Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Beneficiarii

(119 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
[German version] were already mentioned in Caesar (B Civ. 1,75,2; 3,88,5); according to Vegetius (Mil. 2,7), they were soldiers who owed their promotion to the beneficium of their superiors and were freed from the   munera . They were assigned to an officer, in whose service they performed legal and financial duties that required a certain competency. Beneficiarii can be found in all units, in the marines, in the auxilia, in the legions and in Rome. Some of them also performed tasks in the civil sphere and were used in the stationes for the protection of the long-distance roads. Le Bohec, Yan…

Beneficium

(383 words)

Author(s): Willvonseder, Reinhard (Vienna)
[German version] is a favourable exception. Distinctive kinds of beneficium, depending on the originator of the favour, are beneficia principis (Caesaris) [3], legis, senatus consulti, praetoris. Beneficia are usually general in nature and application, but may also be granted to a particular person. The emperor above all granted beneficia, for instance in the form of ownership of public land or immunity from taxation, to communities or individuals. Some cases of private legal privilege where the sources or theorists speak of beneficia are as follows: in the area of the law …

Beneventana

(568 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] A distinctive script of the Middle Ages, which emerged in the middle of the 8th cent. in the Abbey of Montecassino and which spread through the entire dukedom of Benevento in the 9th cent. It was still in use in the second half of the 15th cent. at Montecassino and in the first half of the 16th cent. in Naples [1]. The writing also reached the Dalmatian coast, where the earliest records of Beneventan documents date back to the 10th cent. The oldest Beneventan MSS from this region …

Beneventum

(273 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Regio, regiones | Rome City of the  Hirpini in Samnium on the confluence of Calore and Sabato, where the via Traiana branches off the via Appia, 11 miles distant from  Caudium. After the defeat of Pyrrhus in 275 BC, the original (Illyrian) name Mal(e)ventum (Liv. 9,27,14) was changed into B. As a colony under Latin law in 268 BC (Liv. 15,13,9; Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), the city was loyal to Rome in the 2nd Punic war (Liv. 22,13,1). There are records of consules, praetores, censores, interreges a…

Beos

(50 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βέος; Béos). Ancient settlement between Aprus and Resisto, today's Bunarli. The name B. often appears on products of Thracian Hellenistic toreutic: Rogozen, Vraza, Borovo and Agighiol. Probably identical with the mutatio Bedizus (IH 570,1; 601,9). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Mihailov, Rogozen Linguistique Balkanique 1, 1987, 5-19.

Berber

(290 words)

Author(s): Voigt, Rainer (Berlin)
[German version] Language of the original inhabitants of Northern Africa (west of the Nile) and of the Canary Islands, except for the Negroids documented in rock paintings, called Libyans by the Greeks, rbw by the Egyptians, and Numidae (‘nomads’) by the Romans. Old-Berber (Libyan, Numidian) with its modern derivative languages (for example Tuareg, Cabylian) belongs to the Semitic-Hamitic (Afro-Asian) language group. More than a thousand inscriptions appear in three related alphabets, one eastern version (Massylic) and two wes…

Berecyntes

(186 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] Mythical tribe from the region inhabited by the Phryges in Greek and Roman times, including the area known as Galatia in Hellenistic times ( Berecyntos, ‘a castellum in Phrygia on the Sangarius’: Serv. Aen. 6,784). Used as a synonym for ‘Phrygian’ by poets of classical (e.g. Aeschyl. Niobe), Hellenistic (Callim. H. 3, 246), and Roman times (e.g. Hor. Carm. 1,18; 3,19; Ov. Met. 11,106), and also by prose writers (from Stesimbrotus, Str. 10,3,20, to Aug. Civ. 2,5,7). However, Str. 12,8,21, maintains: ‘There …

Berengarius

(87 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] B.I, born in AD 850/53, margrave of Friaul, grandson of Louis the Pious. Following Charles III's deposition in Tribur by Arnulf of Carinthia, B.I was installed as King of Italy in January of 888 in Pavia, but struggled for years with rivals (Wido and Lambert of Spoleto; Louis of Provence). In 915, he was crowned emperor by the Pope in agreement with Byzantium; in 924 he was murdered in Verona. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1933 R. Hiestand, Byzanz und das Regnum Italicum, 1964

Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Berenicidae

(72 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βερενικίδαι; Berenikídai). Attic deme of the Ptolemais phyle established in 224/23 BC and named after  Berenice, wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. Possibly located around Eleusis (cf. grave inscription IG II2 5868 from Mandra and IG II2 5888 from Eleusis). The announcer of the decree on demes (?) IG II2 1221 (found at Eleusis) came from the B. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica, 29f., 109 (no. 25), table 13.

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Bergaeus

(83 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Thracian dynast at the end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC. Known only through his bronze and silver minting with the markings ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ and ΒΕΡΓ (also interpreted as the name of a city or an official). Parallels with Thasian coin designs suggest a location in the south-west of Thrace by the lower course of the Nestus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283 J. Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Bergomum

(134 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Centre of the Golasecca culture (6th/5th cent. BC) between the foothills of the Orobian-Raetian Alps (on the location of Parra Oromobiorum: Cato Orig. 40) and the Cenomani of the Celtic Padana (Ptol. 3,1,31) [1. 61f.], modern Bergamo. Municipium [2. 51] from the end of the Roman Republic [1. 181f.], tribus Voturia, in regio IX (from the 4th cent. AD in regio X). Captured by Attila in AD 452 and laid in ruins (Historiae miscellaneae 15,7). Military base on the via Padana at the time of the Goths (Procop. Goth.…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Bericus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] The Briton whose appeal for help gave Emperor Claudius the pretext for invading the island in AD 43 (Cass. Dio 60,19,1). B. might be identical with Verica, who appears on his coins (south of the Thames in the region of the  Atrebates; Calleva/Silchester is the place of minting) as rex and son of  Commius. By virtue of their place of discovery and their motifs (i.a., a vine leaf) Verica is represented as having had a Rome-friendly, anti-Catuvellauni policy.  Cunobellinus;  Catuvellauni Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 27-47.

Berisades

(92 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρισάδης; Bērisádēs). Thracian dynast who, together with Amadocus, forced Cersobleptes to divide up the Odrysian kingdom in 359-357 BC after the death of  Cotys I. He received the western part bordering Macedonia. His brother-in-law, the Athenian mercenary commander  Athenodorus, assisted him (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 10; 170; 173-174; Str. 7, fr. 47; StV 303). In 358/7 Philip II occupied Crenides, which lay in B.'s territory. B.'s sons succeeded him in power in 357/6. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography E. Badian, Philip II and Thrace, in: Pulpudeva…

Berlin

(5,861 words)

Author(s): Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) | Crüsemann, Nicola (Speyer RWG) | Wildung, Dietrich (Berlin RWG)
Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] I. Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Collection of Antiquities (CT) Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG) [German version] A. Early History (CT) The origin of the Berlin Collection of Antiquities goes back to the 16th cent. It was probably the elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who laid the foundations of the holdings of the Curiosity Cabinet in the Schloss in Berlin, during his reign (1535-1571) and also had antiquities purchased. This first stock was almost completely …

Berlin Painter

(486 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
[German version] Very productive painter of Attic red-figured vases who got his name from a magnificent type A amphora in Berlin (SM, Inv. no. F 2160). Primarily a pot painter, he decorated a wide range of shapes, including several rare ones. Slim, elegant figures whose harmonious contours blend in with the shape of the vase, characterize his drawing style, as does also the balance of details, effected by relief, black, and golden dilute glaze lines. The Berlin Painter (BP) preferred the represent…

Bermium

(51 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βέρμιον; Bérmion). Mountain in the south of  Macedonia, west of Emathia (now Doxa) and east of Beroea [1]. From here the Macedonians penetrated Lower Macedonia (Hdt. 8,138). B. is said to have been the home of the Thracian  Bryges (Str. 7 fr. 25). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
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