Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Camara [II]

(116 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Καμάρα; Kamára). [German version] [1] Harbour settlement in eastern Crete Harbour settlement in eastern Crete, originally Lato (Λατὼ πρὸς or ἐπὶ Καμάραι, Ptol. 3,17,5; Hierocles, Synekdemos 650,1), modern Agios Nikolaos. Close political links with  Lato [1. no. 72, p. 428]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996. F. Gschnitzer, Abhängige Orte im griech. Alt., 1958, 49-51. [German version] [2] Empórion on India's south-eastern coast According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 60, an   empórion

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Cambaules

(29 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Καμβαύλης; Kambaúlēs). Leader of a Celtic army that invaded Thrace in 281 BC but who had to retreat from there (Paus. 10,19,5-6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Cambles

(86 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμβλης; Kámblēs, also Κάμβης; Kámbēs). Mythological king of Lydia. His insatiable appetite (perhaps caused by poison given to him by his enemies) drives him to cannibalism. Driven mad by hunger, he devours even his own wife. Upon waking the next morning with the rest of her hand in his mouth and realizing what he had done, he kills himself (Xanthus, Lydiaca, fr. 12., FHG vol. I, 36ff.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 2 A 90 F 28; Ael. VH 1,27). Walde, Christine (Basle)

Cambodunum

(212 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] The modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Limes | Raeti, Raetia modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria. Main settlement of the Estiones (Str. 4,6,7); on the right bank of the Iller, Tiberian wooden houses, from the time of emperor Claudius stone buildings in a rectangular grid of streets centred around a sacred precinct comprising of ‘forum’, basilica, and baths. Possibly the first seat of the governor in  Raetia, probably splendidissima colonia (Tac. Germ. 41,1). Displaced by Augsburg, C…

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Cambounia

(64 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Καμβούνια; Kamboúnia). Mountainous region in northern Greece west of Mt. Olympus, which separated the Macedonian region of  Elimea from the tripolis of the Perrhaebi, and forms the southern watershed of the  Haliacmon. The easiest way to cross the C. was via the pass of Volustana (918 m) (cf. Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,10). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Volustana, RE 9A, 906.

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum

(8 words)

see United Kingdom

Cambridge School

(8 words)

see Religion, history of

Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Camel

(998 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | de Souza, Philip (Twickenham)
[German version] I. General Cloven-hoofed animal of the Old World from the hot deserts and steppes of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula ( Camelus dromedarius, one-humped) and the cold deserts of South-West and Central Asia ( Camelus bactrianus, two-humped): various anatomical and physiological adaptations to extreme climates. The camel descends from a North American fossil type ( Protolabis) that migrated to Eurasia c. three million years ago. Wild camels were common from Central Asia to North Africa (bone finds). Fertile cross-breedings between the dromeda…

Cameo

(9 words)

see Gem cutting

Cameria, Camerium

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aborigines and Prisci Latini, colony of Alba Longa; seized by Tarquinius Priscus; destroyed 502 BC by the consul Opiter Verginius Tricostus. Listed by Pliny (HN 3,68) as one of the Latian towns that had disappeared by his time. The gens Coruncania came from C. (Tac. Ann. 11,24,2). Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Camicus

(252 words)

Author(s): Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
[German version] (Κάμικος; Kámikos). Town (and river) near  Acragas on Sicily. According to legend (Diod. Sic. 4,78f.), it was there that  Daedalus built a rocky fortress for the Sicanian king Cocalus, on whose orders Minos was murdered there, when the latter demanded that Daedalus be extradited. Cretans were supposedly directed by the gods to send an expeditionary force to Sicily, and for five years laid siege to C. without success (Soph. Kamikoi, fr. 300-304). In 476/5 BC, relatives of Theron of Acragas rose in rebellion against the tyrant and settled in C. (schol. …

Camilla

(252 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A Volscian Amazon maiden warrior, whose myth is recounted only by Verg. Aen. 11,539-828 (cf. [1. 803]). While fleeing with the young C., her father,  Metabus, the king of the Volscians, tied her to an ash spear, dedicated her to Diana, and hurled her across the river Amisenus; she grew up as a huntress in the forest. In the war against the followers of Aeneas, she joined forces  with Turnus, and was killed by the Etruscan Arruns. Set up as an ideal virgo virilis by Hier. Adversus Jovinum 41,306 BD, she became with Dante (Inferno 1,107; 4,124) a heroic Italian v…

Camillus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of presumably Etruscan origin (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122), in its meaning probably linked with camillus ‘noble-born, not yet mature youth’, then‘ assistant at sacrifices’ (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro, Ling. 7,34 et al.) In the Republican Age, C. is the family cognomen of the Furii; its most famous bearer was M.  Furius C., conqueror of Veii in 396 BC and saviour of Rome after the Gallic invasion. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Camma

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάμμα; Kámma). Wife of the Galatian tetrarch Sinatus, priestess of Artemis in the 2nd cent. BC. Plutarch notes her as an example of marital love and fidelity because she poisoned the murderer of her husband,  Sinorix, who had forced her to marry him, and herself in the temple (Plut. Mor. 257e-258c; 768b-e; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,39). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Camomile

(81 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀνθεμίς; anthemís, Latin anthemis, Plin., later chamomilla, from which the English name is derived) probably is today's composite genus, Matricaria L. Dioscorides 3,137 Wellmann = 3,144 Berendes (cf. Plin. HN 22,53f.) knew of three species with differently coloured flowers that had warming as well as thinning powers. In antiquity the camomile, as a flower infusion, was already used externally and internally as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic medicine.  Anthemis Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography P. Wagler, s.v. Anthemis (2), RE 1,2364f.

Campana Reliefs

(5 words)

see  Relief

Campania

(2,703 words)

Author(s): Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The land between the Volturno in the north and the Sorrento peninsula in the south gained in the Roman period a great significance over and above its geographical and political importance. Factors favouring this were: the continuation of Greek culture in the coastal settlement centres (Naples as Graeca urbs; Tac. ann. 15, 33, 2; cf. Strabo 5,4,7), the arrival after the 2nd cent. BC of Roman citizens as visitors either for health reasons (thermal springs) or in search of the good life (ma…

Campania

(951 words)

Author(s): Pappalardo, Umberto (Naples)
[German version] A. Region The name of the region (Scyl. 10; Varro, Rust. 1,10,1; 1,20,4; 2,6,5) probably derived from  Capua, its most significant town; C. was bounded by mons Massicus and Sinuessa in the north, mons Lactarius and Surrentum in the south, and the hill country at the foot of the Samnite mountains in the east. In the Augustan age, C. also encompassed the ager Picentinus as part of the regio I (Str. 5,4,13; Plin. HN 3,60ff.; Schol. Juv. 3,219, Latium et Campania; 226; Serv. Aen. 8,9,564). C. comprised of the following districts from north to south: the ager Falernus between Sin…

Campanian Standard

(7 words)

see  Coinage, standards of

Campanian vases

(696 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The Campanian vases (CV) of the 5th-4th cents. BC were made of a light brown clay and the surface often painted with a red-coloured coating. Artists generally preferred smaller vessels, besides these as the main shape, strap-handled amphora, also hydriae and bell craters; only seldom do pelike types appear ( Pottery, shapes and types of, vessel shapes with fig.). Characteristics attributed to  Apulian vase painting such as volute and column craters, loutrophoroi, rhyta or nestorid…

Campe

(94 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμπη; Kámpē). Gigantic jaileress who stands guard in  Tartarus over the  Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires, monsters with one hundred hands. In the Titanomachy, Zeus follows the advice of Gaia and kills C. (according to Diod. Sic. 3.72.3 she is killed by Dionysus near the Libyan city of Zabrina) so that the former prisoners can support Zeus (Apollod. 1.6); a detailed description of C. as a sort of dragon (starting with the appellative meaning ‘caterpillar’) can be found in Nonnus, Dion. 18.236-264. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. K., RE 10, 1842.

Campestris

(97 words)

Author(s): Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] (-ter, -trius, -τριος). Roman astrologer, possibly of the 3rd cent. AD (differently in [1]), who, according to Lyd. De ostentis p. 24,5 Wachsmuth, revived the prophetic  astrology and magic of  Petosiris, perhaps as an alternative to the Middle Platonic  demonology. He wrote De cometis (Lyd. Ost. p. 35,8, chs. 11-16; Adnotationes super Lucan. 1,529), and about powers of the underworld such as  Typhon (Serv. Aen. 10,272), the title Catabolica infernalia (according to Fulg. Exp. Verg. p. 86 Helmet) is doubtful.  Astrology Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) Bibliography 1 E. Ri…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Campi Phlegraei

(114 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] (Greek, Φλέγρα, Φλεγραῖον πεδίον, Φλεγραῖα πεδία; Phlégra, Phlegraîon pedíon, Phlegraîa pedía). Name of a coastal strip north of  Campania (between Capua, Nola and Vesuvius: FGrH 566 Timaeus fr. 89; Pol. 2,17,1; from Cuma to Pozzuoli: Str. 5,4,4; Plin. HN 3,61; 18,111); the name was coined by the Chalcidians, who founded  Cumae; Phlegra ( Pallene,  Chalcidice), the volcanic home of the giants, is supposed to be the root of the place name, possibly because of this region's similar volcanic nature. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography BTCGI 4, s.v. Campi Flegrei…

Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…

Campylus

(35 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Καμπύλος; Kampýlos). One of the tributaries of the Achelous in Aetolia (Diod. Sic. 19,67,3); its location cannot be determined more closely. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Camulianae

(75 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καμουλιαναί; Kamoulianaí, Kamuliana). Settlement on the road from Caesarea/Mazaka to Tavium in Cappadocia, possibly the modern Kermer. Its name is not of Celtic origin (different view in [1. 197f.]); as a place of pilgrimage (image of Christ, translation to Constantinople in AD 574), it became a town under the name of Iustinianopolis; documented as a diocese from AD 553 into the 13th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Hild/Restle. W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Camulos

(85 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn)
[German version] Celtic god, by interpretatio Romana assigned to Mars. Among only six extant dedications, the inscription found in Rindern/ Germany provides evidence for a temple of C. The inscription in Rome (CIL VI 46) -- often claimed to refer to C.- makes no mention of this god [1. 87ff.]. Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) Bibliography 1 J. Terrisse, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1991, no. 2. Ch. B. Rüger, in: BJ 172, 1972, 643ff. F. Lefèvre, in: Bull. Soc. Arch. Champenoise 1983, no. 4, 51ff. G. Bauchhenß, s.v. Mars Camulus, LIMC 2.1, 568.

Camunni

(144 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Inhabitants of the upper Oglio valley (Val Camonica), described by some sources as Raeti (Str. 4,6,7) or rather Euganei (Plin. HN 3,134) in the central Alps. A continuity in culture of more than 1000 years is evident in numerous rock paintings, ranging from phases I-III (Neolithic to Bronze Age) to phase IV (from the 8th cent.) and IV 4 (3rd to 1st cents. BC), socio-sacral expressions by hunter and warrior tribes [1. 131ff.]. Listed among the gentes Alpinae devictae, who were defeated by Augustus in 16 BC (CIL V 7817), they were possibly put under the admin…

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 20, 1844f. W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 335-337 Robert, Villes, 18 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion 1 (IK…

Canaan

(4 words)

see  Palaestina

Canaanite

(95 words)

Author(s): Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen)
[German version] Traditional general term for a dialect group of north-west Semitic, spoken and written in Syria, Palestine and in the Mediterranean ( c. 10th cent. BC to today; with proto-Canaanite precursors). Canaanite includes  Phoenician, the closely related  Ammonite,  Punic as a late further development of Phoenician,  Edomite as a link between Phoenician and  Hebrew (the Canaanite dialect passed down best and longest) and  Moabite, which is close to Hebrew. The existence of additional local dialects is still a matter of contention. Müller-Kessler, Christa (Emskirchen) Bi…

Canabae

(7 words)

see  Logistics; Military camps [1]

Canace

(212 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] (Κανάκη; Kanákē). Daughter of the Thessalian  Aeolus [1] and Enarete, who had an additional five daughters and six sons (Apollod. 1,50). C. is mother of five sons fathered by Poseidon, among them is Aloeus, progenitor of the  Aloads (Apollod. 1.53). According to Diod. Sic. 5.61, the Tyrrhenian king Aeolus is C.'s father. The Tyrrhenian and Thessalian Aeolus were blended and said by Homer to be the king of the winds  Aeolus [2], whose six sons and six daughters lived in pairs as married couples (Hom. Od. 10.1-9). In the tragedy Aeolus, Euripides described an incestuous …

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Canada

(5 words)

see North-America

Canalization

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Glaser, Franz (Klagenfurt)
[German version] A system of  canals had the function of draining precipitation and utility water as well as surplus fresh water. In the advanced civilizations of Egypt and the Near East, as well as amongst the Minoans, there were well-organized waste water disposal systems; in the Near East, apart from discharge into sewerage systems, waste water was often discharged into individual seepage pits. In the Mycenaean palace of  Tiryns, these channels ( c. 90 x 60 cm) are built into the ground with large stones and cover plates, and sometimes also cut into rock. Narrow …

Canals

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Glaser, Franz (Klagenfurt)
[German version] A. Canals for shipping Both the Nile as well as the extensive canal systems of Babylon equally served as traffic arteries and the country's water supply. Only a few canals were exclusively dedicated to traffic purposes. One of these exceptions was a shipping canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, construction of which was started towards 600 BC under Pharaoh Necho II; further work on this project took place during the time of Darius I (Hdt. 2, 158), Ptolemy I and II (Str. 17, 804) as…

Canastraeum

(47 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Καναστραῖον; Kanastraîon). Cape C., the modern Cape Paliuri, formed the south-eastern tip of the  Pallene peninsula, and is frequently mentioned as a notable coastal landmark by authors and poets, beginning with Herodotus (Hdt. 7,123). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s.v. K., RE 10, 1955f.

Canatha

(377 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Κάναθα; Kánatha). City in the South Syrian region of Ḥaurān (today's Qanawā), c. 90 km south-southeast of Damascus, on the western edge of the Ḥaurān mountains themselves (Ǧabal Durūz). Located on the slope above the important ancient road Damascus-Bostra; possibly already mentioned in the OT (Num. 32,42; 1 Chr. 2,23). In the mid 1st cent. BC, C. was the first city in Ḥaurān to be established as a Greek polis by the Romans Pompeius or Gabi…

Canathus

(51 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάναθος; Kánathos). The spring in which, according to Argive legend, Hera bathed once a year to restore her virginity (Paus. 2,38,2); probably the large spring in the monastery of Hagia Moni, 2 km east of Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 3, 21913, 304f.

Cancellarius

(227 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] Cancellarius (from cancelli, ‘barriers, bars’) generally referred to the subaltern official in administration and the courts, who dealt with the public, for instance when controlling admission; however, in the course of the Imperial Age, it came to refer specifically to a ‘chief official of an administrative staff’ (Lydus, Mag. 3,37). In late antiquity, a cancellarius could be ranked equal with a chamberlain for audiences (Not. Dign. Occ. 9,15), and even be of senatorial rank (Cassiod. Var. 11,6; 10). As the leading subordinate official just below the consiliarii,
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