Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Bandusia

(150 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Spring near Venusia Spring near Venusia, the native city of  Horatius, who was prompted by B. to name B. [2]. In connection with Bantia (today Banzi), it is located in the Palazzo San Gervasio (today Potenza) on the basis of a bull of Pope Pasquale II (1103), who addresses an ecclesia ss. martyrum Gervasii et Protasii in Bandusino fonte apud Venusium and a castellum Bandusii. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Jaffé, 714, 5945. [German version] [2] Spring in Apulia Fons splendidior vitro (‘a spring, clearer than glass’ Hor. Carm. 3,13), named thus by…

Banishment

(57 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman Antiquity banishment largely replaced the death penalty for members of the upper class, but also existed as an independent  punishment, as in the Attic ostrakismós . For details for Greece, particularly Athens, see phygḗ , aeiphygía , apeniautismós , for Rome see exilium , deportatio , relegatio . Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)

Banks

(2,042 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Banks as institutions whose specific task consists of arranging payment transactions, accepting deposits and granting credits, did not exist in the Ancient Orient. There is evidence of deposit and credit operations in ancient oriental societies of differing quantity and intensity, both in the domain of palace and temple economy and in individual private legal and economic transactions, but they were always subordinate to the respectively dominating redistributive an…

Banquet

(3,705 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] I. Egypt and the ancient Orient The central Egyptian sources of information regarding banquets are the depictions of the funerary banquet in the tombs of Theban officials dating from the 18th dynasty (15th -14th cents. BC). The early pictures show the tomb's occupant with his spouse as the host in front of a table loaded with dishes of food and faced by their guests in several rows. Servants adorn them with flowers and bring wine and food, pleasant-smelling ointments and utensils for ha…

Bantia

(111 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars Apulian-Lucanian city (Βαντία; Bantía: Plut. Marcellus 29,1), near Venosa (Liv. 27,25,13; Hor. Carm. 3,4,15; Porph. Acron), today Banzi. Municipium between 80 and 60 (CIL I2 582 with CIL IX 416). Templum augurale, necropoleis of the 7th-4th cents. BC. M. Claudius Marcellus fell between B. and Venosa in the battle against Hannibal (Liv. 27,27,7; Plut. Marcellus 29). Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) Bibliography A. Bottini, Osservazioni sulla topografia di Banzi preromana, in: AION 2, 1980, 69-82 M. Torelli, Una nuova…

Baphyras

(57 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βαφύρας; Baphýras). River in Pieria, rising at Mount Olympus, then named Helicon, and discharging into the Aegean east of Dion. After an underground run of about 5 km, it continued above ground, and was navigable from Dion (Paus. 9,30,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 125.

Baptai

(4 words)

see  Cottyto

Baptism

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] I. Non-Christian There are analogies to the Christian baptism (βάπτισμα; báptisma or βαπτισμός; baptismós, Lat. baptisma or baptismus) in the history of other religions: rituals involving immersion in, or sprinkling with water and cleansing rituals were widespread prior to and alongside Christianity. However, these rituals followed different procedures and were interpreted differently, even though from the Christian point of view they were seen as a satanic mockery of the Christian baptism (Tert. …

Baptism, symbol of.

(381 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
[German version] Symbols of baptism are the professions of faith (= creed), which were spoken during or in conjunction with a  baptism. The assumption of older scholars that NT professions of faith such as Rom 10,9 or Phil 2,11 were connected with baptisms, are not supported by any documentation apart from a single interpolation dating from the late 2nd cent. (Acts 8,37). Set formulae for the profession of faith during baptism are documented from the early 3rd cent., but originally they were not spoken by the celebrant himself. The earliest clear confirmation of the baptismal symbol ( symbo…

Baptisterium

(605 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology The Latinized Greek term baptisterium (βαπτιστήριον; baptistḗrion, from βαπτίζω; baptízō, ‘dip’) was first used by Pliny (Ep. 2,17,11) for a bathing pool; in Greek literature, however, this meaning of the word is unknown. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) [German version] B. Bathing pool In sources related to Roman baths ( Thermae [1]) the term baptisterium appears very rarely;   piscina is more widely used. Such cold water pools were usually rectangular or apsidal and placed in a recess (Plin. Ep. 5,6,25; 2,…

Baquates

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Mauritanian tribe ( gens Baquatium) [1. 2851] that probably lived in the east and south of Mauretania Tingitana. Ptol. 4,1, 10, the It. Ant. 2,2f. and the Liber generationis (1,197,65 Mommsen) link it with the tribe of the Macenites or Μακανῖται ( Makanîtai) and Massennae, Iulius Honorius (cosmographia B 47) and the Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis (14,4f.) with the Barbares, i.e. the  Bavares. The Romans allowed the freedom-loving B. their independence and treated them as allies; Inscr. latines d'Afrique 609. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 H. D…

Barabara

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] ( Barbara, also Barbare). Port city at the mouth of the Indus (Ptol. 7,1,59), Ἐμπόριον Βαρβαρικόν or Βαρβαρική ( Empórion Barbarikón, Barbarikḗ), Peripl. M. Rubr. 38f., old Indian Varvara. B. appears to have been the main port of the Indus region, but has disappeared without a trace within the delta area. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Barba

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Beard’) of the  Cassii,  Lucretii,  Sulpicii and other families (ThlL 2,1727f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barba Jovis

(152 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] Type of houseleek Sempervivum tectorum (ἀείζωον; aeízōon) with yellow blooms and fleshy, evergreen and moist leaves (Theophr. Hist. pl. 1,10,4 and 7,15,2); derives its name from its heavy covering of hairs. According to Dioscorides 4,87-88 [1. 247ff.] = 4,88-89 [2. 418f.], the leaves of both types (Lat. sedum in Plin. HN 25,160-163) i.a. served externally as cooling and astringent medicines for sores and wounds. Democritus is supposed to have recommended the juice to treat seeds (Plin. HN 18,159). In HN 16,76 Plin. means, however, the bushy silverbush Anthyllis Ba…

Barbaria

(144 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Βαρβαρία; Barbaría). Somalian north coast, according to Peripl. M. Erythraei 3; 7 (GGM 1, 261; 263). There were no ports, but good landing places, like Aualites, Malao, Mundu, Mosylon and Aromata. Also cf. Cosmas Indikopleustes (2,26; 29; 45; 48; 49; 50; 64) for the location. The name B. appears to have been preserved in the name of the city Berbera, the old emporium Malao (Ptol. 4,7,10). Behind Opone, today Ras Hafun, the coastal area called Azania started, which ended at  Rhapto…

Barbarians

(1,945 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Initially the term B. refers, from a Greek perspective, to groups speaking foreign languages. ‘Hellenes-Barbarians’ fit as ‘asymmetrical alternative terms’ [5. 218-229] into a pattern well known in ethnology:  foreigners who are different are termed B. and distinguished from one's own culture by means of a value judgement based on strongly ethnocentric and hellenocentrically determined concepts. The antithesis is more frequently comprehensible, with the ancient image of B. having …

Barbaroi

(4 words)

see  Barbarians

Barbaron Hyphasmata

(142 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (βαρβάρων ὑφάσματα; barbárōn hyphásmata). The Greeks called the valuable Median-Persian robes, materials, blankets i.a., with colourful  ornaments, detailed figurative decorations, hybrid and fable creatures barbaron hyphasmata (BH ). The BH arrived in Greece through commerce (Aristoph. Vesp. 1132ff.), as loot (Hdt. 9,80) or gifts (Ath. 2,48d). BH were donated as  votive offerings to sanctuaries (Paus. 5,12,4) or they were worn as luxury robes as a demonstration of wealth and power. The BH led to changes in…

Barbatius

(96 words)

Rare plebeian gentilicium, which has been verified since the first cent. BC (Schulze 349; ThlL 2,1728). [German version] [1] B. Philippus Slave and Praetor in the Late Republic an escaped slave, became praetor (Dig. 1,14,3; Suda B.109; cf. Cass. Dio 48,34,5) (in late republican times?). [German version] [2] B. Pollio, M. Quaestor 41 BC as quaestor pro praetore of M.  Antonius disassociated himself from him in 41 BC (RRC 517,1-3; App. B Civ. 5,120f.; cf. Cic. Phil. 13,3); possibly the same as the curule aedile and founder of the puteal of Iuturna (ILS 9261).

Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
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