Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bee-eater

(131 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Named μέροψ, mérops by the Boeotians (Aristot. Hist. an. 6,1,559a3ff.); a colourful, warmth-loving bird of the Coraciiformes species, Merops apiaster L., said to feed its parents shortly after hatching (Plin. HN 10,99; drawing on Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an.9,13,615b24-32 and Ael. NA 11,30 [2]). It is said to brood in holes six feet deep in the ground. It was hunted because it fed on bees (Ps.-Aristot. Hist. an. 9,40,626a13). Servius derives the Latin name apiastra from this feeding pattern (Serv. Georg. 4,14). In Ger. glosses of the Middle Ages it is often…

Beekeeping

(4 words)

see  Apiculture

Beer

(444 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the ancient Orient, beer was a well-known and popular drink that had been brewed in Mesopotamia and Egypt since the end of the 4th millennium BC at the latest. The basic ingredient in manufacture was above all barley malt [1. 322-329], other ingredients were emmer and sesame. In the 1st millennium BC a type of date beer became important in Babylon [2.155-183]. In Egypt texts from the older period mention not just date beer but also carob tree beer and poppy beer.…

Bees

(564 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Zoology According to our sources, it was the Greeks and Romans who first bred bees for honey in antiquity ( Apiculture). They called the honey or worker bee δάρδα, μέλισσα, apis, the male drone ἀνθρήνη, κηφήν, θρώναξ, fucus and the queen bee βασιλεύς, ἡγεμῶν, rex, dux or imperator. In Greece this applied to the uniformly coloured, dark brown Apis cecropia, in Italy mainly to the A. ligustica with two orange rings on its abdomen. The zoological information about them was often incorrect. According to Pliny (HN 11,1 and 5) they had no blood, a…

Beet

(284 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (γογγυλίς/ gongylís, ῥάπυς/ rhápys, ῥάφυς/ rháphys, βουνιάς/ bouniás, Latin rapum, napus). Fodder beet (var. rapa) was cultivated from wild beet, Beta vulgaris. Probably the white beet of ancient times is related to turnip rape, Brassica rapa L., of the Cruciferae family. Theophrastus mentions in Hist. pl. 1,6, 6-7 the fleshy root of the gongylís and in the 7th book details of sowing. Columella 2,10,22-24 (= Pall. Agric. 8,2,1-3) seems to understand by napus the swede, and by rapum white beet. He recommends that after the summer solstice or at the end of A…

Beetle

(759 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Of the beetle order, whose name κολεόπτερα/ koleóptera Aristotle (Hist. an. 1,5,490a 13-15 and 4,7,552a 22f.) derives from the fact that their wings were under a cover (ἔλυτρον, élytron; crusta: Plin. HN 11,97), only a few species were distinguished. The popular name for them was κάνθαροι, kántharoi, Latin scarabaei. They form from larvae (κάμπαι, Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,551b 24) or worms (σκώληκες, 5,19,552b 3, Latin vermes). The most important of the 112 species probably identified through more detailed information on them are the following: A. Ground beetle: 1. …

Beggars

(957 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Johannes (Münster)
[German version] The phenomenon of begging (πτωχεία, ptōcheía, Latin mendicitas, rarely mendicatio) is only sporadically documented in antiquity and hardly ever the subject of economical or social analysis. Also, as a rule, begging disappears behind an undifferentiated concept and conception of  poverty, and it is therefore only rarely possible to get a clear grasp of begging as the most bitter, and furthermore socially stigmatized, form of poverty. It is, however, obvious that contemporaries were aware of…

Begram

(4 words)

see  Capisa

Behaghel's law

(188 words)

Author(s): Plath, Robert (Erlangen)
[German version] Summarizing term for the five principles of word order and clause order established by O. Behaghel (1854-1936) [2]. The best known of the five is the so-called law of increasing parts ( Gesetz der wachsenden Glieder): it is based on the tendency -- already apparent in antiquity -- to go from shorter to longer constituents [1. 139; 2. 6], see Demetrius Phalereus, De elocutione 18: ἐν δὲ τοῖς συνθέτοις περιόδοις τὸ τελευταῖον κῶλον μακρότερον χρὴ εἶναι. Cic. De or. 3,48: quare aut paria esse debent posteriora superioribus et extrema primis aut, quod etiam es…

Behistun

(4 words)

see  Bisutun

Beisan

(211 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Zenobia | Hasmonaeans (Besan). 25 km south of Lake Galilee (Lake Tiberias) on the Tall al-Ḥiṣn; the ancient city was settled from Chalcolithic time to the Crusades. The Arabic name is derived from the Hebrew bēt-šean (Egyptian btsr, Cuneiform script Bı̄tšāni). Owing to its strategic and economic significance, B. became a military and administrative centre for Egyptian Asian policy from the 15th cent. to the middle of the 12th cent. BC. It was the only city in Israel to…

Belarus

(5 words)

see Belorussia

Belenus

(342 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] (Belinus). Celtic God, equated in the interpretatio Romana with Apollo, especially in his role as a sun god. The syllable bel- appears to derive from Indo-Germanic ‘shine, radiate, burn’. Tertullian reports (Apol. 24,7) that B. is the god of the Noricans, however the majority of the evidence was found in Aquileia and its surrounding areas. This is confirmed by Herodian (8,3,8) who reports that in Aquileia, B. in particular was venerated as Apollo (above all because the god had come in person to the a…

Belesys

(92 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Babylon. Bēlšunu). Sub-governor of Babylon from 421 at least until 414 BC; Satrap of Syria at least between 407 and 401, where he owned large estates and a palace (Xen. An. 1,4,10). Being appointed as governor was unusual for a Babylonian and was probably owing to his support of Darius II in his battle for the throne. B.'s business documents written in Babylonian language (dated 424-400 BC) were found in  Babylon. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. W. Stolper, The Kasr Archive, in: Achaemenid History 4, 1990, 195-205.

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Belgium

(7 words)

see Netherlands and Belgium

Belgius

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βόλγιος; Bólgios). Celtic name, cf. Irish Bolg ‘lightning’ [1.88], leader of the Galatian Celts. He invaded Macedonia in late 280 and early 279 BC and destroyed the small army of King  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was killed in the process (Just. Epit. 24,4-5; Paus. 10,19,5-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, 1987. Holder, 1, 384.

Belisarius

(854 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βελισάριος; Belisários). B. (born around 500/505 in Germania near  Serdica), distinguished commander under  Iustinianus I. The main source about his life is the historical work ( Bella) which glorifies B. and thus should be read critically, written by  Procopius of Caesarea, who accompanied him on his campaigns until 540. From 529, he was mag. militum per Orientem and, in 528, he assumed leadership in the newly erupted war against the Persians. He was victorious in 530 near Dara, but suffered a crushing defeat in 531 on the Euphrates…
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