Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barber

(282 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κουρεύς/ koureús; tonsor). It is unknown when the occupation of the barber and hairdresser first became an autonomous profession in Greece. In myth the barber is only rarely mentioned ( Midas); early representation of a barber: Boeotian terracotta in Berlin [1]. The barber is considered to be talkative and curious (Plut. Mor. 2,177a; 508) and knows the latest gossip. The barber's room (κουρεῖον/ koureîon) is the place where people get together (Lys. 24,3,20; Plut. Timoleon 14; Plut. Mor. 716ff.), and where you can also contract business dea…

Barberini Faun

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG)
Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Object (CT) The so-called Barberini Faun is a 2.15 m high Greek sculpture from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC. A youth is portrayed slumbering in a half-seated pose. The youthful, naked, muscular body of the BF reclines relaxed but not enfeebled on an animal skin spread over rocky ground, which combined with the ivy and corymbs in its hair suggests a Dionysian context. It reflects its inherent semi-animality less in its physicality than by  Aalen its ope…

Barbitos

(5 words)

see  Musical instruments

Barbius

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] M.B. Aemilianus, cos. suff. in the year 140 (CIL XVI 177); RMD 1, 39; originated from Aquileia (EOS 2, 332f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Barbucallus, Iohannes

(97 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] with the epithet Γραμματικός ( Grammatikós). Epigram poet of the ‘ kyklos’ of Agathias, lived in the 6th cent. AD, author of 12 reasonable, for the most part ecphrastic and epideictic epigrams (some uncertainty remains, furthermore, concerning Anth. Pal. 7,555-555b and 9, 628f.; the first are titled Ἰωάννου Ποιητοῦ, the others Ἰωάννου Γραμματικοῦ). Noteworthy are the epigrams about the destruction of Berytus (Beirut) by the earthquake of 551 (9,425-427; the influence of Nonnus, Dion. 41 is obvious in 426,1f.). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography Av. & A. Cameron, …

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barcas

(4 words)

see  Barcids

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Barcino(na)

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula The present-day Barcelona was an Iberian settlement of the  Lacetani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6, 18). During the Civil War, B. was on Caesar's side. B. received the name Faventia Julia Augusta Pia (or Paterna?) Immunis. B. reached its highest peak during Roman imperial times. The city attained its special significance not least because of its bishops -- under the  Visigoths, when the decline of Tarraco started. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 438-440 R. W…

Bardas

(86 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine statesman, Armenian, brother of Theodora, mother of Emperor Michael III (AD 842-867). Bearer of the highest court title Caesar (καῖσαρ) since 862. He promoted the mission to the Slavs, founded a school for scientific studies in the imperial palace, furthered the elevation of the learned  Photius to patriarch. B. was murdered by the parvenu  Basilius [5] I, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, on 21.4.866. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1456 ODB 1, 255f. P. Speck, Die kaiserliche Universität von Konstantinopel, 1974.

Bardesanes

(228 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Well known as ‘Aramaic philosopher’ and astrologist, B. (AD 154-222) is the earliest known Syrian author from Edessa, where he worked at the court of  Abgar [3] VIII (177-212). Iulius Africanus (Kestoi 1,20) mentions that he met him there in the year 195. Even though B. wrote against the Marcionites ( Marcion) and the Chaldaeans, his opinions about cosmology drew the disapproval of later writers since  Ephraim. This led to the loss of his writings (both poetry as well as prose). H…

Bardiya

(198 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Elamite Pirtiya; Akkadian Barzija; Greek Σμέρδις, Μάρδος; Smérdis, Márdos, Aesch. Pers. 774). [German version] [1] Younger son of  Cyrus II Younger son of  Cyrus II (and Cassandane), according to the  Bisutun inscription full brother of  Cambyses II [3. 117]; in Ctesias Pers. 12,10,29 Tanyoxarkes, in Xen. Cyr. 8,7,11 Tanaoxares, whom Cyrus supposedly appointed as satrap of Media, Armenia and Cadusia, murdered on orders of Cambyses either before [3. 117.29f.] or during (Hdt. 3,10) his Egyptian military campaign (52…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…

Bargusii

(4 words)

see  Bergistani

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Baris Oros

(81 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάρις ὄρος; Báris óros). The ancient name for the highest mountain of  Armenia, the Ararat (5165 m). The source on which this is based is Nicolaus of Damascus, in Ios. Ant. Iud. 1, p. 95; p. 18 Niese. The Βaris Οros belonged to the Armenian landscape Μινουάς ( Minouás; today Manawazeau) and was located south-west of the old  Artaxata (today Artašat). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World II. Dardanelles, Bosporus, Turkey East, 1959, Pl. 37.

Barium

(275 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Rome | Rome (Βάρις; Báris). Peucetian harbour town (Βάριον, Atbaris: schol. Hor. Sat. 1,5,97; Beroes: It. Burd. 609,15; cf. Liv. 40,18; Str. 5,3,8), founded by Illyrians (Plin. HN 3,102) or by emigrants from Barra (Fest. s.v.), at the junction of the via Traiana and the coastal road (Hor. Sat. 1,5,96-97), modern Bari. Flourished between the 6th and 4th cents. BC (cf. the rich necropolis outside the town to the south, close to the coast). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (inscriptions: IG XIV 687; C…

Barke

(197 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Crete (Βάρκη; Bárkē). Greek city in  Cyrenaica, 97 km north-east of Benghasi, today Barka, founded by Cyrenaicans in the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Grain and   silphion allowed B. to reach its peak quickly. (Sources: Hdt. 3,13; 3,91; 4,160-205; Aen. Tact. 37,6f.; Heraclid. Pont. 4,2 (FHG II 212); Ps.-Scyl. 108 (GGM I 83); FGrH 115 Theopompus of Chios F 103; Diod. Sic. 1,68,2; 18,20,3; Sil. Pun. 2,62; 3,251; Polyaenus, Strat. 7…

Bar Kochba

(304 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Leader of the great Jewish uprising of 132-135. Documentary evidence exists regarding the name form Simon Bar Kosiba. The name forms Bar Kochba (‘son of the star’) and Bar Koziba (‘son of lies’), known from Christian and rabbinical literature, are tendentious interpretations of the original patronymic. They reflect the Messianic expectations ( Messiah), which are linked with his person and the disappointment about the false Messiah, which followed the failure of the uprising. The …

Barlaam and Ioasaph

(801 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] (Βαρλάαμ, Ἰωάσαφ; Barláam, Iōásaph). Greek novel from Byzantine times; there is uncertainty regarding date and author, (see below). The story of I., an Indian prince, is told; his father, king Abenner, an enemy of Christianity, was worried because of prophecies that his son would take on the new religion and ordered him to live, locked away in a magnificent palace, without learning about human suffering. Despite surveillance, the monk B. succeeds in approaching I. and initiating him …

Barnabas

(144 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The well-off Levite B., who came from Cyprus, belonged temporarily to the closest circle of co-workers of  Paulus and, before that, to the prominent heads of the Antiochene community. After a missionary period together in Cyprus and Galatia with Paulus, it came to a severe conflict between both, as B. together with others in Antioch ( c. AD 48), revoked the table community between Jewish Christians and pagan-Christians (Gal 2,11-16). Whether he then went to Egypt, like some individual traditions seem to believe (e.g. Ps.-Clem. Hom. 1, …

Barnabas, Epistle of

(220 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The writer of this treatise, written in the form of a letter, (CPG I 1050), who belongs to the so-called  Apostolic Fathers, does not give his name. The MSS as well as Christian theologians of the 2nd/3rd cents. like  Clemens and  Origenes (who regarded the letter as καθολικὴ ἐπιστολή: c. Cels. 1,63) state that the author is  Barnabas, the travelling companion of St. Paul. The first part (chs. 2-16) interprets holy Scripture (= the OT) in terms of God, Christ and the new people of…

Baron Thesis, the

(553 words)

Fifty years ago Hans Baron (1900-1988), who had take refuge from Nazi Germany in the United States, put forth a comprehensive theory to explain the beginning of the Renaissance that anchored Florentine political events in the early 14th cent. into the Classical tradition of republican thought.  During its first two generations, Baron argued, Italian humanism had maintained the medieval preference for monarchical government, which was traced back to Julius Caesar and Augustus.  The same humanists…

Baroque

(9,308 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) | Stenzel, Hartmut (Gießen RWG) | Hellwig, Karin (Munich) | Wenzel, Carola (Munich)
Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] I. Germany (CT) Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] A. The Term and its History (CT) The term, baroque, probably derived from the Portuguese word for an off-round, irregular pearl ( barroco), appears from the 18th cent. on as a synonym for such terms as ‘bizarre, bombastic, irregular.’ In its sense as a stylistic term or expression describing a cultural period, baroque did not come into use in the world of art-historical discourse until the second half of the 19th cent. - for the first time with J. …

Barpana

(20 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island between the Etruscan coast and Corsica, possibly Scoglio d'Affrica (Formica di Montecristo). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Bar Pandera

(92 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] Figure who is mentioned in connection with magic and idolatry (bShab 104b; bSanh 67b); name of Jesus in rabbinical literature (KohR 1.1,8; tHul 2,22f.; yAZ 2,2 [40d], ySab 14,4 [14d]; KohR 10,5). Detailed research of the various traditions was able to show that B. did not originally belong to the context of anti-Christian polemics, but was only identified secondarily with Jesus during the repressive Byzantine religious politics before the Arabic conquest.  Adversos Judaeos;  Anti-Semitism Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Maier, Jesus von Nazareth in d…

Barrels (wooden)

(229 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] While in the Mediterranean, liquids such as wine and oil were generally stored in large clay jars (ίθος, dolium) and transported in animal skins or amphorae, we find the increasing use of wooden barrels for the storing and transporting of wine in the western provinces and northern Italy from the early Principate onwards (Upper Italy: Str. 5,1,8; 5,1,12; Alps: Plin. HN 14,132). Numerous reliefs and funerary sculptures show wine barrels being transported on heavy, horse-drawn wagons (funerary reliefs in Langres and Augsburg), or oar-driven shi…

Barsabas

(50 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βαρσάβας; Barsábas). Sapaean dynast who was part of  Andriscus' campaign to Macedonia in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 32,15,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Ch. M. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan von der hell. Zeit bis zur Gründung Konstantinopels, ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185.

Barsaentes

(69 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσαέντης; Barsaéntēs). Under  Darius satrap of Arachosia and Drangiana; commanded the Arachotes and the neighbouring Indians in the battle of Gaugamela. He murdered Darius in mid 330 BC together with  Bessus and  Nabarzanes, then fled to his satrapy and from there to India. When  Alexander [4] reached the Indus, B. was handed over to him and executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 205.

Barsine

(79 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσίνη; Barsínē). Artabazus' daughter, first married to Mentor of Rhodes, then to his brother Memmon. After the battle of Issus, B. was captured in Damascus. She became Alexander the Great's lover and gave birth to his son  Heracles (probably in 327 BC). She and her son returned to Asia Minor, probably soon after Alexander's marriage to Roxane. In 309 she was murdered in Pergamum following  Polyperchon's order. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 206.

Baruch

(193 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] According to Biblical tradition, he was Jeremiah's companion and scribe. A highly significant figure in early Jewish tradition. In the apocryphal Book of B., he appears foremost as a preacher who calls Israel to penance but also promises consolation. In the B. writings (for instance in SyrBar and GrBar, Ethiop. B. apocalypse), B. predominantly acts as a prophetic recipient of revelation, who can even be superior to Jeremiah when telling him about God's decision (SyrBar 10,1ff). B.…

Barygaza

(136 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Βαρύγαζα ἐμπόριον; Barýgaza empórion, Ptol. 7,1,62 and Steph. Byz.), harbour town at the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, Old and Middle Indian: Bharukaccha, modern Broach. Peripl. m. rubr. 43-49 provides an extensive report on route and commerce; a coin find confirms his statements on the validity of Indo-Greek coins [1]. B. was the port of Ozene, and its trade links extended to Gandhāra and  Bactria. Probably identical with Βαργόση ( Bargόsē) in Str. 15,1,73. Karttun…

Barytonesis

(4 words)

see  Accent

Bas

(83 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βᾶς; Bâs). The Bithynian dynast was the son of Boteiras and second successor to  Doedalses. Memnon (FGrH 434 F 12,4) gives him 71 years, of which he ruled for 50 (377/6-328 BC). His victory over Calas, the satrap charged by Alexander [4] the Great with the conquest of  Bithynia, falls in his late phase (between 333 and 328). This event gave rise to an independent Bithynian ‘kingdom’, whose first king was B.'s son  Zipoetes [1] . Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Basic line

(7 words)

see  Writing, styles of

Basileides

(316 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Βασιλείδης; Basileídēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) Epicurean (c . 245-175 BC.), fourth leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) who taught Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus. He studied mathematics and is known for his discussions in Alexandria with the father of the mathematician Hypsicles about a writing by Apollonius [13] of Perge. He is also known for a debate together with Thespis, another Epicurean, about anger, held against Nicasicrates and Timasagoras. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography Testimonia: W. Crönert, Kolotes…

Basileus

(3,191 words)

Author(s): Carlier, Pierre (Nancy) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(βασιλεύς; basileús). I. Mycenaean period up to the Hellenistic Monarchies [German version] A. Mycenaean The word basileus has not yet been sufficiently explained etymologically. It is usually translated as ‘king’ and probably stems from the pre-Hellenistic substratum. The Mycenaean form qa-si-re-u is evidently identical to βασιλεύς, but instead of designating the sovereign of a kingdom (he holds the title of wa-na-ka), it refers to a considerably lower position. Qa-si-re-u and its derivation qa-si-re-wi-ja can be found about 20 times in the Linear-B archives of Cn…

Basilia

(291 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Basle). [German version] I. Celtic The Roman B. was preceded by a Celtic settlement of  Helvetii and  Rauraci. First, a large, open settlement existed in the late 2nd cent. in the Rhine plain (Basel-Gasfabrik), to which also belonged a field of cremation graves. During the early 1st cent., the Münsterhügel housed an  oppidum fortified with murus gallicus, which perhaps was vacated when the Helvetii left the area in 58 BC.  Fortifications;  Celtic archaeology Pingel, Volker (Bochum) Bibliography E. Major, Gallische Ansiedlung mit…

Basilica

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG)
Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) A. Terminology and Definition (CT) [German version] 1. Profane Architecture (CT) In the Italian Renaissance (A. Palladio [11. lib. III, cap. 20]) the term basilica was applied to multifunctional communal palaces that contained commercial and meeting spaces (basilicas in Vicenza, Padua, Brescia) thus echoing the function of the ancient Roman basilica as market hall, administrative space, and courthouse. Kilian, Barbara (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] 2. Religious Architecture (CT) The term basilica is first attested for church buildin…

Basilica

(1,856 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition The term basilica goes back to the Greek word βασιλική ( basilikḗ), which means ‘majestic, royal, princely, magnificent, grand’ (Lat. regalis). When referring to a building, the adjective must be supplemented by a noun such as στοά ( stoá), since basilica in Greek texts was often translated as στοά. In Christian times, the meaning of basilica is identical to church. Architecturally, a basilica consists of a long hall, which could be open or closed to the outside and which was divided into a nave and side aisles. …

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Basilica Iulia

(213 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica lulia (BI) in Rome takes up the area between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of the Dioscuri, bordered to the west by the vicus Iugarius and to the east by the vicus Tuscus. It was built on top of the  Basilica Sempronia as well as the house underneath, which was owned supposedly by Scipio Africanus. Remnants of both houses were found. The new BI also displaced the tabernae veteres and it is likely that the bordering streets had to be moved as well. Construction began in the year 54 BC ( Basilica Aemilia) and was completed by Augustus…
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