ahate ‘duck’, pago ‘beech’. Additionally, we find Romanism…

Baṣra

(295 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Τερηδών/ Terēdṓn, Ptol. 5,19,5; Ἰρίδωτις/ Irídōtis or Διρίδωτις/ Dirídōtis, Arr. Ind. 41,6). Arabian city in lower Mesopotamia, 420 km south-east of Baghdad on the Šaṭṭ al-Arab (combined course of the Euphrates [2] and Tigris shortly before their mouth). Although B. lies at the site of the Persian settlement of Vahištābāḏ Ardašer (preceded perhaps by ancient Diridotis/Iridotis or Teredon), it is essentially a new foundation originating during the period of the Arab conquest (AD 635), an…

Bassae

(4 words)

see  Phigalia

Bassaeus Rufus, M.

(94 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Of low descent, lacking the usual education (Cass. Dio 71,5,2f.). In the army, he advanced to the office of primus pilus, held procuratorial positions in Spain, Noricum, and Gallia/Germania, and became a rationibus, praef. vigilum, praef. Aegypti in 168/169 [1. 297], praef. praetorio from 169 to before AD 180. He was honoured with the ornamenta consularia and, after his death, with three statues in Rome (CIL VI 1599=ILS 1326 [2. 389-393]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, Lista dei Prefetti d'Egitto dal 30a al 299p, in: ZPE 17, 1975 2 Pflaum, 1.

Bassarai, Bassareus

(5 words)

see  Dionysus

Bassiana(e)

(175 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] [1] City in Pannonia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia City in Pannonia superior (It. Ant. 262,10), 18 miles from Savaria on the road to Arrabona and  Brigetio, near Sárvár on the middle section of the river Raab.   Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) [German version] [2] Roman city of  Pannonia inferior Roman city of  Pannonia inferior, near today's Petrovci and Putinci in eastern Srem on the road from Sirmium to Taurunum, in the region of the Scordisci and the pre-Celtic Amantini (CIL III 3224; Ptol.…

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Bassus

(181 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Friend of Ovid Among his best friends, Ovid mentions  Propertius,  Ponticus, and Bassus quoque clarus iambis (Ov. Tr. 4,10,45-47). This B. could therefore likely be the addressee of Prop. 1,4,1 and perhaps Horace's friend (Carm. 1,36,14). No fragments exist whatsoever. It cannot be determined whether the iambographer is also identical with  Iulius B., the rhetor mentioned by the older Seneca, who consectari ... solebat res sordidas (Contr. 10,1,13). Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography H. Bardon, 2, 52. [German version] [2] Military aid to praef…

Bassus Lollius

(112 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] Epigram poet in the early 1st cent. AD (cf. Anth. Pal. 7,391 on the death of Germanicus in AD 19), born perhaps in Smyrna (according to the lemma of Anth. Pal. 11,72; the poem's authorship is, however, not certain). At least nine poems by B. are extant from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus (with the addition of several incerta, cf. Anth. Pal. 9,30 as well), all of which rather mediocre, most of them either epideictic (9,236 is a panegyrical poem about imperial Rome, ‘the home of the entire universe’) or funeral epigrams (7,372 = GVI 1580 is possibly an actual inscription). Degani, Enz…

Bast

(5 words)

see  Writing utensils

Bastarda

(590 words)

Author(s): Zamponi, Stefano (Pistoia)
[German version] In addition to the litterae textuales, the cursive scripts, and chancellery scripts, a third modus scribendi emerged between the end of the 13th cent. and the first few decades of the 14th cent. Late medieval and Renaissance sources referred to it by the names of littera bastarda, lettre bastarde, textus bastardus, b. Bastarda designates a type of writing which combines the two graphic traditions of the 13th cent.: cursive, as far as the forms of letters and their joining in a system of writing is concerned, and the tradition of littera textualis in what concerns writin…

Bastarnae, Basternae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] Germanic tribal group (Plin. HN 4,81; Str. 7,3,17) originally from the upper Vistula (face urns). Since c. 233 BC, they have been found in the area between Olbia and the Danube delta (IOSPE 12 32; Pomp. Trog. 28). In the period before the change from BC to AD, the B. were one of the largest south-east Germanic tribes. The B. who settled in the Carpathian Basin until late antiquity were known under the name of Peucini. In 182 BC, Philip V required the B. to move into the area of the Dardani. In 179, they attacked …

Bastet

(193 words)

Author(s): von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Bst.t). Chief goddess of  Bubastis, represented as a cat or a cat-headed woman. B. is syncretistically associated with  Sachmet,  Hathor,  Isis and similar goddesses [1. 11-69]. In the   interpretatio [2] graeca she is seen as  Artemis (e.g. Hdt. 2,137), infrequently also as  Aphrodite (e.g. Pistis Sophia 139-140, [5]). B. can be understood as a more benign aspect of Sachmet, but she herself may be said to be mistress of a particular class of demon. In this capacity, she is assigned the lion god Maih…

Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its principal location (Ptol. 2,6,13; 60). After his conquest of Carthago Nova in AD 207, P.  Scipio sent his brother L. to the B., where the latter defeated the Carthaginian  Mago (Liv. 28,1f.; Zon. 9,8,8). On the role of the B. in the revolt of  Viriatus, cf. App. Ib. 66. There is evidence for Bastetania still for the time of the West Goths, when Leovigild fought the Byzantines there (Chron. min. 2,212,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3,26f.

Bat

(402 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Because of its appearance in the evening it was called νυκτερίς ( nykterís) or vespertilio. From the Orient, the flying fox ( Pteropus medius Tem.) apparently was also known under the name of ἀλώπηξ ( alṓpēx, Aristot. Hist. an. 1,5,490a 7) or νυκταλώπηξ ( nyktalṓpēx, Ps.-Callisthenes 3,17,21; Str. 16,1,7 = p.739; cf. Hdt. 3,110, accordingly Plin. HN 12,85). The order of Chiropterais described as ‘skin-winged’ (δερμόπτερα, cf. Plin. HN 11,228: siccis membranis volat) by Aristot. Hist. an. 1.1.487b 22f. and 490a 7f., and thus seen as being close to that…

Batanaea

(319 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] High plain, bordered to the west by the Golan Mountains (Γαυλανῖτις), to the north-west by Mount Hermon, to the north-east by the basalt desert of Laǧā (Τραχωνῖτις), to the south-east by the Ḥaurān Mountains (Αὐρανῖτις), and to the south by the river Yarmuk (Hieromykes) and its tributary wadis, thus occupying the same area as today's Nuqra. The name goes back to OT Bāšān (therefore Greek Βασάν; Basán and Βασανῖτις; Basanîtis). The dissolution of the Seleucid government in Syria and Palestine in the late 2nd cent. BC briefly brought B. under Nabataea…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Batavian Revolt

(604 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Final phase in the civil war that took place after Nero's death between August of AD 69 and September/October 70 north of the Alps (sources in [1]). Tacitus is the main source for a description of the complex chain reactions entailing breaches of faith and new solidarities (Hist. 4,12-37; 54-79; 5,14-26). Some authors (for instance Brunt) claim that Tacitus depicts a believable and consistent overview of the separatist movement against Rome which aimed at a Gallic world empire (cf…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…

Bate

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βατή; Batḗ). Attic asty(?)-demos (  asty ) of the phyle Aegeis; one (two) bouleutes/ai. Location unknown (near Ambelokipi?); the decree of the mesogeioi IG II2 1245, found near the Acharnaean Gate, i.e. at the street corner of Sophokleous and Aiolou, does not aid the localization of B. In IG II2 2776 Z. 53, an σχαστηρία is pawned in B. [1. 81] (further documentary evidence for σχαστηρίαι [1. 8123]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora, in: Hesperia, 41, 1972, 50-95. Traill, Attica, 5, 7, 15f., 39, 69, 109 (n…

Bathing costume

(98 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ᾤα λουτρίς; ṓia loutrís, subligar). Men and women wore loin cloths or bath towels made from sheepskins or cloth during the communal bath in bath houses (Poll. 7,66; 10,181,   perizoma ,   subligaculum ), women also wore a breast band (vase paintings, ‘bikini girl’ of  Piazza Armerina). Men's bathing costumes could also be made from leather ( aluta, Mart. 7,35,1). In Pap. Cair. Zen. 60,8, there is mention of an ἐκλουστρίς ( ekloustrís). It is uncertain if bonnets ( vesica) were worn. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography R. Ginouvès, Balaneutikè, 1962, 223-225 W. Hein…

Bathing culture

(7 words)

see  Baths;  Thermae [1]

Baths

(969 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition In Greek baths were called βαλανεῖον ( balaneîon) or λουτρόν ( loutrón), in Latin lavatrina, balneum, balnea, balnae. In the Graeco-Roman period there were private baths in dwelling houses as well as public baths, whilst in the ancient Orient only private baths were known. The public baths were mostly privately owned and rather modest in size; for the monumental public baths, see  Thermae [1]. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) [German version] B. Greece There were private baths in Greece from the Minoan-Mycenaean period onwards; the…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Batis

(58 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βάτις; Bátis). Supposedly a eunuch, he was commander of Gaza under Darius. He stopped Alexander the Great at Gaza in 332 BC for two months by keeping up a courageous and hopeless resistance. After the fall of the city, he was gruesomely executed by the victor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 209.

Bato

(348 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dardanian king, around 200 BC Dardanian king who supported the Romans by providing reinforcements in 200 BC in the battle against  Philip V (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262 Errington 187. [German version] [2] Rebelling Dalmatian, 6-9 AD Dalmatian from the tribe of Daesidiates. Leader in the Pannonian-Dalmatian revolt of AD 6-9, whose causes Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) and Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) located in the tax burden and in recruitment practices. After his…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Batrachomyomachia

(806 words)

Author(s): Glei, Reinhold F. (Bochum)
[German version] A. In literary history Homeric parody from the late Hellenistic period [1]. As was the case for the   Margites , it was attributed to Homer (Stat. Silv. I praef.; Mart. 14,183; Vita Herodotea 24) or to Pigres of Halicarnassus (Suda s.v. Πίγρης 1551 Adler; Plut. de Herodoti malignitate 873f was attributed through interpolation [2. 25-27]); the title was first Βατραχομαχία ( Batrachomachía) or -ίη respectively, to which the element -μυο- was added either for reasons of pedantry or parody [2. 23-33]. The animal  epic of about 300 hexameters (…

Battiads

(161 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Βαττιάδαι; Battiádai). Designation for the dynasty of Cyrene that lasted for eight generations; four kings by the name of  Battus alternated with four others by the name of  Arcesilaus (Hdt. 4,159). The eponym is Battus I (since c. 630 in Cyrene). The king's privileges mentioned by Herodotus (4,161) are unusual. Since  Arcesilaus II ( c. 560), we find the typical aristocratic divisions in Cyrene which led to tyrannis in Greek cities of that time. The successors either tried to dominate or pushed for agreement. In order to stay in power, the king…

Battlefields

(7,551 words)

Author(s): Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo
Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo A. History of the Reception of Ancient Battles (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The interest in war in Antiquity encompasses a whole range of areas such as military technology, tactics and strategy, the great generals, as well as the impact of war on historical processes. Although military conflicts cannot be understood in terms of the military operations alone, the compressed events of bloody battle in time and space were seen as a key to the understanding of the history of war.…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Baubo

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Βαυβώ; Baubṓ). According to a version of the Eleusinic myth attributed to Orpheus, she was an original inhabitant of Eulisis with the heroes Triptolemus, Eumolpus, Eubuleus and her husband Dysaules, who are visited by  Demeter on her search for his daughter. Like  Iambe in the version of the myth in the Homeric hymn, B. entertains the goddess with food and drink and then obscenely exposes her lower body in order to cheer her up (Clem. Protrepticus 20f.; Arnob. 5,25, who describes …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…

Bauli

(127 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Villa Settlement in the   Campi Phlegraei , c. 2 km from Baiae, probably the modern Bacoli. Its name seems to have been derived from the stables ( boaulia), where Hercules kept Gerion's oxen (Serv. Aen. 6,107) [1. 5-19]. Remains of numerous villae (literary evidence: Cic. Fam. 8,1,14 [Pompeius], Varro, Rust. 3,17,5 [Hortensius]); in the 4th cent. AD, Symmachus mentions his villa in B. as a particular favourite: Epist. 1,1,2 [2. 11-13]. Nero, who had inherited the villa of Hortensius, had his mother Agrippina …

Bauto

(132 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius B. was a Frank (Zos. 4,33,2) and a professed pagan (Ambr. Epist. 57). Under  Gratianus, he rose to the position of mag. mil. in c. AD 380 (Zos. 4,33,1) and aided  Theodosius I against the Goths. In 383, he became mag. peditum praesentalis and the authoritative advisor at the court of  Valentinianus II (Ambr. Epist. 24,4,8; 18,1,57). Although he was  Ambrosius' adversary in the dispute about the altar of Victory in 384, he seems to have aligned himself in the end with the bishop's arguments (Ambr. Epist. 17,18 and …

Bavares

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A seemingly bipartite Berber tribe; one group settled in the extreme west, the other in the extreme east of Mauretania Caesariensis. Sources: Amm. Marc. 29,5,33; Liber generationis 1,197,67 Mommsen; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 47; Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis 14,4. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography G. Camps, s.v. B., EB, 1394-1399 J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 47 fn. 2.

Bavaria

(8,499 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [German version] A. From Monasteries to Humanism (CT) The Carolingian Period in Bavaria is distinguished by an effort to transmit and spread Latin culture. This is born out by the remains of the old libraries and scriptoria of the episcopal seats (e.g., St. Emmeram, Freising, Prüfening near Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg) and monasteries where pagan as well as Christian authors are documented: Vergil, Horace, Lucan, Sallust, Ovid, Persius, Statius, Terence, Cicero, and Cato [26. 116…

Bavius, M.

(87 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] A poet, criticized by his contemporary Virgil (ecl. 3,90) and ridiculed by Domitius Marsus in an epigram cited by Filagrius ad locum (Courtney, 301). Marsus reported that B. and his brother shared everything until one refused to give his wife to the other. A verse critical of Virgil (Courtney, 285) has at times been attributed to B., but this is probably based on mere conjecture. He died in 35 BC in Cappadocia (Jer. Chron. a. Abr. 1982).   Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)

Baza

(105 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] In the vicinity of the Spanish city B. lies the Cerro Cepro, a hill with settlements dating back to the 5th cent. BC (the Ibero-Roman Basti?) as well as the Iberian necropolis Cerro del Santuario. In grave 155, the ‘Dama de B.’ was found, an enthroned female limestone statue which had served as an urn ( c. 400-350 BC).  Iberian peninsula Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. J. Presedo Velo, La necrópolis de Baza, 1982 R. Olmos et al., La dama de Baza, in: El Puteal de LaMoncloa, Coloquio 1987, 183-209 N. Marín Díaz et al., La ciudad ibero-romana de Basti, in: Flore…

Bazira

(67 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Βάζιρα; Bázira). Town in north-western Pakistan, on the river Swat between the Indus and the Hindu Kush, captured and fortified by  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab.). Probably near Bīr-kōt̥-Ġundai, where Hellenistic walls, pottery and graffiti have been found. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri, in: A. Gail, G. Mevissen (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1991, 1993, 339-348.

Beans

(232 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Pulses ( legumina) such as peas (πίσον; píson, pisum), chickpeas (ἐρέβινθος; erébinthos, cicer) and lentils (φακός; phakós, lens) have been cultivated in the Mediterranean region, as crops of Middle Eastern origin, for at least as long as cereal crops, i.e. for about 6,000 years. Nicknames of reputable Roman families (Fabius, Lentulus, Cicero) are derived from them. The original small-seed varieties (κύαμος; kýamos, πύανος; pýanos, faba, Slav. bob), that were being cultivated over 4,000 years ago, originated from Vicia faba L., from which the large-seed hors…

Bean trefoil/Buckbean

(117 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A gentian plant ( Menanthes trifoliata L.), unknown in antiquity, wrongly described in 16th- and 17th-cent. books on herbs as bog bean or water trefoil ( Trifolium fibrinum). It is widespread in marsh flats and, because of its bitter qualities, is today used i.a. to combat fever and worms. What was called μινυανθές ( minyanthés) in Dioscorides 3,109 [1. 119f.] = 3,113 [2. 336f.] and Plin. HN 21,54 (used for tying wreaths) and ἀσφάλτιον ( aspháltion) was in fact the leguminous plant Psoralea bituminosa L.  Clover varieties Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1…

Bear

(419 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The brown bear ( Ursus arctos; ἄρκτος/ árktos, Lat. ursus) occurred widely in southern and central Europe into the Roman imperial period. Aristotle [6] is very familiar with it: mating in December, birth of usually one-two cubs during hibernation (until March; Aristot. Hist. an. 6,30,579a 18-28), possible owing to reserves of fat; the bear eats everything (it even likes honey), but above all meat, such as that of deer, wild boar and cattle (ibid. 7(8),5,594b 5-17). Aristotle also gives a d…

Beard

(709 words)

Author(s): Colbow, Gudrun (Liege) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Adult men in the ancient Orient are mostly represented wearing beards, but they can also be depicted like gods and demons as beardless without having any different meaning. Beards consisted of a long or short full beard with or without a shaved lip part. The short beard finishes half-rounded or pointed below, the long beard is straight or half-rounded; the wavy strands of hair falling onto the chest mostly end in curls that form decorative rows in the layered types.…

Beauty

(10 words)

see Body, attitudes towards; Proportions, theory of

Beaver

(385 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (κάστωρ; kástōr, fiber, Old Latin feber and as a loan word castor). The amphibian marsh dweller is slightly broader than the otter (ἔνυδρις), has strong teeth for night-time cutting of aspens (κερκίδαι) and a hard pelt. It was described also under the name of σαθέριον/ sathérion or σατύριον/ satýrion and λάταξ/ látax, by Aristot. Hist. an. 8,5,594b31-595a6 (= Plin. HN 8,109; Ael. NA 6,34). In antiquity it was apparently eradicated early in Italy and Greece. In Gaul, Spain, and Central and Eastern Europe, especially on the Black Se…

Bebaiosis

(234 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βεβαίωσις; bebaíōsis). In legal transactions involving the transfer of possession of an object, i.e. purchase contracts [4. 115f.], contracts governing transfer of use (μισθώσεις, misthṓseis [3. 141; 4. 122]) and arrhal contracts connected with παράδοσις ( parádosis), bebaiosis signifies the undertaking by the previous owner to the new owner not to interfere with the latter's acquired right of possession (in the papyri: μὴ ἐπελεύσεσθαι, mḕ epeleúsesthai), and to defend that right against third parties [1. 357, 360, 444]. In the event that t…

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Bed

(4 words)

see  Kline

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Beda Venerabilis (The Venerable Bede)

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Stevens, Wesley M. (Winnipeg)
[German version] A. Life B. (or Baeda) lived from AD 672/3 to 735 in Northumbria. He was raised in the monastery of St. Peter and Paul in Wearmouth and Jarrow from the age of six. At the age of 19, he was ordained as a deacon, at 29 as a priest by bishop John of Hexham. He came to Lindisfarne (Holy Island) and to the Streanæshalch abbey (today Whitby), whose abbots had built up an excellent library by using the book markets of Italy and Gaul as well as copies from Rath Maelsigi in Ireland. He kept …

Bedbug

(240 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ, ἡ κόρις/ kóris, Lat. cimex; especially Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug, a troublesome bloodsucking parasite). Aristophanes was the first to refer to the bedbug as a typical inhabitant of the bedsteads of poor people in a work of literature (Nub. 634, Ra. 115, and Plut. 541). That is the origin of the expression ‘not even to own a bedbug’ ( nec tritus cimice lectus, Mart. 11,32,1; cf. Catull. 23,2). As a bad parasite, the bedbug was also used synonymously for a matchmaker or literary critic (Plaut. Curc. 500; Anth. Pal. 11,322,6; Hor. …

Beech

(71 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] In the Mediterranean, beeches propes such as Fagus silvatica and orientalis (φηγός; phēgós) only grow on relatively high mountains, but are often confused with hornbeams ( Carpinus) or even oaks (δρῦς; drŷs), although mainly with Quercus aegilops and the edible oak Quercus ilex var. ballota ( aesculus), supposedly the main food plant of prehistoric times.  Trees Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography K. Koch, Die Bäume und Sträucher des Alten Griechenlands, 21884, 55ff.

Bee-eater

(131 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Named μέροψ, mérops by the Boeotians (Aristot. Hist. an. 6,1,559a3ff.); a colourful, warmth-loving bird of the Coraciiformes species, Merops apiaster L., said to feed its parents shortly after hatching (Plin. HN 10,99; drawing on Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an.9,13,615b24-32 and Ael. NA 11,30 [2]). It is said to brood in holes six feet deep in the ground. It was hunted because it fed on bees (Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an. 9,40,626a13). Servius derives the Latin name apiastra from this feeding pattern (Serv. Georg. 4,14). In Ger. glosses of the Middle Ages it is often…

Beekeeping

(4 words)

see  Apiculture

Beer

(444 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the ancient Orient, beer was a well-known and popular drink that had been brewed in Mesopotamia and Egypt since the end of the 4th millennium BC at the latest. The basic ingredient in manufacture was above all barley malt [1. 322-329], other ingredients were emmer and sesame. In the 1st millennium BC a type of date beer became important in Babylon [2.155-183]. In Egypt texts from the older period mention not just date beer but also carob tree beer and poppy beer.…

Bees

(564 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Zoology According to our sources, it was the Greeks and Romans who first bred bees for honey in antiquity ( Apiculture). They called the honey or worker bee δάρδα, μέλισσα, apis, the male drone ἀνθρήνη, κηφήν, θρώναξ, fucus and the queen bee βασιλεύς, ἡγεμῶν, rex, dux or imperator. In Greece this applied to the uniformly coloured, dark brown Apis cecropia, in Italy mainly to the A. ligustica with two orange rings on its abdomen. The zoological information about them was often incorrect. According to Pliny (HN 11,1 and 5) they had no blood, a…

Beet

(284 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (γογγυλίς/ gongylís, ῥάπυς/ rhápys, ῥάφυς/ rháphys, βουνιάς/ bouniás, Latin rapum, napus). Fodder beet (var. rapa) was cultivated from wild beet, Beta vulgaris. Probably the white beet of ancient times is related to turnip rape, Brassica rapa L., of the Cruciferae family. Theophrastus mentions in Hist. pl. 1,6, 6-7 the fleshy root of the gongylís and in the 7th book details of sowing. Columella 2,10,22-24 (= Pall. Agric. 8,2,1-3) seems to understand by napus the swede, and by rapum white beet. He recommends that after the summer solstice or at the end of A…

Beetle

(759 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Of the beetle order, whose name κολεόπτερα/ koleóptera Aristotle (Hist. an. 1,5,490a 13-15 and 4,7,552a 22f.) derives from the fact that their wings were under a cover (ἔλυτρον, élytron; crusta: Plin. HN 11,97), only a few species were distinguished. The popular name for them was κάνθαροι, kántharoi, Latin scarabaei. They form from larvae (κάμπαι, Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,551b 24) or worms (σκώληκες, 5,19,552b 3, Latin vermes). The most important of the 112 species probably identified through more detailed information on them are the following: A. Ground beetle: 1. …

Beggars

(957 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Johannes (Münster)
[German version] The phenomenon of begging (πτωχεία, ptōcheía, Latin mendicitas, rarely mendicatio) is only sporadically documented in antiquity and hardly ever the subject of economical or social analysis. Also, as a rule, begging disappears behind an undifferentiated concept and conception of  poverty, and it is therefore only rarely possible to get a clear grasp of begging as the most bitter, and furthermore socially stigmatized, form of poverty. It is, however, obvious that contemporaries were aware of…

Begram

(4 words)

see  Capisa

Behaghel's law

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Summarizing term for the five principles of word order and clause order established by O. Behaghel (1854-1936) [2]. The best known of the five is the so-called law of increasing parts ( Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder): it is based on the tendency -- already apparent in antiquity -- to go from shorter to longer constituents [1. 139; 2. 6], see Demetrius Phalereus, De elocutione 18: ἐν δὲ τοῖς συνθέτοις περιόδοις τὸ τελευταῖον κῶλον μακρότερον χρὴ εἶναι. Cic. De or. 3,48: quare aut paria esse debent posteriora superioribus et extrema primis aut, quod etiam es…

Behistun

(4 words)

see  Bisutun

Beisan

(211 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Zenobia | Hasmonaeans (Besan). 25 km south of Lake Galilee (Lake Tiberias) on the Tall al-Ḥiṣn; the ancient city was settled from Chalcolithic time to the Crusades. The Arabic name is derived from the Hebrew bēt-šean (Egyptian btsr, Cuneiform script Bı̄tšāni). Owing to its strategic and economic significance, B. became a military and administrative centre for Egyptian Asian policy from the 15th cent. to the middle of the 12th cent. BC. It was the only city in Israel to…

Belarus

(5 words)

see Belorussia

Belenus

(342 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Belinus). Celtic God, equated in the interpretatio Romana with Apollo, especially in his role as a sun god. The syllable bel- appears to derive from Indo-Germanic ‘shine, radiate, burn’. Tertullian reports (Apol. 24,7) that B. is the god of the Noricans, however the majority of the evidence was found in Aquileia and its surrounding areas. This is confirmed by Herodian (8,3,8) who reports that in Aquileia, B. in particular was venerated as Apollo (above all because the god had come in person to the a…

Belesys

(92 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Babylon. Bēlšunu). Sub-governor of Babylon from 421 at least until 414 BC; Satrap of Syria at least between 407 and 401, where he owned large estates and a palace (Xen. An. 1,4,10). Being appointed as governor was unusual for a Babylonian and was probably owing to his support of Darius II in his battle for the throne. B.'s business documents written in Babylonian language (dated 424-400 BC) were found in  Babylon. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. W. Stolper, The Kasr Archive, in: Achaemenid History 4, 1990, 195-205.

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Belgium

(7 words)

see Netherlands and Belgium

Belgius

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βόλγιος; Bólgios). Celtic name, cf. Irish Bolg ‘lightning’ [1.88], leader of the Galatian Celts. He invaded Macedonia in late 280 and early 279 BC and destroyed the small army of King  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was killed in the process (Just. Epit. 24,4-5; Paus. 10,19,5-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, 1987. Holder, 1, 384.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…
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