Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bagradas

(153 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μακάρας; Makáras, Pol. 1,75,5; 1,86,9; 15,2,8 [1.1085f.]; Βαγράδας; Bagrádas, Str. 17,3,13; Ptol. 4,3,6; 4,3,18; 4,3,31; 6,10; Bagrada: Mela 1,34; Lucan. 4,587; Plin. HN 5,24; cf. 8,37). Today called Ksar Baghai (concerning the name [2. 1311]), the longest river in north-eastern Africa (365 km; Iulius Honorius differs, Cosmographia 47: 318 miles). The B. rises near Thubursicum Numidarum (Iulius Honorius ibid.; Ptol. differs 4,3,18; 6,10) and flows sluggishly (Sil. Pun. 6,140-143) from west-south-west to east-south-east. The…

Bahrain

(294 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Marlies (Freiburg)
[German version] Island in the Persian Gulf. Archaeological evidence indicates that settlement on the island began in the 7th millennium BC. According to written sources from Mesopotamia, B. was part of the region of  Dilmun since the 3rd millennium BC, and became a politically independent centre of trade at the turn of the 2nd millennium BC, which also happens to be the epoch with the best archaeological findings. Texts from Mesopotamia as well as archaeological evidence from B. indicate that the…

Bahram

(8 words)

see Vahram

Baiae

(216 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Villa City in Campania, located in the westernmost bay of the Gulf of Pozzuoli (Mela 2,70; Plin. HN 3,61; It. Ant. 123,6; Prob. App. gramm. 4,195; Serv. Aen. 9,707; Βαῖαι: Str. 5,4,5; Cass. Dio, 48,51,5; Βαιαί: EM 192,45-46; Boiae, Baie), today called Comune di Bacoli. B. belongs to the geological region of the Campi Phlegraei, a coastal landscape shaped by brandyseism and geothermal phenomena (therefore many thermal installations existe…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Baitylia

(346 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(βαιτύλια; βαίτυλοι; baitýlia, baítyloi). [German version] I. Religious Studies Large upright stones which are included in the cult activity in sanctuaries are to be found throughout the entire Mediterranean region [1]. It was the Phoenicians in particular who contributed to the spread of these. The baitylia in Tyrus and in Emesa were famous [2]. In Israel polemics and the inclusion of baitylia in the cult (Maṣṣebah) with the predication of God, exist side by side (God as a rock: Ps 28,1 [3]). Minoan iconography portrays ecstatic theophany (?) [4]. In Gre…

Bakeries

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Burford-Cooper, Alison (Ann Arbor)
[German version] processed all edible grain products in antiquity, especially  bread. The sources indicate, that people preferred fine, white flour over coarser but more nutritious flour. Wheat and barley were the predominant grains [2]. In the Greek world, barley was more important than wheat both in daily nourishment as well as in rituals (Theophr. Caus. pl. 3,21,3; Ath. 3,111c-112a). But it is certain that Homer was familiar with wheat bread and that Theophrastus was aware of wheat's higher nut…

Baktron

(4 words)

see  Staff

Balacrus

(208 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βάλακρος; Bálakros). Various men with this name served as officers under Alexander [4] the Great. [German version] [1] Satrap of Cilicia, after 333 BC Son of a certain Nicanor, married Phila, daughter of  Antipater [1], who bore him a son. First   somatophýlax , after the battle of Issus, was appointed satrap of Cilicia, where he fought with great success against the mountain tribes, but fell in battle shortly before Alexander's death. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 200 Heckel 260. [German version] [2] Commander of the Greek allied infantry from 334/33 BC Son of …

Balai

(118 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Syrian poet from the first half of the 5th cent. AD, probably worked in Chalcis/Qennešrin (northern Syria). Two poems are definitely genuine, the one about the consecration of a church in Qennešrin, the other one about the death of bishop Acacius of  Beroea [3] (Aleppo) in the year AD 432. An epic poem in 12 books about the patriarch Joseph, which is also attributed to  Ephraim, could have been written by B. Many liturgical poems with verses in five syllables (‘Balai metre’) are attributed to him. Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) Bibliography K. V. Zettersteen, Beiträge zur …

Balantion

(4 words)

see  Purse

Balantiotomoi

(34 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (βαλαντιοτόμοι; balantiotómoi). ‘Cutpurses’ (pickpockets) were pursued in Athens on the basis of the νόμος τῶν κακούργων ( nómos tôn kakoúrgōn) with   apagōgḗ (‘leading away’) and punished with death. Thür, Gerhard (Graz)

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Balash

(5 words)

see  Vologaeses [10]

Balāwāt

(151 words)

Old Imgur-Enlil, approximately 28 km south-east of Mossul (Iraq). The ruins of a palace and a temple for the god Mamu, erected by Assurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) [1] have been documented. In the temple area the ornamental fittings in bronze relief from two two-winged gates of Assurnasirpal II [1; 2] were found, as well as one of his son Salmanassar III [3]. Episodes from military campaigns are depicted, more rarely from royal hunts. The citadel was destroyed in the late 7th cent. BC and only resettled for a short period in Hellenistic times.  Sculpting, technique of Bibliography 1 J. Curt…

Balbillus (Barbillus)

(154 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] Claudius Balbillus, Tiberius. Praefectus Aegypti AD 55-59; games were held in Ephesus after 70 (Βαλβιλλεῖα; Balbilleîa) in his honour. Sen. Q Nat. 4,2,13 praises his erudition, therefore identified by Cichorius i.a. [2; 3; 9. 39] against [10] with the son of Thrasyllus, the astrologer of emperors Claudius (he comes to him in 41 as envoy of the Alexandrians to Rome), Nero and Vespasianus. His writings, addressed to a certain Hermogenes, were called Ἀστρολογούμενα ( Astrologoúmena). Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography Fragments : 1 F. Cumont, CCAG VIII 4, 23…

Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Balbis

(117 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Starting- and finishing-line in the Greek  stadium. The balbis was a stone bump equipped with grooves and let into the ground; starting gates made of wooden posts were anchored into it. The grooves served as places for the feet to rest against when starting. Numerous examples are preserved such as in Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, Ephesus. Artistic representations in sculpture, relief art and vase-painting. In addition, balbis is also a term to describe the line to mark the throwing off of discus and javelin. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography W. Zschietzschmann, Wet…

Balboura

(146 words)

Author(s): Thomsen, Andreas (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture North Lycian town with extensive chora, possibly of Pisidian origins, founded in the 2nd cent. BC [1; 2]. With Boubon and  Oenoanda member in a tetrapolis, which was led by  Cibyra (Str. 13,4,17); after this was dissolved in 84 BC, added to the Lycian League by Murena, but with its own coins [3]. Oldest ruins from the Hellenistic period (Acropolis); buildings (i.a. theatre, temple, aqueduct) and graves testi…

Balbus

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen (‘the Stutterer’) in republican times among the Acilii, Cornelii, Laelii, Lucilii and other families (ThlL 2,1693f.). In imperial times the epithet of the following consuls: l. Cornelius B. (40 BC), l. Cornelius B. (32 BC), D. Laelius B. (6 BC), l. Norbanus B. (AD 19), Q. Iulius B. (AD 85), Q. Iulius B. (AD 129). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
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