Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Bahrain

(294 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Marlies (Freiburg)
[German version] Island in the Persian Gulf. Archaeological evidence indicates that settlement on the island began in the 7th millennium BC. According to written sources from Mesopotamia, B. was part of the region of  Dilmun since the 3rd millennium BC, and became a politically independent centre of trade at the turn of the 2nd millennium BC, which also happens to be the epoch with the best archaeological findings. Texts from Mesopotamia as well as archaeological evidence from B. indicate that the…

Bahram

(8 words)

see Vahram

Baiae

(216 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Villa City in Campania, located in the westernmost bay of the Gulf of Pozzuoli (Mela 2,70; Plin. HN 3,61; It. Ant. 123,6; Prob. App. gramm. 4,195; Serv. Aen. 9,707; Βαῖαι: Str. 5,4,5; Cass. Dio, 48,51,5; Βαιαί: EM 192,45-46; Boiae, Baie), today called Comune di Bacoli. B. belongs to the geological region of the Campi Phlegraei, a coastal landscape shaped by brandyseism and geothermal phenomena (therefore many thermal installations existe…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Baitylia

(346 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(βαιτύλια; βαίτυλοι; baitýlia, baítyloi). [German version] I. Religious Studies Large upright stones which are included in the cult activity in sanctuaries are to be found throughout the entire Mediterranean region [1]. It was the Phoenicians in particular who contributed to the spread of these. The baitylia in Tyrus and in Emesa were famous [2]. In Israel polemics and the inclusion of baitylia in the cult (Maṣṣebah) with the predication of God, exist side by side (God as a rock: Ps 28,1 [3]). Minoan iconography portrays ecstatic theophany (?) [4]. In Gre…

Bakeries

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Burford-Cooper, Alison (Ann Arbor)
[German version] processed all edible grain products in antiquity, especially  bread. The sources indicate, that people preferred fine, white flour over coarser but more nutritious flour. Wheat and barley were the predominant grains [2]. In the Greek world, barley was more important than wheat both in daily nourishment as well as in rituals (Theophr. Caus. pl. 3,21,3; Ath. 3,111c-112a). But it is certain that Homer was familiar with wheat bread and that Theophrastus was aware of wheat's higher nut…

Baktron

(4 words)

see  Staff

Balacrus

(208 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βάλακρος; Bálakros). Various men with this name served as officers under Alexander [4] the Great. [German version] [1] Satrap of Cilicia, after 333 BC Son of a certain Nicanor, married Phila, daughter of  Antipater [1], who bore him a son. First   somatophýlax , after the battle of Issus, was appointed satrap of Cilicia, where he fought with great success against the mountain tribes, but fell in battle shortly before Alexander's death. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 200 Heckel 260. [German version] [2] Commander of the Greek allied infantry from 334/33 BC Son of …

Balai

(118 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Syrian poet from the first half of the 5th cent. AD, probably worked in Chalcis/Qennešrin (northern Syria). Two poems are definitely genuine, the one about the consecration of a church in Qennešrin, the other one about the death of bishop Acacius of  Beroea [3] (Aleppo) in the year AD 432. An epic poem in 12 books about the patriarch Joseph, which is also attributed to  Ephraim, could have been written by B. Many liturgical poems with verses in five syllables (‘Balai metre’) are attributed to him. Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) Bibliography K. V. Zettersteen, Beiträge zur …

Balantion

(4 words)

see  Purse

Balantiotomoi

(34 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βαλαντιοτόμοι; balantiotómoi). ‘Cutpurses’ (pickpockets) were pursued in Athens on the basis of the νόμος τῶν κακούργων ( nómos tôn kakoúrgōn) with   apagōgḗ (‘leading away’) and punished with death. Thür, Gerhard (Graz)

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Balash

(5 words)

see  Vologaeses [10]

Balāwāt

(151 words)

Old Imgur-Enlil, approximately 28 km south-east of Mossul (Iraq). The ruins of a palace and a temple for the god Mamu, erected by Assurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) [1] have been documented. In the temple area the ornamental fittings in bronze relief from two two-winged gates of Assurnasirpal II [1; 2] were found, as well as one of his son Salmanassar III [3]. Episodes from military campaigns are depicted, more rarely from royal hunts. The citadel was destroyed in the late 7th cent. BC and only resettled for a short period in Hellenistic times.  Sculpting, technique of Bibliography 1 J. Curt…

Balbillus (Barbillus)

(154 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] Claudius Balbillus, Tiberius. Praefectus Aegypti AD 55-59; games were held in Ephesus after 70 (Βαλβιλλεῖα; Balbilleîa) in his honour. Sen. Q Nat. 4,2,13 praises his erudition, therefore identified by Cichorius i.a. [2; 3; 9. 39] against [10] with the son of Thrasyllus, the astrologer of emperors Claudius (he comes to him in 41 as envoy of the Alexandrians to Rome), Nero and Vespasianus. His writings, addressed to a certain Hermogenes, were called Ἀστρολογούμενα ( Astrologoúmena). Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography Fragments : 1 F. Cumont, CCAG VIII 4, 23…

Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Balbis

(117 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Starting- and finishing-line in the Greek  stadium. The balbis was a stone bump equipped with grooves and let into the ground; starting gates made of wooden posts were anchored into it. The grooves served as places for the feet to rest against when starting. Numerous examples are preserved such as in Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, Ephesus. Artistic representations in sculpture, relief art and vase-painting. In addition, balbis is also a term to describe the line to mark the throwing off of discus and javelin. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography W. Zschietzschmann, Wet…

Balboura

(146 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture North Lycian town with extensive chora, possibly of Pisidian origins, founded in the 2nd cent. BC [1; 2]. With Boubon and  Oenoanda member in a tetrapolis, which was led by  Cibyra (Str. 13,4,17); after this was dissolved in 84 BC, added to the Lycian League by Murena, but with its own coins [3]. Oldest ruins from the Hellenistic period (Acropolis); buildings (i.a. theatre, temple, aqueduct) and graves testi…

Balbus

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen (‘the Stutterer’) in republican times among the Acilii, Cornelii, Laelii, Lucilii and other families (ThlL 2,1693f.). In imperial times the epithet of the following consuls: l. Cornelius B. (40 BC), l. Cornelius B. (32 BC), D. Laelius B. (6 BC), l. Norbanus B. (AD 19), Q. Iulius B. (AD 85), Q. Iulius B. (AD 129). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Baletium

(100 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Messapian town, c. 17 km south-east of Brindisi, today Valesio. Baleθas/Faleθas on silver coins (4th or 5th cent. BC) [1. 226-235]. B. in Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Balesium in Plin. HN 3,101, Valetium in Mela 2,66, Balentium in the Tab. Peut. 7,2, Valentiam in the It. Burd. 609,8. Archaeological remains from Messapian and Roman periods (until the 5th cent. AD) [2; 3] have been found. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. Siciliano, Le zecche della Messapia, in: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Magna Grecia 30, 1991, 224-254 2 J. S. Boersma, D. G. Yntema, V…

Baliares

(399 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General The modern B. were named Gymnḗsiai by the Greeks, because their inhabitants went naked during the summer. The two main islands were referred to respectively as insula maior and insula minor; the names of Maiorica and Menorica (modern Mallorca and Minorca) are only found from the 3rd cent. AD (Georgius Cyprianus, p. 108, 673 Gelzer). Apart from those two islands, Plin. HN 3,78 also lists Capraria, Triquada and parva (sc. insula) Hannibalis, also Menariae. They can undoubtedly be identified with the islands of Cabrera, Porrasa, Sech and the Las …

Baliaricus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q.   Caecilius Metellus ( cos. 123 BC), which he assumed after his triumph over the Baleares in 121 (InscrIt 13,1,83). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Balius

(134 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βάλιος, Βαλίας; Bálios, Balías) and Xanthus. Immortal horses of the Peleid  Achilles, who were born by the harpy Podarge to Zephyrus, god of the winds. Poseidon gave them to Peleus on his marriage to Thetis (Hom. Il. 16,148-154; Apollod. 3,170). Xanthus prophesied Achilles his approaching death (Hom. Il. 19,400-424). When he dies, B. and Xanthus want to leave the human sphere, but the gods order them to serve Achilles' son Neoptolemus and to carry him later to Elysium (Quint. Smyrn.…

Balkans, languages

(1,118 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster) | Kramer, Johannes (Trier)
[German version] A. Palaeo-Balkanic languages Those languages, which were spoken in antiquity in the Balkan area, are considered to be Palaeo-Balkanic languages, but are only known in fragments from indirect sources (references by Greek and Lat. authors, names on Greek and Lat. inscriptions) (so-called fragmented languages), especially 1. Pre-Greek ( Pre-Greek languages), 2.  Macedonian, 3. Thracian, 4. Dacian, 5. Illyrian. Thracian was spread throughout the eastern half of the continental area of the Balkans and probably showed a strong division into …

Balkh

(116 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάκτρα; Báktra). Commercial and residential town at the intersection of two caravan routes in north Afghanistan. Originally Ζαρίασπα ( Zaríaspa; Arr. 3,1,5,71; Pol. 10,49) or Zariastes (Plin. HN 6,48). Today densely populated and, therefore, only excavations at the edge of the tell.  Antiochus III besieged  Euthydemus in vain in 206 BC; the latter built up the Graeco-Bactrian empire from here ( Bactria). In 1966, a hoard find brought forth more than 170 Greek coins from the period before 380 BC. Inhabited and fortified until today. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Trei…

Balletys

(4 words)

see  Eleusinia

Ball games

(585 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (σφαιρίσεις; sphairíseis, pilae lusus). Homeric society already enjoyed ball games (BG) (Hom. Od. 6,110-118; 8,372-380), which have also been practised by people of all social levels (Ath. 1,14e, 15c; 12,548b; Plut. Alexander 39,5; Cic. Tusc. 5,60) and age groups since then. The Romans took many BG over from the Greek. Some were team games, like   harpaston or ἐπίσκυρος, epískyros (Poll. 9,103f.; schol. Pl. Tht. 146 i.a.), during which the opposite party was gradually pushed off the field by long-range shots, perhaps depicted on the relie…

Ballista

(105 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Called ‘Callistus’ by Greek authors, because of an orthographical error [1], Praetorian praefect of  Valerianus, then of  Macrianus (SHA Valer. 4,4; SHA Gall. 3,2). After Valerian was taken prisoner, he had the sons of Macrianus proclaimed emperors (SHA Gall. 1,3). As cavalry commander for Macrianus, he triumphed over the Persians (Zon. 12,24). He stayed in the east with Quietus, the younger son of Macrianus, but surrendered Quietus in the battle of Emesa; however, B. was soon killed by Odoenathus (Zon. 12,24; SHA Gall. 3,1f.). PIR2 B 41; PLRE 1, 146. Birley, A. R. (Dü…

Baloia

(194 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman municipium (at the time of Emperor Hadrian?) in the upper Pliva valley, province of Dalmatia; today Šipovo (Bosnia-Herzegovina); its city status is confirmed by CIL III 13982, with the formula [l(ocus)] d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum). Widely scattered urban habitats. B. was developed in the mining area of Sinjakovo near Majdan, along the important Roman road Salona -- Servitium (Tab. Peut. 5,2: Baloea), not far from the road Salviae - Sarnade -- Leusaba - Servitium (It. Ant. 268). Flourished in t…

Bal­sam

(197 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (βάλσαμον; bálsamon), also balsam sap or inferior wood balsam (ὀποβάλσαμον or ξυλοβάλσαμον), the aromatic resin of the Burseracea Commiphora (= balsamodendron) opobalsamum (including gileadensis), which is tapped in the summer. Balsam was only known since Theophr. Hist. pl. 9,6 only as a product of two gardens from Palestine (Judea near Jericho) and from Arabia (Str. 16,2,763). Dioscorides (1,19,1-5 [1. 1.24ff.] = 1,18 [2. 45ff.]; following Theophrastus) describes the small bush, which resembles the vin…

Balthi

(226 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The B. (‘the Bold’) are the royal line of the Visigoths, which is held in lesser esteem than the  Amali line of the Ostrogoths. Although the B. are also considered to be a line of ‘kings and heroes’, in contrast with the Amali, the memory of divine descent was lost. The historical descent of the royal family also remains obscure, because the relationship of the first identifiable Balthi prince, Alaric I ( Alaricus [2], died AD 410), to the three Terwingian judges of the 4th cent. …

Baltic languages

(132 words)

Author(s): Oettinger, Norbert (Augsburg)
[German version] The Baltic languages (BL) represent a branch of the  Indo-European languages and consist of Lithuanian and Latvian (East Baltic) and Old Prussian (West Baltic) in East Prussia, which had died out in c. AD 1700. For the Indo-European kinship cf. e.g. Lithuanian diẽvas, Latvian dìevs, Old Prussian deiwas ‘god’ with Lat. deus, all from Indo-European * dei̯u̯os ‘god’, or Lithuanian raũdas ‘red’ with Lat. ruber and Greek ἐρυθρός, or Latvian broter-ė̃lis ‘little brother’ with Lat. frāter. The BL belong to the  satem languages and are relatively similar to the …

Baltic languages

(981 words)

Author(s): Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) | Forssman, Berthold (Jena RWG)
Forssman, Bernhard (Erlangen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The term Baltic languages (BL) refers to an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, a branch that includes Lithuanian, Latvian and Old Prussian, the last of which died out c. 1700. Trade contacts between the Baltic peoples and the Romans ( Trade/Trade routes) had existed as early as Antiquity along the Amber Road, but evidence of linguistic contact at that early time does not exist. The Baltic peoples do not enter i…

Baltimore

(9 words)

Walters Art Gallery see USA: museums

Baltimore Painter

(122 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Apulian vase painter from the last quarter of the 4th cent. BC, named after a vessel in Baltimore. The Baltimore Painter (BP) painted mostly on vessels with large surfaces (volute kraters, amphoras, loutrophori, hydrias i.a.  Pottery, shapes and types of) with funerary scenes ( Naiskos vases), mythological scenes ( Bellerophon, assemblies of the gods) and Dionysian subjects; rarer are genre scenes, like images of women, weddings and Erotes. His presence and artistic work in Canosa…

Bambyce

(244 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Zenobia | Limes (Βαμβύκη; Bambýkē). City in North Syria, 78 km north-east of Aleppo at the confluence of the Sadjur and the Euphrates. B. (Str. 16,2,7) was since Seleucus I known as the Syrian Ἱεράπολις, Hierápolis (Str. 16,1,27, Ptol. 5,14,10), but at the same time also as Mabbog (Plin. HN 5, 81) with the Graecized form, Μέμπετξε (Leo Diaconus, 165,22; from which the Arabic Manbiǧ). The position, generally identified with the Assyrian settlement Nappigi/Nampigi, possesse…

Bâmyân

(124 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Resting-place for pilgrims and caravans between  Balkh and Peshawar ( Peucelaotis). Described by the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan Tsang in the 7th cent. AD; known in Europe since 1824; explored by a French expedition in 1922-30. Oldest remains of the city in the valley of B. date from the 5th cent. AD. Important Buddhist monastery, which was chiselled into a steep rock-face between the 5th and 7th cents. Large Buddhas (one 53 m, the second 35 m high), which were cut out of the rock, were…

Banasa

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Probably indigenous name of a city of Mauritania Tingitana on the left bank of the Oued Sebou on the fertile Ġharb plain, today Sidi Ali bou Djenoun. The oldest archaeological signs lead to the 6th/5th cents. BC; ceramics found show Phoenician and Iberian influences. After the death of  Bocchus [2] II, the young Caesar raised B. to the status of a colonia (33-27 BC); Marcus Aurelius granted it the honorary name colonia Aurelia Banasa. Inscriptions: Inscr. antiques du Maroc 2, 84-246 (i.a. the Tabula Banasitana and an e…

Banausia

(4 words)

see  Education

Bandum

(84 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] (τὸ βάνδον; tò bándon). Originally the description of the colours of small military units, bandum was used for the units themselves from the 6th cent. In the 10th cent., a bandum consisted of 50-100 heavily or 200-400 lightly armed soldiers. The bandum was commanded by a   comes ; five to seven banda formed a turma. The term remained in use until the 14th cent. Makris, Georgios (Bochum) Bibliography J. Haldon, Byzantine Praetorians, 1984, 172-173, 276-277 T. Kolias, s.v. Heer, LMA 4, 1989, 2002-2004.

Bandusia

(150 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Spring near Venusia Spring near Venusia, the native city of  Horatius, who was prompted by B. to name B. [2]. In connection with Bantia (today Banzi), it is located in the Palazzo San Gervasio (today Potenza) on the basis of a bull of Pope Pasquale II (1103), who addresses an ecclesia ss. martyrum Gervasii et Protasii in Bandusino fonte apud Venusium and a castellum Bandusii. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Jaffé, 714, 5945. [German version] [2] Spring in Apulia Fons splendidior vitro (‘a spring, clearer than glass’ Hor. Carm. 3,13), named thus by…

Banishment

(57 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman Antiquity banishment largely replaced the death penalty for members of the upper class, but also existed as an independent  punishment, as in the Attic ostrakismós . For details for Greece, particularly Athens, see phygḗ , aeiphygía , apeniautismós , for Rome see exilium , deportatio , relegatio . Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Banks

(2,042 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Banks as institutions whose specific task consists of arranging payment transactions, accepting deposits and granting credits, did not exist in the Ancient Orient. There is evidence of deposit and credit operations in ancient oriental societies of differing quantity and intensity, both in the domain of palace and temple economy and in individual private legal and economic transactions, but they were always subordinate to the respectively dominating redistributive an…

Banquet

(3,705 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] I. Egypt and the ancient Orient The central Egyptian sources of information regarding banquets are the depictions of the funerary banquet in the tombs of Theban officials dating from the 18th dynasty (15th -14th cents. BC). The early pictures show the tomb's occupant with his spouse as the host in front of a table loaded with dishes of food and faced by their guests in several rows. Servants adorn them with flowers and bring wine and food, pleasant-smelling ointments and utensils for ha…

Bantia

(111 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars Apulian-Lucanian city (Βαντία; Bantía: Plut. Marcellus 29,1), near Venosa (Liv. 27,25,13; Hor. Carm. 3,4,15; Porph. Acron), today Banzi. Municipium between 80 and 60 (CIL I2 582 with CIL IX 416). Templum augurale, necropoleis of the 7th-4th cents. BC. M. Claudius Marcellus fell between B. and Venosa in the battle against Hannibal (Liv. 27,27,7; Plut. Marcellus 29). Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) Bibliography A. Bottini, Osservazioni sulla topografia di Banzi preromana, in: AION 2, 1980, 69-82 M. Torelli, Una nuova…

Baphyras

(57 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βαφύρας; Baphýras). River in Pieria, rising at Mount Olympus, then named Helicon, and discharging into the Aegean east of Dion. After an underground run of about 5 km, it continued above ground, and was navigable from Dion (Paus. 9,30,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 125.

Baptai

(4 words)

see  Cottyto

Baptism

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] I. Non-Christian There are analogies to the Christian baptism (βάπτισμα; báptisma or βαπτισμός; baptismós, Lat. baptisma or baptismus) in the history of other religions: rituals involving immersion in, or sprinkling with water and cleansing rituals were widespread prior to and alongside Christianity. However, these rituals followed different procedures and were interpreted differently, even though from the Christian point of view they were seen as a satanic mockery of the Christian baptism (Tert. …

Baptism, symbol of.

(381 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] Symbols of baptism are the professions of faith (= creed), which were spoken during or in conjunction with a  baptism. The assumption of older scholars that NT professions of faith such as Rom 10,9 or Phil 2,11 were connected with baptisms, are not supported by any documentation apart from a single interpolation dating from the late 2nd cent. (Acts 8,37). Set formulae for the profession of faith during baptism are documented from the early 3rd cent., but originally they were not spoken by the celebrant himself. The earliest clear confirmation of the baptismal symbol ( symbo…
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