Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bauli

(127 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Villa Settlement in the   Campi Phlegraei , c. 2 km from Baiae, probably the modern Bacoli. Its name seems to have been derived from the stables ( boaulia), where Hercules kept Gerion's oxen (Serv. Aen. 6,107) [1. 5-19]. Remains of numerous villae (literary evidence: Cic. Fam. 8,1,14 [Pompeius], Varro, Rust. 3,17,5 [Hortensius]); in the 4th cent. AD, Symmachus mentions his villa in B. as a particular favourite: Epist. 1,1,2 [2. 11-13]. Nero, who had inherited the villa of Hortensius, had his mother Agrippina …

Bauto

(132 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius B. was a Frank (Zos. 4,33,2) and a professed pagan (Ambr. Epist. 57). Under  Gratianus, he rose to the position of mag. mil. in c. AD 380 (Zos. 4,33,1) and aided  Theodosius I against the Goths. In 383, he became mag. peditum praesentalis and the authoritative advisor at the court of  Valentinianus II (Ambr. Epist. 24,4,8; 18,1,57). Although he was  Ambrosius' adversary in the dispute about the altar of Victory in 384, he seems to have aligned himself in the end with the bishop's arguments (Ambr. Epist. 17,18 and …

Bavares

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A seemingly bipartite Berber tribe; one group settled in the extreme west, the other in the extreme east of Mauretania Caesariensis. Sources: Amm. Marc. 29,5,33; Liber generationis 1,197,67 Mommsen; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 47; Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis 14,4. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography G. Camps, s.v. B., EB, 1394-1399 J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines, 1962, 47 fn. 2.

Bavaria

(8,499 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [German version] A. From Monasteries to Humanism (CT) The Carolingian Period in Bavaria is distinguished by an effort to transmit and spread Latin culture. This is born out by the remains of the old libraries and scriptoria of the episcopal seats (e.g., St. Emmeram, Freising, Prüfening near Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg) and monasteries where pagan as well as Christian authors are documented: Vergil, Horace, Lucan, Sallust, Ovid, Persius, Statius, Terence, Cicero, and Cato [26. 116…

Bavius, M.

(87 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] A poet, criticized by his contemporary Virgil (ecl. 3,90) and ridiculed by Domitius Marsus in an epigram cited by Filagrius ad locum (Courtney, 301). Marsus reported that B. and his brother shared everything until one refused to give his wife to the other. A verse critical of Virgil (Courtney, 285) has at times been attributed to B., but this is probably based on mere conjecture. He died in 35 BC in Cappadocia (Jer. Chron. a. Abr. 1982).   Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)

Baza

(105 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] In the vicinity of the Spanish city B. lies the Cerro Cepro, a hill with settlements dating back to the 5th cent. BC (the Ibero-Roman Basti?) as well as the Iberian necropolis Cerro del Santuario. In grave 155, the ‘Dama de B.’ was found, an enthroned female limestone statue which had served as an urn ( c. 400-350 BC).  Iberian peninsula Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. J. Presedo Velo, La necrópolis de Baza, 1982 R. Olmos et al., La dama de Baza, in: El Puteal de LaMoncloa, Coloquio 1987, 183-209 N. Marín Díaz et al., La ciudad ibero-romana de Basti, in: Flore…

Bazira

(67 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Βάζιρα; Bázira). Town in north-western Pakistan, on the river Swat between the Indus and the Hindu Kush, captured and fortified by  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab.). Probably near Bīr-kōt̥-Ġundai, where Hellenistic walls, pottery and graffiti have been found. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri, in: A. Gail, G. Mevissen (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1991, 1993, 339-348.

Beans

(232 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Pulses ( legumina) such as peas (πίσον; píson, pisum), chickpeas (ἐρέβινθος; erébinthos, cicer) and lentils (φακός; phakós, lens) have been cultivated in the Mediterranean region, as crops of Middle Eastern origin, for at least as long as cereal crops, i.e. for about 6,000 years. Nicknames of reputable Roman families (Fabius, Lentulus, Cicero) are derived from them. The original small-seed varieties (κύαμος; kýamos, πύανος; pýanos, faba, Slav. bob), that were being cultivated over 4,000 years ago, originated from Vicia faba L., from which the large-seed hors…

Bean trefoil/Buckbean

(117 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A gentian plant ( Menanthes trifoliata L.), unknown in antiquity, wrongly described in 16th- and 17th-cent. books on herbs as bog bean or water trefoil ( Trifolium fibrinum). It is widespread in marsh flats and, because of its bitter qualities, is today used i.a. to combat fever and worms. What was called μινυανθές ( minyanthés) in Dioscorides 3,109 [1. 119f.] = 3,113 [2. 336f.] and Plin. HN 21,54 (used for tying wreaths) and ἀσφάλτιον ( aspháltion) was in fact the leguminous plant Psoralea bituminosa L.  Clover varieties Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography 1…

Bear

(419 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The brown bear ( Ursus arctos; ἄρκτος/ árktos, Lat. ursus) occurred widely in southern and central Europe into the Roman imperial period. Aristotle [6] is very familiar with it: mating in December, birth of usually one-two cubs during hibernation (until March; Aristot. Hist. an. 6,30,579a 18-28), possible owing to reserves of fat; the bear eats everything (it even likes honey), but above all meat, such as that of deer, wild boar and cattle (ibid. 7(8),5,594b 5-17). Aristotle also gives a d…

Beard

(709 words)

Author(s): Colbow, Gudrun (Liege) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Adult men in the ancient Orient are mostly represented wearing beards, but they can also be depicted like gods and demons as beardless without having any different meaning. Beards consisted of a long or short full beard with or without a shaved lip part. The short beard finishes half-rounded or pointed below, the long beard is straight or half-rounded; the wavy strands of hair falling onto the chest mostly end in curls that form decorative rows in the layered types.…

Beauty

(10 words)

see Body, attitudes towards; Proportions, theory of

Beaver

(385 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (κάστωρ; kástōr, fiber, Old Latin feber and as a loan word castor). The amphibian marsh dweller is slightly broader than the otter (ἔνυδρις), has strong teeth for night-time cutting of aspens (κερκίδαι) and a hard pelt. It was described also under the name of σαθέριον/ sathérion or σατύριον/ satýrion and λάταξ/ látax, by Aristot. Hist. an. 8,5,594b31-595a6 (= Plin. HN 8,109; Ael. NA 6,34). In antiquity it was apparently eradicated early in Italy and Greece. In Gaul, Spain, and Central and Eastern Europe, especially on the Black Se…

Bebaiosis

(234 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βεβαίωσις; bebaíōsis). In legal transactions involving the transfer of possession of an object, i.e. purchase contracts [4. 115f.], contracts governing transfer of use (μισθώσεις, misthṓseis [3. 141; 4. 122]) and arrhal contracts connected with παράδοσις ( parádosis), bebaiosis signifies the undertaking by the previous owner to the new owner not to interfere with the latter's acquired right of possession (in the papyri: μὴ ἐπελεύσεσθαι, mḕ epeleúsesthai), and to defend that right against third parties [1. 357, 360, 444]. In the event that t…

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Bed

(4 words)

see  Kline

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Beda Venerabilis (The Venerable Bede)

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Stevens, Wesley M. (Winnipeg)
[German version] A. Life B. (or Baeda) lived from AD 672/3 to 735 in Northumbria. He was raised in the monastery of St. Peter and Paul in Wearmouth and Jarrow from the age of six. At the age of 19, he was ordained as a deacon, at 29 as a priest by bishop John of Hexham. He came to Lindisfarne (Holy Island) and to the Streanæshalch abbey (today Whitby), whose abbots had built up an excellent library by using the book markets of Italy and Gaul as well as copies from Rath Maelsigi in Ireland. He kept …

Bedbug

(240 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ, ἡ κόρις/ kóris, Lat. cimex; especially Cimex lectularius, the common bedbug, a troublesome bloodsucking parasite). Aristophanes was the first to refer to the bedbug as a typical inhabitant of the bedsteads of poor people in a work of literature (Nub. 634, Ra. 115, and Plut. 541). That is the origin of the expression ‘not even to own a bedbug’ ( nec tritus cimice lectus, Mart. 11,32,1; cf. Catull. 23,2). As a bad parasite, the bedbug was also used synonymously for a matchmaker or literary critic (Plaut. Curc. 500; Anth. Pal. 11,322,6; Hor. …

Beech

(71 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] In the Mediterranean, beeches propes such as Fagus silvatica and orientalis (φηγός; phēgós) only grow on relatively high mountains, but are often confused with hornbeams ( Carpinus) or even oaks (δρῦς; drŷs), although mainly with Quercus aegilops and the edible oak Quercus ilex var. ballota ( aesculus), supposedly the main food plant of prehistoric times.  Trees Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography K. Koch, Die Bäume und Sträucher des Alten Griechenlands, 21884, 55ff.

Bee-eater

(131 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Named μέροψ, mérops by the Boeotians (Aristot. Hist. an. 6,1,559a3ff.); a colourful, warmth-loving bird of the Coraciiformes species, Merops apiaster L., said to feed its parents shortly after hatching (Plin. HN 10,99; drawing on Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an.9,13,615b24-32 and Ael. NA 11,30 [2]). It is said to brood in holes six feet deep in the ground. It was hunted because it fed on bees (Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an. 9,40,626a13). Servius derives the Latin name apiastra from this feeding pattern (Serv. Georg. 4,14). In Ger. glosses of the Middle Ages it is often…

Beekeeping

(4 words)

see  Apiculture

Beer

(444 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the ancient Orient, beer was a well-known and popular drink that had been brewed in Mesopotamia and Egypt since the end of the 4th millennium BC at the latest. The basic ingredient in manufacture was above all barley malt [1. 322-329], other ingredients were emmer and sesame. In the 1st millennium BC a type of date beer became important in Babylon [2.155-183]. In Egypt texts from the older period mention not just date beer but also carob tree beer and poppy beer.…

Bees

(564 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Zoology According to our sources, it was the Greeks and Romans who first bred bees for honey in antiquity ( Apiculture). They called the honey or worker bee δάρδα, μέλισσα, apis, the male drone ἀνθρήνη, κηφήν, θρώναξ, fucus and the queen bee βασιλεύς, ἡγεμῶν, rex, dux or imperator. In Greece this applied to the uniformly coloured, dark brown Apis cecropia, in Italy mainly to the A. ligustica with two orange rings on its abdomen. The zoological information about them was often incorrect. According to Pliny (HN 11,1 and 5) they had no blood, a…

Beet

(284 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (γογγυλίς/ gongylís, ῥάπυς/ rhápys, ῥάφυς/ rháphys, βουνιάς/ bouniás, Latin rapum, napus). Fodder beet (var. rapa) was cultivated from wild beet, Beta vulgaris. Probably the white beet of ancient times is related to turnip rape, Brassica rapa L., of the Cruciferae family. Theophrastus mentions in Hist. pl. 1,6, 6-7 the fleshy root of the gongylís and in the 7th book details of sowing. Columella 2,10,22-24 (= Pall. Agric. 8,2,1-3) seems to understand by napus the swede, and by rapum white beet. He recommends that after the summer solstice or at the end of A…

Beetle

(759 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Of the beetle order, whose name κολεόπτερα/ koleóptera Aristotle (Hist. an. 1,5,490a 13-15 and 4,7,552a 22f.) derives from the fact that their wings were under a cover (ἔλυτρον, élytron; crusta: Plin. HN 11,97), only a few species were distinguished. The popular name for them was κάνθαροι, kántharoi, Latin scarabaei. They form from larvae (κάμπαι, Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,551b 24) or worms (σκώληκες, 5,19,552b 3, Latin vermes). The most important of the 112 species probably identified through more detailed information on them are the following: A. Ground beetle: 1. …

Beggars

(957 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Johannes (Münster)
[German version] The phenomenon of begging (πτωχεία, ptōcheía, Latin mendicitas, rarely mendicatio) is only sporadically documented in antiquity and hardly ever the subject of economical or social analysis. Also, as a rule, begging disappears behind an undifferentiated concept and conception of  poverty, and it is therefore only rarely possible to get a clear grasp of begging as the most bitter, and furthermore socially stigmatized, form of poverty. It is, however, obvious that contemporaries were aware of…

Begram

(4 words)

see  Capisa

Behaghel's law

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Summarizing term for the five principles of word order and clause order established by O. Behaghel (1854-1936) [2]. The best known of the five is the so-called law of increasing parts ( Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder): it is based on the tendency -- already apparent in antiquity -- to go from shorter to longer constituents [1. 139; 2. 6], see Demetrius Phalereus, De elocutione 18: ἐν δὲ τοῖς συνθέτοις περιόδοις τὸ τελευταῖον κῶλον μακρότερον χρὴ εἶναι. Cic. De or. 3,48: quare aut paria esse debent posteriora superioribus et extrema primis aut, quod etiam es…

Behistun

(4 words)

see  Bisutun

Beisan

(211 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Zenobia | Hasmonaeans (Besan). 25 km south of Lake Galilee (Lake Tiberias) on the Tall al-Ḥiṣn; the ancient city was settled from Chalcolithic time to the Crusades. The Arabic name is derived from the Hebrew bēt-šean (Egyptian btsr, Cuneiform script Bı̄tšāni). Owing to its strategic and economic significance, B. became a military and administrative centre for Egyptian Asian policy from the 15th cent. to the middle of the 12th cent. BC. It was the only city in Israel to…

Belarus

(5 words)

see Belorussia

Belenus

(342 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Belinus). Celtic God, equated in the interpretatio Romana with Apollo, especially in his role as a sun god. The syllable bel- appears to derive from Indo-Germanic ‘shine, radiate, burn’. Tertullian reports (Apol. 24,7) that B. is the god of the Noricans, however the majority of the evidence was found in Aquileia and its surrounding areas. This is confirmed by Herodian (8,3,8) who reports that in Aquileia, B. in particular was venerated as Apollo (above all because the god had come in person to the a…

Belesys

(92 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Babylon. Bēlšunu). Sub-governor of Babylon from 421 at least until 414 BC; Satrap of Syria at least between 407 and 401, where he owned large estates and a palace (Xen. An. 1,4,10). Being appointed as governor was unusual for a Babylonian and was probably owing to his support of Darius II in his battle for the throne. B.'s business documents written in Babylonian language (dated 424-400 BC) were found in  Babylon. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. W. Stolper, The Kasr Archive, in: Achaemenid History 4, 1990, 195-205.

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Belgium

(7 words)

see Netherlands and Belgium

Belgius

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βόλγιος; Bólgios). Celtic name, cf. Irish Bolg ‘lightning’ [1.88], leader of the Galatian Celts. He invaded Macedonia in late 280 and early 279 BC and destroyed the small army of King  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was killed in the process (Just. Epit. 24,4-5; Paus. 10,19,5-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, 1987. Holder, 1, 384.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…

Bellerophontes, Bellerophon

(545 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Βελλεροφόντης, Βελλεροφῶν; Bellerophóntēs, Bellerophôn). According to Homer (Il. 6,152-205), B. belonged to the Corinthian royal family, son of Glaucus and Eurymede (Apollod. 1,85) or Eurynome, grandson of Sisyphus. Or he was the son of Poseidon, who helped him tame  Pegasus, the winged horse of the gods (Pind. Ol. 13,69). Athena also helped him to accomplish this. After committing manslaughter, B. fled to King Proetus of Tiryns, who expiated him (Serv. Aen. 5,118; Tzetz. Lycoph. 17…

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Bellicius

(292 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] B. Calpurnius Torquatus, C. Consul ord. 148 AD belonged to a senatorial family originally from Vienna (EOS 2, 415). Cos. ord. in AD 148 [1. 42], son of [3], brother of [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FC. [German version] [2] B. Flaccus Torquatus, C. Consul ord. 143 AD. cos. ord. in AD 143 (AE 1940, 62) [1. 144]. Son of [3], brother of [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Alföldy, Consulat. [German version] [3] B. Flaccus Torquatus Tebanianus, C. Consul ord. 124 AD cos. ord. in AD 124 (IGUR 2, 741) [1. 36]. Father of B. [1] and B. [2]. Eck, Werner (…

Bellienus

(130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman proper name (also Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [German version] [1] see Annius [I 10]  Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor around 107 BC praetor around AD 107 (MRR 1,551), then legate and praetor pro consule (of Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; cf. MRR 3,34f.). According to Cic. Brut. 175, he did not receive the office of consul towards the end of the 2nd cent. because of C.  Marius' superior position. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 BC in Africa praetor in 105 BC in Africa (Sall. Lug.…

Bellinus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] captured by pirates when he was praetor in 68 BC (?), (Plut. Pomp. 24,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bellona

(480 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] The Roman goddess of war (from bellum, old form Duellona from duellum; cf. Varro, Ling. 5,73; Ant. rer. div. fr. 189 Cardauns), who stands beside Mars and is relatively independent of him: the devotional formula of P. Decius Mus names her directly after  Ianus who is invoked at each new beginning and the triad of old Roman state gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus -- no doubt as the actual female ruler of war (Liv. 8,9,6). In Latium her cult is attested in a 5th-cent. inscription (CIL I2 441) [1], whilst an urban Roman temple to her was vowed by Appius Claudius Caecus …

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…

Bellovesus

(94 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] According to legend, because of overpopulation, the Gallic king Ambigatus sent his sister's sons B. (the killer) and Segovesus (the victorious) in search of new places to live (Liv. 5,34; 35,1). By drawing lots, B. turned with his army in the direction of Italy where they conquered the Etruscans and founded Mediolanum. The essence of this migratory legend is regarded as authentic. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography H. Homeyer, in: Historia 9, 1960, 346ff. F. Fischer, in: Madrid. Mitt. 13, 1972, 122ff. Id., in: K. Bittel, W. Kimmig, S. Schiek (ed.), Die Kelte…

Bellum

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From Old Latin dvellum. Beginning with the Augustan poets, B. occasionally figures as the personification of war (Verg. Aen. 1,296; Ov. Met. 1,143). Virgil names B. along with sopor, discordia and the Furies in his description of the underworld (Aen. 6,279). The painter  Apelles depicted B. with hands tied behind his back together with Alexander who is riding on a triumphal wagon in a no longer extant painting displayed by Augustus on the Forum (Plin. HN 35,27,93; Serv. Aen. 1,294). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, s.v. B., 100-101 P. Zanovello, s.v. P…

Bellum Africanum/Alexandrinum/Hispaniense

(6 words)

see  Corpus Caesarianum

Bellum iustum

(6 words)

see War

Belorussia

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Schevtschenko, Galina Ivanovna
Schevtschenko, Galina Ivanovna [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Belarussian culture evolved under the clear influence of Antiquity as a result of the interaction of two cultural traditions - Byzantine ( Byzantium) and Western European . By adopting the Greek version of Christianity, Belarussian lands became part of a world-wide historical process. The influence of Classical Antiquity became even stronger after the formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Orientation towards ancient and Western Eu…

Belos

(4 words)

see  Baal

Belsazar

(178 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] Based on legendary tradition in the OT (Dan. 5), B. was the son of the Babylonian king  Nebuchadnezzar II. The historical Bel-šar-uṣur, however, was the firstborn son of  Nabonid (556-539 BC), the last ruler of  Babylon, who governed the empire during Nabonid's stay in Arabia ( Teima oasis; 553-543 BC). Despite this division of power, certain royal functions were reserved to Nabonid (the title of king and the recording of ruling years; the right to hold  New Year's celebrations in…

Belts

(719 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Celtic-Germanic There has generally been evidence of belts since the end of the Neolithic Age (3rd millennium BC) as part of archaeological discoveries in Central Europe (mostly burial objects). The belts themselves were made of organic materials (leather, etc.) and have not been preserved, but the (metal) fittings, such as clasps (belt hooks/ rings) or decorations (metal plates) have been. Belt hooks made of bone are known from the early phase (end of the 3rd millennium BC). Dur…

Belvedere Apollo

(1,568 words)

Author(s): Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG)
Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Significance (CT) The Belvedere Apollo (BA) (223 cm, marble, c. AD 130-140, Rome, MV) held the greatest fascination for artists and scholars until well into the 19th cent. and has been replicated in numerous works of world art. The Roman copy was probably made after a bronze sculpture by Leochares ( c. 320/330 BC), which Pausanias describes in the temple of Apollo Patroos in Athens [9. 150]. It has never been possible to verify details about the time and place of the discovery (near Anzio or near Grott…

Bema

(4 words)

see  Rostrum

Bematistai

(62 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] (βηματισταί; bēmatistaí, ‘step measurer’). Term for the geodesists in Alexander [4] the Great's army. Their tasks: calculating travel times and distances as well as the collection of regional data for the official journal (Str. 15,2,8). Bematistai known by name are  Baiton, Diognetus and Philonides (FGrH 119-121). Heucke, Clemens (Munich) Bibliography Berve 1, 44, 51f.; 2, no. 198, 271, 800.

Bendis

(537 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Βενδῖς; Bendîs). The Thracian goddess B., still known to the Greeks in the 6th cent. (Hipponax fr. 127 W.) (see Hdn. 2, 761 L.; Liv. 38,41,1; only as antiquarian knowledge? [1. 114]), B. is understood in the interpretatio graeca as an  Artemis (Hdt. 4, 33; 5, 7; Palaephat. 31; Hsch.), as  Hecate (Plut. De def. or. 13, 416e, owing to incorrect etymology; Hsch. s.v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη) or Persephone (Orph. Fr. 200 OF; cf. texts in PCG 4, p. 165; cf. 159). The iconography, too, aims at equating her with Artemis as a hunting …

Benedict of Nursia

(925 words)

Author(s): Böckmann OSB, Aquinata (Rome)
[German version] A. Life The most important facts about his life can be found in the ‘Dialogues (book II) by Gregory the Great, which can again be considered authentic after a series of inquiries (written around 593/4). B. was born around 480 in Nursia (Abruzzi) to a wealthy family, broke off his studies in Rome in order to join a group of ascetics in Affile, and then lived as a hermit for three years in Subiaco ( c. 75 km south-east of Rome). After his unsuccessful attempt to lead the neighbouring community of monks, he returned to Subiaco and was able to found 12 loos…

Beneficiarii

(119 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] were already mentioned in Caesar (B Civ. 1,75,2; 3,88,5); according to Vegetius (Mil. 2,7), they were soldiers who owed their promotion to the beneficium of their superiors and were freed from the   munera . They were assigned to an officer, in whose service they performed legal and financial duties that required a certain competency. Beneficiarii can be found in all units, in the marines, in the auxilia, in the legions and in Rome. Some of them also performed tasks in the civil sphere and were used in the stationes for the protection of the long-distance roads. Le Bohec, Yan…

Beneficium

(383 words)

Author(s): Willvonseder, Reinhard (Vienna)
[German version] is a favourable exception. Distinctive kinds of beneficium, depending on the originator of the favour, are beneficia principis (Caesaris) [3], legis, senatus consulti, praetoris. Beneficia are usually general in nature and application, but may also be granted to a particular person. The emperor above all granted beneficia, for instance in the form of ownership of public land or immunity from taxation, to communities or individuals. Some cases of private legal privilege where the sources or theorists speak of beneficia are as follows: in the area of the law …

Beneventana

(568 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] A distinctive script of the Middle Ages, which emerged in the middle of the 8th cent. in the Abbey of Montecassino and which spread through the entire dukedom of Benevento in the 9th cent. It was still in use in the second half of the 15th cent. at Montecassino and in the first half of the 16th cent. in Naples [1]. The writing also reached the Dalmatian coast, where the earliest records of Beneventan documents date back to the 10th cent. The oldest Beneventan MSS from this region …

Beneventum

(273 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones | Rome City of the  Hirpini in Samnium on the confluence of Calore and Sabato, where the via Traiana branches off the via Appia, 11 miles distant from  Caudium. After the defeat of Pyrrhus in 275 BC, the original (Illyrian) name Mal(e)ventum (Liv. 9,27,14) was changed into B. As a colony under Latin law in 268 BC (Liv. 15,13,9; Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), the city was loyal to Rome in the 2nd Punic war (Liv. 22,13,1). There are records of consules, praetores, censores, interreges a…

Beos

(50 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βέος; Béos). Ancient settlement between Aprus and Resisto, today's Bunarli. The name B. often appears on products of Thracian Hellenistic toreutic: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo and Agighiol. Probably identical with the mutatio Bedizus (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Berber

(290 words)

Author(s): Voigt, Rainer (Berlin)
[German version] Language of the original inhabitants of Northern Africa (west of the Nile) and of the Canary Islands, except for the Negroids documented in rock paintings, called Libyans by the Greeks, rbw by the Egyptians, and Numidae (‘nomads’) by the Romans. Old-Berber (Libyan, Numidian) with its modern derivative languages (for example Tuareg, Cabylian) belongs to the Semitic-Hamitic (Afro-Asian) language group. More than a thousand inscriptions appear in three related alphabets, one eastern version (Massylic) and two wes…

Berecyntes

(186 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] Mythical tribe from the region inhabited by the Phryges in Greek and Roman times, including the area known as Galatia in Hellenistic times ( Berecyntos, ‘a castellum in Phrygia on the Sangarius’: Serv. Aen. 6,784). Used as a synonym for ‘Phrygian’ by poets of classical (e.g. Aeschyl. Niobe), Hellenistic (Callim. H. 3, 246), and Roman times (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,18; 3,19; Ov. Met. 11,106), and also by prose writers (from Stesimbrotus, Str. 10,3,20, to Aug. Civ. 2,5,7). However, Str. 12,8,21, maintains: ‘There …

Berengarius

(87 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] B.I, born in AD 850/53, margrave of Friaul, grandson of Louis the Pious. Following Charles III's deposition in Tribur by Arnulf of Carinthia, B.I was installed as King of Italy in January of 888 in Pavia, but struggled for years with rivals (Wido and Lambert of Spoleto; Louis of Provence). In 915, he was crowned emperor by the Pope in agreement with Byzantium; in 924 he was murdered in Verona. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1933 R. Hiestand, Byzanz und das Regnum Italicum, 1964

Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Berenicidae

(72 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βερενικίδαι; Berenikídai). Attic deme of the Ptolemais phyle established in 224/23 BC and named after  Berenice, wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. Possibly located around Eleusis (cf. grave inscription IG II2 5868 from Mandra and IG II2 5888 from Eleusis). The announcer of the decree on demes (?) IG II2 1221 (found at Eleusis) came from the B. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 29f., 109 (no. 25), table 13.

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Bergaeus

(83 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Thracian dynast at the end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC. Known only through his bronze and silver minting with the markings ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ and ΒΕΡΓ (also interpreted as the name of a city or an official). Parallels with Thasian coin designs suggest a location in the south-west of Thrace by the lower course of the Nestus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283 J. Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Bergomum

(134 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Centre of the Golasecca culture (6th/5th cent. BC) between the foothills of the Orobian-Raetian Alps (on the location of Parra Oromobiorum: Cato Orig. 40) and the Cenomani of the Celtic Padana (Ptol. 3,1,31) [1. 61f.], modern Bergamo. Municipium [2. 51] from the end of the Roman Republic [1. 181f.], tribus Voturia, in regio IX (from the 4th cent. AD in regio X). Captured by Attila in AD 452 and laid in ruins (Historiae miscellaneae 15,7). Military base on the via Padana at the time of the Goths (Procop. Goth.…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Bericus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] The Briton whose appeal for help gave Emperor Claudius the pretext for invading the island in AD 43 (Cass. Dio 60,19,1). B. might be identical with Verica, who appears on his coins (south of the Thames in the region of the  Atrebates; Calleva/Silchester is the place of minting) as rex and son of  Commius. By virtue of their place of discovery and their motifs (i.a., a vine leaf) Verica is represented as having had a Rome-friendly, anti-Catuvellauni policy.  Cunobellinus;  Catuvellauni Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 27-47.

Berisades

(92 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρισάδης; Bērisádēs). Thracian dynast who, together with Amadocus, forced Cersobleptes to divide up the Odrysian kingdom in 359-357 BC after the death of  Cotys I. He received the western part bordering Macedonia. His brother-in-law, the Athenian mercenary commander  Athenodorus, assisted him (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 10; 170; 173-174; Str. 7, fr. 47; StV 303). In 358/7 Philip II occupied Crenides, which lay in B.'s territory. B.'s sons succeeded him in power in 357/6. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography E. Badian, Philip II and Thrace, in: Pulpudeva…

Berlin

(5,861 words)

Author(s): Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) | Crüsemann, Nicola (Speyer RWG) | Wildung, Dietrich (Berlin RWG)
Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] I. Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Collection of Antiquities (CT) Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] A. Early History (CT) The origin of the Berlin Collection of Antiquities goes back to the 16th cent. It was probably the elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who laid the foundations of the holdings of the Curiosity Cabinet in the Schloss in Berlin, during his reign (1535-1571) and also had antiquities purchased. This first stock was almost completely …

Berlin Painter

(486 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
[German version] Very productive painter of Attic red-figured vases who got his name from a magnificent type A amphora in Berlin (SM, Inv. no. F 2160). Primarily a pot painter, he decorated a wide range of shapes, including several rare ones. Slim, elegant figures whose harmonious contours blend in with the shape of the vase, characterize his drawing style, as does also the balance of details, effected by relief, black, and golden dilute glaze lines. The Berlin Painter (BP) preferred the represent…

Bermium

(51 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βέρμιον; Bérmion). Mountain in the south of  Macedonia, west of Emathia (now Doxa) and east of Beroea [1]. From here the Macedonians penetrated Lower Macedonia (Hdt. 8,138). B. is said to have been the home of the Thracian  Bryges (Str. 7 fr. 25). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Beroea

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Βέροια; Béroia). [German version] [1] In Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In Macedonia. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Hellenistic and Roman periods City in Macedonian  Bottice, east of the Bermium; now Verria. First mentioned in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 1,61,4), B. had its development, like many Macedonian cities, principally in the Hellenistic period; the Antigonids seem to have particularly favoured…

Berones

(41 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the middle Iberus in La Rioja. Their most important towns were Tricio, Oliba and  Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius occupied the tribe's territory in 76 BC. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Berosus

(375 words)

Author(s): Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (Tübingen)
[German version] of Babylon. Priest of Bēl/Marduk, contemporary of Alexander [4] the Great's (FGrH 680 T 1), author of a Chaldean history in three volumes for  Antiochus [2] I, transmitted with the titles Babylōniaká (F1 [1], F 2) or Chaldaiká (T 8a, 7a, 11). Vol. 1: Geography of Babylon (modelled on Hellenistic ethnography); fish-man ( apkallu synonym for sage) Oannes as the bearer of culture; cosmogony; anthropogony. Vol. 2: 10 antediluvian kings; account of the flood; list of post-diluvian dynasties with their sages ( apkall) up to Nabû-nsir (8th cent. BC), on the lines of t…

Bersabe

(240 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρσαβεέ; Bērsabeé). In the northern Negev, identified either with bir as-saba (now Beer Ševa) or with tall as-sab (5 km east). In the biblical tradition, B. appears as an open-air sanctuary of Yahwe with the name of El-Olam and is associated with the three arch fathers. However, it has some grounding only in the Isaac tradition, if that. Its meaning in popular etymology is ‘well of the oath’ (Gen. 21,22-27, 31b; 26,25-33), or ‘seven wells’ (Gen. 21,28-31a). In the set phrase ‘from Dan to Be…

Beryllos

(5 words)

see  Precious stones

Berytus

(536 words)

Author(s): Finkbeiner, Uwe (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius | Aegean Koine (Βηρυτός; Bērytós). [German version] A. Phoenician period B., modern Beirut, is mentioned as Beruta in the  Amarna letters and in documents from Ugarit (14th and 13th cent. BC respectively), and as Birû in the annals of Asarhaddon (7th cent. BC) [1. 48]. Its identification with the Baurad of the Ebla documents is disputed [2. 68]. Sources document that the Canaanite B. of the 2nd millennium BC was controlled by By…

Bes

(330 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman coinage In the Roman system of weights and measures the bes ( binae partes assis) represents 2/3 (8/12) of the as and, on the basis of the Roman pound (327.45 g), weighs 218.30 g [1. 72]. In Roman minting the bes was stamped with S as its symbol of value; only issued by C. Cassius in 126 BC in bronze (with the head of Liber/ prora) [2. 290].  As;  Small coin, shortage of;  Libra Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Schrötter, s.v. Bes 2 M. H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, 21987. [German version] [2] Dwarfish Egyptian god with hideous face (Egyptia…

Besa

(173 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βῆσ(σ)α; Bês(s)a). Attic   paralia-deme of the phyle Antiochis, later Hadrianis. Two bouleutai. Significant mining district in  Laurion, for which 24 mining leases are attested. Probably located near today's Hagios Konstantinos (formerly Kamareza), as Xen. Vect. 4,43 recommends the construction of a fortification on the highest point of B. (= Vigla Rimbari?) halfway between Anaphlystus and Thoricus. In the south, therefore, B. adjoined Amphitrope; in the north, Thoricus; in the east and south-east, Sunium, to which it was linked by the astikè hodós. Road conne…

Besantinus

(135 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] (Βησαντῖνος; Bēsantînos). Writer in Hadrian's era, possibly from Rhodes (according to the heading in Anth. Pal. 15,27, a poem that in any case belongs not to him but to Simias of Rhodes; also wrongly attributed to him: 9,118 = Thgn. 527f., cf. Stob. 4,50,44). MSS F and Y of the Bucolics attribute a βωμός ( bōmós) to him, a pattern poem in the shape of an altar: 26 verses in different metres forming the eulogizing acrostic Ὀλύμπιε πολλοῖς ἔτεσι θυσείας, that is certainly addressed to Hadrian (cf. ThGL 5,1924A). It is also transmitted a…

Bessapara

(91 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement on the road from Serdica to Philippopolis (It. Ant. 136; Procop. Aed. 4,11 Βεσούπαρον; Besoúparon), modern Sinitovo/Pazardžik, southern Bulgaria. Flourished in the imperial age. Thanks to its location, it retained its supraregional importance throughout late antique and the early Byzantine period. Its fortifications date from the time of Justinian I. Greek inscriptions and votive reliefs. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. Velkov, Gradât v Trakija i Dakija prez kâsnata antičnost, 1959, 109 (Bulgarian with German resumé: …

Bessas

(101 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Goth of Thracian origin (born around AD 480), whose family did not accompany Theoderic to Italy in AD 488. He served as an officer in Justinian's army against the Persians, under  Belisarius in the reconquest of Italy, as also against the Goths and in his old age in Syrian territory. He achieved high rank ( dux Mesopotamiae 531; mag. mil. vacans in Italy 535-546; mag. mil. per Armeniam 550-554), was even patricius, but was finally banished for having a too nonchalant attitude towards his duty as a consequence of excessive financial dealings. PLRE 2, 226-229. Eder, Walter (B…

Bessi, Bessoi

(240 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεσσοί; Bessoí). Term given to various Thracian tribal groupings, first mentioned by Hdt. 7,111 as part of the  Satrae in the western Rhodope mountains, but thereafter not again until the 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 23,8,4; Syll.3 710 A). The B. gained political significance because of their opposition to the Romans: defeated by Lucullus in 72 BC, by C. Octavius (ILS 47) in 59 BC, and brought to battle c. 15 years later by Brutus (Liv. Per. 77); in 29 BC M. Licinius Crassus attacked them, took away from them the Dionysus sanctuary in the Rhodope and trans…

Bessus

(72 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Satrap of Bactria, Darius III's general at the battle of  Gaugamela. Shortly afterwards he killed Darius, assumed the name Artaxerxes and tried to hold the eastern part of the Persian Empire against  Alexander [4] the Great.  Spitamenes i.a. betrayed him; he was condemned to death in Ecbatana for high treason (Arr. Anab., Curt. passim). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography F. Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria, 1989.  

Bestiarius

(4 words)

see  Munera

Beta-gamma style

(187 words)

Author(s): De Gregorio, Giuseppe (Rome)
[German version] Stylistic trend in Greek everyday minuscules in the early Palaeologan period, so called because of the overly large shapes of the letters beta and gamma; fundamentally the beta-gamma style (BGS) falls into the category of the  Fettaugen style, as is clearly evident from a few specimens (including from the Laurentianus Conventi Soppressi 627 and the Vaticanus graecus 1899). The term BGS, not really officially sanctioned but highly convenient, is still in general use; moreover, many…

Bethania

(273 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Village on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem (Βηθανία; Bēthanía; Anānyā, Neh 11,32, or Bēt Aniyyā, ‘house of the poor’). Village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, 15 stades (John 11,18) or two miles (Eus. On. 58) from Jerusalem (ruins of settlement 5th cent. BC -- 14th cent. AD). Place where Jesus was anointed by the sinner (Mark 14,3; Matt. 26,6; John 12,1), home of Mary and Martha, and place where Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11,1), hence in late antiquity Lazarion, today al-āzarı̄ya, ‘Lazarus(village)’. A chamber tomb in a cliff s…

Beth­el

(813 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
(Hebrew bēt-ēl ‘House of El’). [German version] [1] Place in the Ephraim range of mountains This item can be found on the following maps: Hasmonaeans Place in the Ephraim range of mountains, original name Lūz (Gen. 28,19; 35,6; 48,3; Jos. 18,3; Judg. 1,23) and identified with today's bētīn; 17 km north of Jerusalem (cf. Eus. On. 40,20f.) at the intersection of the roads from Hebron to Sichem and from Jericho to the Mediterranean; linked with an important sanctuary that, to distinguish it from the city with the earlier …

Bethlehem

(429 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pilgrimage [German version] A. Early history (Arab bait-laḥm; Βητλέεμ ( Bētléem; NT); Βαιτλεεμ ( Baitleem; LXX); Βητλέμα, Βηθλεέμη (Bētléma, Bēthleémē; Ios.); Hebrew bēt-leẹm ‘House of Bread’); located about 8 km south of Jerusalem on the important communication route between Jerusalem and Hebron on fertile land at the edge of the desert. The interpretation of the place name as a derivation from a goddess named Lachama is improbable [1]. Archaeologically attested from the Iron Ag…

Bethsaida

(189 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Aramaic bēt ṣaydā, ‘house of the catch’ or ‘of the booty’). Place in Gaulanitis ( Batanaea) on Lake Genezareth (in today's plain el-ibṭeḥa) east of the confluence with the Jordan; established as a city in 3 BC by the tetrarch  Herodes Philippus and named Iulias after Augustus' daughter (Jos. Ant. 18,2,1; Bell. 2,9,1; probably today's et-tell), only 2 kms further inland), but in all four gospels mentioned with an Aramaic name (probably just the fishing settlement on the lake, today's ḫirbet el-araǧ). B./Iulias was…

Beth Shearim

(159 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Place in Lower Galilee. With the relocation of the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi (from c. AD 175-217) B., as seat of the Sanhedrin and the rabbinic school, became for a short while the centre of Palestinian Judaism but gradually declined in importance after the transfer to Tiberias of the patriarchate and its institutions around the middle of the 3rd cent. In the succession to Rabbi Jehuda B. developed into the most important burial site in Palestine in the 3rd and 4th cents., as attested by the sp…
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