Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bellerophontes, Bellerophon

(545 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Βελλεροφόντης, Βελλεροφῶν; Bellerophóntēs, Bellerophôn). According to Homer (Il. 6,152-205), B. belonged to the Corinthian royal family, son of Glaucus and Eurymede (Apollod. 1,85) or Eurynome, grandson of Sisyphus. Or he was the son of Poseidon, who helped him tame  Pegasus, the winged horse of the gods (Pind. Ol. 13,69). Athena also helped him to accomplish this. After committing manslaughter, B. fled to King Proetus of Tiryns, who expiated him (Serv. Aen. 5,118; Tzetz. Lycoph. 17…

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Bellicius

(292 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] B. Calpurnius Torquatus, C. Consul ord. 148 AD belonged to a senatorial family originally from Vienna (EOS 2, 415). Cos. ord. in AD 148 [1. 42], son of [3], brother of [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FC. [German version] [2] B. Flaccus Torquatus, C. Consul ord. 143 AD. cos. ord. in AD 143 (AE 1940, 62) [1. 144]. Son of [3], brother of [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Alföldy, Consulat. [German version] [3] B. Flaccus Torquatus Tebanianus, C. Consul ord. 124 AD cos. ord. in AD 124 (IGUR 2, 741) [1. 36]. Father of B. [1] and B. [2]. Eck, Werner (…

Bellienus

(130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman proper name (also Billienus; Schulze 429; ThlL 2,1816; 1989). [German version] [1] see Annius [I 10]  Annius I 10 B. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Billienus, C. Praetor around 107 BC praetor around AD 107 (MRR 1,551), then legate and praetor pro consule (of Asia?, IDélos 1710; 1854; cf. MRR 3,34f.). According to Cic. Brut. 175, he did not receive the office of consul towards the end of the 2nd cent. because of C.  Marius' superior position. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] B., L. Praetor 105 BC in Africa praetor in 105 BC in Africa (Sall. Lug.…

Bellinus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] captured by pirates when he was praetor in 68 BC (?), (Plut. Pomp. 24,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bellona

(480 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] The Roman goddess of war (from bellum, old form Duellona from duellum; cf. Varro, Ling. 5,73; Ant. rer. div. fr. 189 Cardauns), who stands beside Mars and is relatively independent of him: the devotional formula of P. Decius Mus names her directly after  Ianus who is invoked at each new beginning and the triad of old Roman state gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus -- no doubt as the actual female ruler of war (Liv. 8,9,6). In Latium her cult is attested in a 5th-cent. inscription (CIL I2 441) [1], whilst an urban Roman temple to her was vowed by Appius Claudius Caecus …

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…

Bellovesus

(94 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] According to legend, because of overpopulation, the Gallic king Ambigatus sent his sister's sons B. (the killer) and Segovesus (the victorious) in search of new places to live (Liv. 5,34; 35,1). By drawing lots, B. turned with his army in the direction of Italy where they conquered the Etruscans and founded Mediolanum. The essence of this migratory legend is regarded as authentic. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography H. Homeyer, in: Historia 9, 1960, 346ff. F. Fischer, in: Madrid. Mitt. 13, 1972, 122ff. Id., in: K. Bittel, W. Kimmig, S. Schiek (ed.), Die Kelte…

Bellum

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From Old Latin dvellum. Beginning with the Augustan poets, B. occasionally figures as the personification of war (Verg. Aen. 1,296; Ov. Met. 1,143). Virgil names B. along with sopor, discordia and the Furies in his description of the underworld (Aen. 6,279). The painter  Apelles depicted B. with hands tied behind his back together with Alexander who is riding on a triumphal wagon in a no longer extant painting displayed by Augustus on the Forum (Plin. HN 35,27,93; Serv. Aen. 1,294). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, s.v. B., 100-101 P. Zanovello, s.v. P…

Bellum Africanum/Alexandrinum/Hispaniense

(6 words)

see  Corpus Caesarianum

Bellum iustum

(6 words)

see War

Belorussia

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Schevtschenko, Galina Ivanovna
Schevtschenko, Galina Ivanovna [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Belarussian culture evolved under the clear influence of Antiquity as a result of the interaction of two cultural traditions - Byzantine ( Byzantium) and Western European . By adopting the Greek version of Christianity, Belarussian lands became part of a world-wide historical process. The influence of Classical Antiquity became even stronger after the formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Orientation towards ancient and Western Eu…

Belos

(4 words)

see  Baal

Belsazar

(178 words)

Author(s): Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] Based on legendary tradition in the OT (Dan. 5), B. was the son of the Babylonian king  Nebuchadnezzar II. The historical Bel-šar-uṣur, however, was the firstborn son of  Nabonid (556-539 BC), the last ruler of  Babylon, who governed the empire during Nabonid's stay in Arabia ( Teima oasis; 553-543 BC). Despite this division of power, certain royal functions were reserved to Nabonid (the title of king and the recording of ruling years; the right to hold  New Year's celebrations in…

Belts

(719 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Celtic-Germanic There has generally been evidence of belts since the end of the Neolithic Age (3rd millennium BC) as part of archaeological discoveries in Central Europe (mostly burial objects). The belts themselves were made of organic materials (leather, etc.) and have not been preserved, but the (metal) fittings, such as clasps (belt hooks/ rings) or decorations (metal plates) have been. Belt hooks made of bone are known from the early phase (end of the 3rd millennium BC). Dur…

Belvedere Apollo

(1,568 words)

Author(s): Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG)
Scharf, Friedhelm (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Significance (CT) The Belvedere Apollo (BA) (223 cm, marble, c. AD 130-140, Rome, MV) held the greatest fascination for artists and scholars until well into the 19th cent. and has been replicated in numerous works of world art. The Roman copy was probably made after a bronze sculpture by Leochares ( c. 320/330 BC), which Pausanias describes in the temple of Apollo Patroos in Athens [9. 150]. It has never been possible to verify details about the time and place of the discovery (near Anzio or near Grott…

Bema

(4 words)

see  Rostrum

Bematistai

(62 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] (βηματισταί; bēmatistaí, ‘step measurer’). Term for the geodesists in Alexander [4] the Great's army. Their tasks: calculating travel times and distances as well as the collection of regional data for the official journal (Str. 15,2,8). Bematistai known by name are  Baiton, Diognetus and Philonides (FGrH 119-121). Heucke, Clemens (Munich) Bibliography Berve 1, 44, 51f.; 2, no. 198, 271, 800.

Bendis

(537 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Βενδῖς; Bendîs). The Thracian goddess B., still known to the Greeks in the 6th cent. (Hipponax fr. 127 W.) (see Hdn. 2, 761 L.; Liv. 38,41,1; only as antiquarian knowledge? [1. 114]), B. is understood in the interpretatio graeca as an  Artemis (Hdt. 4, 33; 5, 7; Palaephat. 31; Hsch.), as  Hecate (Plut. De def. or. 13, 416e, owing to incorrect etymology; Hsch. s.v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη) or Persephone (Orph. Fr. 200 OF; cf. texts in PCG 4, p. 165; cf. 159). The iconography, too, aims at equating her with Artemis as a hunting …

Benedict of Nursia

(925 words)

Author(s): Böckmann OSB, Aquinata (Rome)
[German version] A. Life The most important facts about his life can be found in the ‘Dialogues (book II) by Gregory the Great, which can again be considered authentic after a series of inquiries (written around 593/4). B. was born around 480 in Nursia (Abruzzi) to a wealthy family, broke off his studies in Rome in order to join a group of ascetics in Affile, and then lived as a hermit for three years in Subiaco ( c. 75 km south-east of Rome). After his unsuccessful attempt to lead the neighbouring community of monks, he returned to Subiaco and was able to found 12 loos…
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