Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Barber

(282 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κουρεύς/ koureús; tonsor). It is unknown when the occupation of the barber and hairdresser first became an autonomous profession in Greece. In myth the barber is only rarely mentioned ( Midas); early representation of a barber: Boeotian terracotta in Berlin [1]. The barber is considered to be talkative and curious (Plut. Mor. 2,177a; 508) and knows the latest gossip. The barber's room (κουρεῖον/ koureîon) is the place where people get together (Lys. 24,3,20; Plut. Timoleon 14; Plut. Mor. 716ff.), and where you can also contract business dea…

Barberini Faun

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG)
Helas, Philine (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Object (CT) The so-called Barberini Faun is a 2.15 m high Greek sculpture from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC. A youth is portrayed slumbering in a half-seated pose. The youthful, naked, muscular body of the BF reclines relaxed but not enfeebled on an animal skin spread over rocky ground, which combined with the ivy and corymbs in its hair suggests a Dionysian context. It reflects its inherent semi-animality less in its physicality than by  Aalen its ope…

Barbitos

(5 words)

see  Musical instruments

Barbius

(26 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] M.B. Aemilianus, cos. suff. in the year 140 (CIL XVI 177); RMD 1, 39; originated from Aquileia (EOS 2, 332f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Barbosthenes

(63 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βαρβοσθένης; Barbosthénēs). Mountain, 14.8 km from Sparta, where  Nabis was defeated by Philopoemen in 192 BC (Liv. 35,27,13; 30,9 incorrect Barnosthenem), perhaps an eastward continuation of the  Olympus in the  Parnon near Vresthena or Varvitsa. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 2, 1868, 117 n. 1 A. Forbiger, Hdb. [in titles] der Alten Geogr. 3, 1877, 679 n. 77.

Barbucallus, Iohannes

(97 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] with the epithet Γραμματικός ( Grammatikós). Epigram poet of the ‘ kyklos’ of Agathias, lived in the 6th cent. AD, author of 12 reasonable, for the most part ecphrastic and epideictic epigrams (some uncertainty remains, furthermore, concerning Anth. Pal. 7,555-555b and 9, 628f.; the first are titled Ἰωάννου Ποιητοῦ, the others Ἰωάννου Γραμματικοῦ). Noteworthy are the epigrams about the destruction of Berytus (Beirut) by the earthquake of 551 (9,425-427; the influence of Nonnus, Dion. 41 is obvious in 426,1f.). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography Av. & A. Cameron, …

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barcas

(4 words)

see  Barcids

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Barcino(na)

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula The present-day Barcelona was an Iberian settlement of the  Lacetani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6, 18). During the Civil War, B. was on Caesar's side. B. received the name Faventia Julia Augusta Pia (or Paterna?) Immunis. B. reached its highest peak during Roman imperial times. The city attained its special significance not least because of its bishops -- under the  Visigoths, when the decline of Tarraco started. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 438-440 R. W…

Bardas

(86 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine statesman, Armenian, brother of Theodora, mother of Emperor Michael III (AD 842-867). Bearer of the highest court title Caesar (καῖσαρ) since 862. He promoted the mission to the Slavs, founded a school for scientific studies in the imperial palace, furthered the elevation of the learned  Photius to patriarch. B. was murdered by the parvenu  Basilius [5] I, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, on 21.4.866. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1456 ODB 1, 255f. P. Speck, Die kaiserliche Universität von Konstantinopel, 1974.

Bardesanes

(228 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Well known as ‘Aramaic philosopher’ and astrologist, B. (AD 154-222) is the earliest known Syrian author from Edessa, where he worked at the court of  Abgar [3] VIII (177-212). Iulius Africanus (Kestoi 1,20) mentions that he met him there in the year 195. Even though B. wrote against the Marcionites ( Marcion) and the Chaldaeans, his opinions about cosmology drew the disapproval of later writers since  Ephraim. This led to the loss of his writings (both poetry as well as prose). H…

Bardiya

(198 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Elamite Pirtiya; Akkadian Barzija; Greek Σμέρδις, Μάρδος; Smérdis, Márdos, Aesch. Pers. 774). [German version] [1] Younger son of  Cyrus II Younger son of  Cyrus II (and Cassandane), according to the  Bisutun inscription full brother of  Cambyses II [3. 117]; in Ctesias Pers. 12,10,29 Tanyoxarkes, in Xen. Cyr. 8,7,11 Tanaoxares, whom Cyrus supposedly appointed as satrap of Media, Armenia and Cadusia, murdered on orders of Cambyses either before [3. 117.29f.] or during (Hdt. 3,10) his Egyptian military campaign (52…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…

Bargusii

(4 words)

see  Bergistani

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Baris Oros

(81 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάρις ὄρος; Báris óros). The ancient name for the highest mountain of  Armenia, the Ararat (5165 m). The source on which this is based is Nicolaus of Damascus, in Ios. Ant. Iud. 1, p. 95; p. 18 Niese. The Βaris Οros belonged to the Armenian landscape Μινουάς ( Minouás; today Manawazeau) and was located south-west of the old  Artaxata (today Artašat). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World II. Dardanelles, Bosporus, Turkey East, 1959, Pl. 37.

Barium

(275 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Rome | Rome (Βάρις; Báris). Peucetian harbour town (Βάριον, Atbaris: schol. Hor. Sat. 1,5,97; Beroes: It. Burd. 609,15; cf. Liv. 40,18; Str. 5,3,8), founded by Illyrians (Plin. HN 3,102) or by emigrants from Barra (Fest. s.v.), at the junction of the via Traiana and the coastal road (Hor. Sat. 1,5,96-97), modern Bari. Flourished between the 6th and 4th cents. BC (cf. the rich necropolis outside the town to the south, close to the coast). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (inscriptions: IG XIV 687; C…
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