Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Bat

(402 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Because of its appearance in the evening it was called νυκτερίς ( nykterís) or vespertilio. From the Orient, the flying fox ( Pteropus medius Tem.) apparently was also known under the name of ἀλώπηξ ( alṓpēx, Aristot. Hist. an. 1,5,490a 7) or νυκταλώπηξ ( nyktalṓpēx, Ps.-Callisthenes 3,17,21; Str. 16,1,7 = p.739; cf. Hdt. 3,110, accordingly Plin. HN 12,85). The order of Chiropterais described as ‘skin-winged’ (δερμόπτερα, cf. Plin. HN 11,228: siccis membranis volat) by Aristot. Hist. an. 1.1.487b 22f. and 490a 7f., and thus seen as being close to that…

Batanaea

(319 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] High plain, bordered to the west by the Golan Mountains (Γαυλανῖτις), to the north-west by Mount Hermon, to the north-east by the basalt desert of Laǧā (Τραχωνῖτις), to the south-east by the Ḥaurān Mountains (Αὐρανῖτις), and to the south by the river Yarmuk (Hieromykes) and its tributary wadis, thus occupying the same area as today's Nuqra. The name goes back to OT Bāšān (therefore Greek Βασάν; Basán and Βασανῖτις; Basanîtis). The dissolution of the Seleucid government in Syria and Palestine in the late 2nd cent. BC briefly brought B. under Nabataea…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Batavian Revolt

(604 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Final phase in the civil war that took place after Nero's death between August of AD 69 and September/October 70 north of the Alps (sources in [1]). Tacitus is the main source for a description of the complex chain reactions entailing breaches of faith and new solidarities (Hist. 4,12-37; 54-79; 5,14-26). Some authors (for instance Brunt) claim that Tacitus depicts a believable and consistent overview of the separatist movement against Rome which aimed at a Gallic world empire (cf…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…

Bate

(98 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βατή; Batḗ). Attic asty(?)-demos (  asty ) of the phyle Aegeis; one (two) bouleutes/ai. Location unknown (near Ambelokipi?); the decree of the mesogeioi IG II2 1245, found near the Acharnaean Gate, i.e. at the street corner of Sophokleous and Aiolou, does not aid the localization of B. In IG II2 2776 Z. 53, an σχαστηρία is pawned in B. [1. 81] (further documentary evidence for σχαστηρίαι [1. 8123]). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. G. Miller, A Roman Monument in the Athenian Agora, in: Hesperia, 41, 1972, 50-95. Traill, Attica, 5, 7, 15f., 39, 69, 109 (n…

Bathing costume

(98 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ᾤα λουτρίς; ṓia loutrís, subligar). Men and women wore loin cloths or bath towels made from sheepskins or cloth during the communal bath in bath houses (Poll. 7,66; 10,181,   perizoma ,   subligaculum ), women also wore a breast band (vase paintings, ‘bikini girl’ of  Piazza Armerina). Men's bathing costumes could also be made from leather ( aluta, Mart. 7,35,1). In Pap. Cair. Zen. 60,8, there is mention of an ἐκλουστρίς ( ekloustrís). It is uncertain if bonnets ( vesica) were worn. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography R. Ginouvès, Balaneutikè, 1962, 223-225 W. Hein…

Bathing culture

(7 words)

see  Baths;  Thermae [1]

Baths

(969 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology and definition In Greek baths were called βαλανεῖον ( balaneîon) or λουτρόν ( loutrón), in Latin lavatrina, balneum, balnea, balnae. In the Graeco-Roman period there were private baths in dwelling houses as well as public baths, whilst in the ancient Orient only private baths were known. The public baths were mostly privately owned and rather modest in size; for the monumental public baths, see  Thermae [1]. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) [German version] B. Greece There were private baths in Greece from the Minoan-Mycenaean period onwards; the…

Bathycles

(131 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Legendary sculptor and architect from  Magnesia on the Maeander, famous for his so called ‘throne’ of Apollo in Amyclae near Sparta, which is described in great detail by Pausanias (3,18,6-3,19,6): as a structure, it combined the grave of Hyacinthus, an  altar, and a colossal  cult image, decorated with 45 mythological scenes, statues, and a depiction of his co-workers dancing in a circle. Since we have no surviving remnants at all, we must regard its numerous reconstructions and its dating to the late 6th cent. as speculative. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A.…

Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Batis

(58 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βάτις; Bátis). Supposedly a eunuch, he was commander of Gaza under Darius. He stopped Alexander the Great at Gaza in 332 BC for two months by keeping up a courageous and hopeless resistance. After the fall of the city, he was gruesomely executed by the victor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 209.

Bato

(348 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Dardanian king, around 200 BC Dardanian king who supported the Romans by providing reinforcements in 200 BC in the battle against  Philip V (Liv. 31,28,1-2.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH VIII, 21989, 262 Errington 187. [German version] [2] Rebelling Dalmatian, 6-9 AD Dalmatian from the tribe of Daesidiates. Leader in the Pannonian-Dalmatian revolt of AD 6-9, whose causes Cassius Dio (55,29-34; 56,11-26) and Velleius Paterculus (2,110-116) located in the tax burden and in recruitment practices. After his…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Batrachomyomachia

(806 words)

Author(s): Glei, Reinhold F. (Bochum)
[German version] A. In literary history Homeric parody from the late Hellenistic period [1]. As was the case for the   Margites , it was attributed to Homer (Stat. Silv. I praef.; Mart. 14,183; Vita Herodotea 24) or to Pigres of Halicarnassus (Suda s.v. Πίγρης 1551 Adler; Plut. de Herodoti malignitate 873f was attributed through interpolation [2. 25-27]); the title was first Βατραχομαχία ( Batrachomachía) or -ίη respectively, to which the element -μυο- was added either for reasons of pedantry or parody [2. 23-33]. The animal  epic of about 300 hexameters (…

Battiads

(161 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Βαττιάδαι; Battiádai). Designation for the dynasty of Cyrene that lasted for eight generations; four kings by the name of  Battus alternated with four others by the name of  Arcesilaus (Hdt. 4,159). The eponym is Battus I (since c. 630 in Cyrene). The king's privileges mentioned by Herodotus (4,161) are unusual. Since  Arcesilaus II ( c. 560), we find the typical aristocratic divisions in Cyrene which led to tyrannis in Greek cities of that time. The successors either tried to dominate or pushed for agreement. In order to stay in power, the king…

Battlefields

(7,551 words)

Author(s): Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo
Sguaitamatti, Lorenzo A. History of the Reception of Ancient Battles (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The interest in war in Antiquity encompasses a whole range of areas such as military technology, tactics and strategy, the great generals, as well as the impact of war on historical processes. Although military conflicts cannot be understood in terms of the military operations alone, the compressed events of bloody battle in time and space were seen as a key to the understanding of the history of war.…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Baubo

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Βαυβώ; Baubṓ). According to a version of the Eleusinic myth attributed to Orpheus, she was an original inhabitant of Eulisis with the heroes Triptolemus, Eumolpus, Eubuleus and her husband Dysaules, who are visited by  Demeter on her search for his daughter. Like  Iambe in the version of the myth in the Homeric hymn, B. entertains the goddess with food and drink and then obscenely exposes her lower body in order to cheer her up (Clem. Protrepticus 20f.; Arnob. 5,25, who describes …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…
▲   Back to top   ▲