Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Car

(78 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
(Κάρ; Kár). [German version] [1] Son of Phoroneus Eponym of the fortress of Megara (originally Caria) (Paus. 1,39,5), son of  Phoroneus; founder of the Demeter Temple. Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Zeus and Crete Eponym of  Carians in Asia Minor; brother of Lydus and Mysus (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,659). Son of Zeus and Crete (Ael. NA 12,30); founder of the city of  Alabanda, buried in Euangela (Steph. Byz. s.v. K.). Zingg, Reto (Basle)

Caracalla

(889 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] (Nickname based on his Celtic robe; originally, he was called Bassianus, Cass. Dio 78,9,3) = M. Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (from AD 195, ILS 8805; RIU 3,840) = M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus (from AD 198, cf. [1]). Born on 4 April AD 188 in Lyons as the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (Cass. Dio 78,6,5; cf. 77,10,2; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 21,1; SHA Sept. Sev. 3,9; differing information elsewhere). He accompanied his father to the east from the middle of 19…

Carales

(607 words)

Author(s): Mastino, Attilio (Sassari)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Christianity | Wine | | Rome | Rome (Caralis, Karalis). Harbour town (shipyards: Liv. 27,6,14) in southern Sardinia, situated in a bay (Καραλιτανὸς κόλπος; Karalitanòs kólpos: Ptol. 3,3,4) on a low hill ( tenuis collis: Claud. De bello Gildonis 15,521f.) close to foothills ( Caralitanum promunturium: Plin. HN 3,85), modern Cagliari. The ancient Phoenician/Punic harbour of Karaly (Krly) lay to the north-west in the lagoon of Santa Gilla, near an indigenous settlement of t…

Carallia

(88 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Καράλ(λ)ια; Karál(l)ia). Town in  Cilicia Tracheia (Hierocles, Synekdemos 682,10; coins and inscriptions Καραλλια), modern Güney Kalesi, 20 km north-east of Coracesium. Verified as a pólis from the early imperial age by inscriptions and coins, later diocese [2. 244ff.]. Archaeological finds: walled town structure with a building dedicated to the ruler cult, temples and churches; a necropolis to the west [1. 59; 2. 237ff., 268 plan]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970 2) J. Nollé, …

Carambis

(99 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάραμβις; Kárambis, Lat. Carambis). Foothills on the Black Sea coast of Paphlagonia, modern Kerempe Burnu west of İnebolu (Apoll. Rhod. 2,361; Ps.-Scymn. 953; Lucian Toxaris 57; Str. 2,5,22; 7,4,3; 11,2,14; 12,3,10; Plin. HN 4,86) with a village of the same name (Eust. Comm. in Hom. Il. 1,570). The cape is directly opposite the  Criu Metopon, the southern tip of the Taurian peninsula (modern Crimea). Between these two promontories, ancient seafarers crossed the Black Sea. Marek, Christian (Zürich) Bibliography Ch. Marek, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus…

Carambolo, El

(69 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] On the C., a hilltop west of Seville above the plains of the Guadalquivir, there had once been a late Bronze Age to early Iron Age settlement, known as the finding-place of an orientalizing gold treasure.  Tartessus Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography J.d. M. Carriazo, Tartesos y el Carambolo, 1973 G. Nicolini, Techniques des ors antigues, 1990 M. E. Aubet-Semmler, Maluquer y el Carambolo, in: Tabona 8, 1993/94, 329-349.

Caranis

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Καρανίς; Karanís). Important Greek settlement (κώμη) on the northern edge of the  Fayum, now Kom Ausīm; founded in the early Ptolemaic period and abandoned again in the 5th cent. AD. Large parts of the town are still well preserved and have been carefully excavated; among these are two temples. From C. come c. 5,000 Greek Papyri and Ostraka, mostly from Roman times (2nd-3rd cents. AD). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, s.v. Karanis, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici 3, 1978, 70-79 R. Alston, Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt…

Caranus

(99 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κάρανος; Káranos). [German version] [1] Founded the Macedonian royal house Founded the Macedonian royal house according to Diod. Sic. 7. 15-17 as a descendant of the Heraclid Temenus (Theopompus FGrH 115 F 393) after immigrating from Argus. He replaces  Perdiccas, named as progenitor of the Macedons in Hdt. 8. 137-139. Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Alleged son of Philippus II Alleged son of  Philippus II, killed by  Alexander [4] the Great after Philippus' death (Just. Epit. 11. 2. 3). Since  Satyrus in Athenaeus (12.557) does not name him, his existence is doubtful. Bad…

Caratacus

(96 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Britannic king and military commander, son of  Cunobellinus; between AD 43 and 51, he organized, initially together with his brother Togodumnus, the resistance against the Claudian invasion force. After the occupation of the south-east, C. transferred his operational basis to the  Silures and  Ordovices in Wales. Following his defeat in 51, he fled to  Cartimandua, who handed him over to Rome. In 52, he was part of Claudius' triumphal procession, together with his wife, children and brothers; Claudius later pardoned C. (Tac. Ann. 12,33ff.). Kunst, Christiane (Pot…

Carausius

(207 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] M. Aurelius Maus(aeus?), AD 286-293.A Menapian by birth, and by profession a former helmsman, C. excelled himself in the Bagaudian War under  Maximianus. Subsequently, as commander of a fleet based in Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer), he was given the task of fighting the piratical Franks and Saxons. Based on suspicions that he had withheld war booty, the order was given to kill C.; in consequence, C. had himself proclaimed emperor in 286, and assumed the rule of Britannia. He was also …

Caravan trade

(655 words)

Author(s): Drexhage, Hans-Joachim (Marburg)
[German version] In the Hellenistic period there already was a long history of trade relations between the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East on the one hand, and India and the Far East on the other. Goods were mainly transported by land; each section of the land routes from the Mediterranean to India and China was controlled by the peoples whose land it crossed, and who profited from the caravan trade (CT) as intermediaries. Several routes are mentioned in the literature: while the trade rou…

Caraway

(271 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Caraway was widespread as an aromatic plant in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ethiopia and Asia Minor and is mentioned in Mycenaean Linear B texts as ku-mi-no [6. 131, 136, 227]. The word is a cultural term that can be traced back to the 3rd millennium (Sumerian * kamun; Akkad. kamūnum, Hittite kappani- [with m > p change], Ugarite kmn, Hebrew kammōn, Turkish çemen, English/French cumin). Egyptian caraway (Cuminum cyminum; Egyptian tpnn, Coptic tapen) seems to have possibly been another species of caraway [5]. Caraway was also used medically in…

Carbasus

(49 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (κάρπασος, καρπήσιον; kárpasos, karpḗsion). Phoenician or previously Indian term for  cotton, such as that from Tarraco (modern Tarragona) in Spain (Plin. HN 19,10). Plants used as antidotes ( Alexipharmaka) such as species of Helleborus and Valeriana were also thus described (cf. Colum. 10,17). Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)

Carbo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the ulcer’) of the most important plebeian branches of the  Papirii in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 183f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 341 Schulze, 314.

Carcabus

(58 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Καρκάβος, Καρνάβας [ Karkábos, Karnábas] in Eust. at Hom. Il. 4,88). Founder of Zelia at Cyzicus, son of  Triopas and father of  Pandarus. He kills his cruel father and flees to Tros, the king of the Dardani, who expiates him and gives him the land of Zelia (schol. Hom. Il. 4,88). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Carcer

(329 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] According to Varro, Ling. 5,151, the term carcer, i.e. a place for individual detention, is derived from coercere; it is thus linked to the magistracy's powers of   coercitio for the direct enforcement of its authority, and not the punishment of criminal misconduct. ‘The carcer has to be maintained for the detention, not the punishment of people’: carcer enim ad continendos homines, non ad puniendos haberi debet (Ulp. Dig. 48,19,8,7). Civil law offences and other obligations, for which the obligator was liable in person, were regulated by the XI…

Carceres

(4 words)

see  Circus

Carcinus

(585 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Καρκίνος; Karkínos). [German version] [1] Cancer, the crab that was turned into a sign of the zodiac for biting Heracles in the foot at the behest of Hera while fighting the Hydra (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 11). The Alexandrian month of Karkinon (Καρκινών) was named after it. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Epic poet C. of Naupactus, epic poet of the archaic period. In Paus. 10,38,11 C. is named, with reference to Charon of Lampsacus, as the author of the Ναυπάκτια ἔπη ( Naupáktia épē), evidently a history of this town, lying at the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf…

Carco

(56 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Καρκώ; Karkṓ). Equated by Hesychius (s.v. C., 834) to the  Lamia, C. is one of the frightening female monsters who can be taken as personifications of death, especially the death of small children which they eat. This aspect is emphasized by C.'s name (related to kárcharos = ‘caustic’, ‘shrill’). Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)

Cardamyle

(176 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Καρδαμύλη; Kardamýlē). Spartan perioecic settlement on the western side of the  Taygetus peninsula. The ancient acropolis, on a hillside surrounded by precipitous cliff faces (Str. 8,4,4), lies about 2 km inland from the sea, 1 km north of the modern Kardamili. Pottery from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods; remains of the ring wall from the classical or Hellenistic period. In Hom. Il. 9,150 and 292, C. is named as one of…

Cardia

(294 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars (Καρδία; Kardía). Town on the northern face of the Thracian Chersonesus on the  Melas Kolpos (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Ps.-Scymn. 698f.; Str. 7a,1,52;54), not localized (the modern Bakla Liman?), described in Dem. Or. 23,182 as the gateway to Thrace. It was founded towards the end of the 7th cent. BC by Miletus, possibly with colonists from Clazomenae (Str. loc. cit), and re-established by  Miltiades with Attic coloni…

Cardo, kardo

(377 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The point around which something rotates; technical term in Roman land-surveying ( limitatio); within the rectangular grid of the survey, it refers to the horizontal lines ( limites). Originally, it was a cosmological term, referring to the pivotal point of the uni- verse; later, it was used to describe the north-south axis -- in contrast with the east-west axis of the   decumanus , which divided the world into two halves, one of sunrise and one of sunset, or one of day and one of night [1. 147]. In gromatic theory ( Surve…

Carduchi

(175 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρδοῦχοι; Kardoûchoi). First mentioned by Xenophon (Xen. An. 3,5,15 and passim), a mountain people living in the northernmost foothills of the  Zagrus, the Καρδούχεια ὄρη (Diod. Sic. 14,27,4). Xenophon describes the C. as living in villages and cultivating the fields, growing wine and raising cattle, as well as doing craftwork. He particularly emphasizes their military significance as archers and catapult shooters. Whilst in the Greek reports it is mainly the (‘natural’) aggression of the…

Cares, Caria

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κᾶρες, Καρία; Kâres, Karía). [German version] I. Geography Tribe and region in south-western Asia Minor, its borders defined in the north by the Maeander and the mountain ranges of Mycale and Mesogis, and in the east by the Salbacus range; the Carian south coast stretches from the Triopic promontory to the bay of Telmessus (Str. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). Along its western coast -- characterized by gulfs and long stretched-out peninsulas -- lay the following towns which initially still belonged to Ionia:  Mi…

Carfulenus

(94 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Very rare family name. C. commanded several cohorts under  Caesar in the Alexandrinian War (Bell. Alex. 31,1-3). After the Ides of March 44 BC, he joined Octavian ( Augustus), and was expelled from the Senate on 28 November 44 (C(Cic. Phil. 3,23), perhaps because he was a people's tribune (MRR 2,324). In April 43, he was sent to Mutina, where M.  Antonius attacked both him and the consul Pansa; C.'s wing fought victoriously, but he himself probably died in the aftermath (Cic. Fam. 10,33,4; App. B Civ. 3,272ff.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Carian

(845 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] Language of the inhabitants of Caria ( Cares, Caria), documented in c. 200 inscriptions -- from the 7th-4th cents. BC that are mostly very short or fragmentary and written in a characteristic alphabetic script -- which apart from Greek-Carian bilingual inscriptions from Athens that came from Carian mercenaries and almost solely contain personal names, for the most part come from Egypt (e.g. Saqqāra, Abydus, Abu Simbel), and to a lesser extent from Caria itself (e.g. Caunus, Hyllarima, Sinur…

Caricature

(1,606 words)

Author(s): Pfarr, Ulrich (Mömbris RWG)
Pfarr, Ulrich (Mömbris RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) The concept of caricature, which arose around 1600 in Italy, refers first of all to ‘loaded’, i.e. exaggerated, humorous portrait drawings [7. 346]. Already in drawings of the Middle Ages, however, techniques of exaggeration, distortion and contrast are found [7. 13-17] which are today seen as characteristics of caricature. The objects of Classical caricature are Classical works of art and the themes of Classical mythology, but also the Clas…

Caricature

(725 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] The terms caricature, grotesque,   grylloi are sometimes defined differently, sometimes not strictly separated, sometimes used synonymously [11. 89]; but although the word grotesque is differentiated from caricature because, unlike it, caricature refers precisely to a model, in order to cover as many aspects as possible a broader definition of the term caricature is to be preferred [4. 4]. Therefore, regarding term and delimitation. cf. the essential [9]. Caricature as deviation from the normal evoked mockery very early on (Thersites: Hom. Il. 2…

Carinae

(226 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Two Roman municipal districts, separated by the murus terreus Carinarum, a part of the pre-Servian wall which still existed in Varro's times (Varro Ling. 5,48), between Esquiline and Palatine. As part of the Augustan reorganization, both districts were jointly assigned to regio IV (Templum Pacis); the origin of the name is disputed (Serv. Aen. 8,351; Hor. Epist. 1,7,48). The district was the most desirable residential area for the Roman nobility; it was said that, even in Archaic times,  T…

Carinus

(218 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M.A. Carinus Augustus, the eldest son of  Carus, a brother of  Numerianus; around November AD 282, he was made Caesar and princeps iuventutis by his father, and in spring 283, when his father marched against the Persians, C. was elevated to Augustus. After his campaign against the Quadi (F. Gnecchi, I Medaglioni Romani 2, 1912, pl. 123, no. 8), he called himself Germanicus maximus, adding to that Persicus maximus after Carus' victory in the east, and also, for unknown reasons, Britannicu…

Carisius

(134 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
Uncommon family name. [German version] [1] C., P. Commander in Spain under Augustus Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Spain, defeated the Asturians in 25 BC, conquered the fortress of Lancia and settled veterans in the colonia Emerita (Flor. Ep. 2,33,54-58; Cass. Dio 53,25,8-26,1). In 22, he crushed an Asturian revolt (Cass. Dio 54,5,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography RIC 11, Augustus, no. 277-303 P. le Roux, L'armée Romaine et l'organisation des provinces Ibériques, 1982, 64ff. [German version] [2] C., T. Mint master around 46 BC Mint master c. 46 BC (RRC 475f. no. 4…

Caristanius

(91 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C.C. Fronto Official under Vespasian Senator from Caesarea in Pisidia. Vespasian made him inter tribunicios adlectus. He was the praetorian governor of Lycia-Pamphylia from AD 81- c. 83/84; cos. suff. 90 (AE 1949, 23); married to a Sergia Paulla (PIR2 C 423) [1. 109]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.C. Julianus Official, around 100 AD Related to C. [1]; after an equestrian military service, he was admitted into the Senate; proconsul Achaiae probably AD 100/101 (PIR2 C 426) [1. 129; 2. 334]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Halfmann 2 W. Eck,…

Carmania

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Καρμανία, Karmanía, Latin Carmania; etymology unclear). Name of an Iranian area east of the Persis and west of the  Gedrosia. In western documents the inhabitants of C. are called Καρμάνιοι/ Karmánioi, Latin Carmanii. This tradition distinguishes at the same time the barren north (ἡ ἔρημος Κ., e.g. Ptol. 6,5,1) from C. proper, which is described as particularly fertile (Str. 15,2,14; Arr. Ind. 32,4f.; Amm. Marc. 23,6,48). In the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, C. is mentioned as the supplier of yakā wood for the palace of Darius I in Susa [2. 14…

Carmanor

(169 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρμάνωρ; Karmánōr). [German version] [1] Cretan seer A Cretan seer and priest of purification, as such closely connected with  Apollo, the god of ritual purification, and with Delphi, his centre of cult worship. He purifies Apollo and Artemis after the killing of the snake  Python (in Tarrha, Phaestus or Dion on Crete, Paus. 2,30,3; Euseb. Praep. evang. 5,31); in his house Apollo loves the nymph Acacallis who becomes mother of the founding heroes of the Cretan city Elyrus (on the myth of abandonment …

Carme

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…

Carmel

(361 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem)
[German version] (Hebrew Bible: ‘orchard, tree grove’; Arabic Ǧabal Carmel or Ǧabal Mār Ilyās; Greek Κάρμηλος; Vulgate: Carmelus; crusader: Mons Carmel). Limestone and chalk mountains in northern Palestine, 5-8 km wide, 23 km long and up to 552 metres high. According to Biblical tradition the Carmel was situated south of the Asher tribe (Jos. 19,26). The Hebrew Bible praises the beauty of the mountain range (HL 7,6; Is. 33,9; 35,2; Jer. 46,18; 50,19; Am 1,2; 9,3; Nah 1,4). In Egyptian sources of the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC, Carme…

Carmen

(4 words)

see  Song

Carmen ad Flavium Felicem

(94 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In c. AD 500, a Christian anonymous author, probably in Africa, wrote the C., a poem of 406 hexameters with epyllic qualities; its topic was the proof of the resurrection of the dead (102-136) and the divine last judgement of good (186-268) and evil (269-355) people. Its style frequently imitates that of  Virgil, but also that of Christian poets [1; 2. 118ff.]; furthermore, verses frequently end in pseudo-rhymes. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography 1 J. H. Waszink, Florilegium Patristicum Suppl. 1, 1937, 47-116 2 S. Isetta, C., in: Vetera Christianorum…

Carmen ad quendam senatorem

(95 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] In the C. (end of 4th cent. AD [3. 124-130]), a Christian anonymous author speaks out -- in 85 hexameters -- against the absurdity of the pagan cults of  Mater Magna (6-20) and  Isis (21-34), triggered by the apostasy (1-5; 35-50) of a formerly Christian legate (27). The pamphlet copies some satirical elements from  Horace and especially  Juvenal [2. 156f.]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Edition: 1 R. Peiper, CSEL 23, 1891, 227-230. Secondary literature: 2 R. B. Begley, The C., diss. Ann Arbor 1984 3 L. Cracco Ruggini, Il paganesimo romano tra re…

Carmen adversus Marcionitas

(124 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] (previously: Marcionem). Hexametrical Christian didactic poem ( didactic poetry) in 5 bks. (summary 5,1-18), which is aimed at the heretical positions of the Marcionites ( Marcion) (1,141-144). It is not written by   Tertullian, but rather by an anonymous author, whose origins are difficult to ascertain [2. 15-22, 29f.]. The poem was written sometime between AD 420-450 [2. 28-33]. Bk. 3 takes up the concept of the ecclesia ab Abel from Aug. Civ. 15. In order to prove the unity of OT and NT, the author employs numerous, and at times complex,  ty…

Carmen Arvale

(224 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Hymn used by the   Arvales fratres to accompany their dance ( tripudium) for  Dea Dia and  Mars (CLE 1). Whilst its earliest transmission is an inaccurate inscription from AD 218 [1. 644-64], the text does preserve some characteristics of the early language (Lases without changing the intervocalic -s- - > -r-). In its substance, it must precede quite substantially the early Augustan reform of the cult, even if it was developed under Greek influence [2]; in any case, it is unlikely to be an archaistic creation of the middle Impe…

Carmen contra paganos

(123 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] The Parisian Cod. Lat. 8084 of Prudentius transmits in fol. 156r-158v 122 v. an anonymous defamatory poem (CPL 1431), directed against a praefectus ( urbis or praetorio orientis), presumably Virius Nicomachus  Flavianus [2] the Elder, but alternatively perhaps  Vettius Agorius Praetextatus. The text is not only a Christian reaction to the pagan Roman renaissance under  Symmachus, but also a testimony of the Christian reception of Virgil. The Carmen contra paganos belongs to the genre of apologetic poetry, and makes interesting references to the pag…

Carmen de aegritudine Perdicae

(8 words)

see  Aegritudo Perdicae

Carmen de bello Actiaco

(10 words)

see  Carmen de bello Aegyptiaco

Carmen de bello Aegyptiaco

(100 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] (or Actiaco) is the modern title for 52 hexameters in eight columns and some fragments on P Hercul. 817. It is improbable that  Rabirius was their author; they were more likely part of the Res Romanae by  Cornelius Severus. The poem deals with Octavian's Egyptian campaign after Actium, and Cleopatra's preparations for suicide. Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) Bibliography G. Ferrara, Poematis latini reliquiae, 1908 G. Garuti, Bellum Actiacum, 1958 Courtney, 334 R. Seider, Paläographie der lat. Papyri, vol. 2.1, 1978, 4 (for the papyrus) M. Gigante, Catal…

Carmen de figuris

(133 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] Factual poem in 185 Latin hexameters, dealing in alphabetical order with rhetorical  figures; it was designed as an aide-mémoire in the teaching of rhetorics. It was evidently based on  Rutilius Lupus and  Alexander [25], son of Numenius. As a rule, three lines are offered per figure (the Greek designation, one line for the Latin definition, two lines of examples from Greek and Latin classics). The writer is anonymous (the addressee Messius is perhaps identical with Arusianus Messius); the late Lat…

Carmen de ligno crucis (de pascha)

(153 words)

Author(s): Schwind, Johannes (Trier)
[German version] A poem of 69 hexameters, also transmitted under the titles of De pascha or De cruce Domini nostri, and ascribed to  Cyprian, less commonly to  Victorinus of Pettau. It is unlikely that it was written earlier than AD 400, perhaps in northern Italy. As a tightly constructed  allegory, which combines Christ and his cross, the root of Jesse, the Tree of Life in paradise, and Jacob's ladder into the image of a tree, the poem provides a detailed and vivid description of the developmental history of Christianity as well as an individual's way to salvation.  Allegorical poetry Schwin…

Carmen de martyrio Maccabaeorum

(102 words)

Author(s): Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT)
[German version] The C. (394 hexameters), which in MSS is attributed to  Hilarius of Poitiers or  Marius Victorinus, originates from an unknown author and an unknown period, most likely from the 5th cent. AD. It recounts the death of a mother and her seven sons at the hands of Antiochus, king of Syria (2 Macc. 7; 4 Macc. 8-18). The poem celebrates the unconquerable will of the mother in a series of speeches, which constitute the bulk of the text.  Bible poetry Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) Bibliography Edition: R. Peiper, CSEL 23,240-254. Secondary literature: D. Kartschoke, Bibeldi…

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris

(116 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Anonymous Latin poem, dated between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 6th cent. AD, and dedicated to a Symmachus, perhaps the father-in-law of  Boethius; it is a skilfully formed and clearly structured didactic poem ( Didactic poetry) in 208 hexameters about weights and measures, the procedure for ascertaining the specific weight of fluids as well as the relative proportions of metals, especially of gold-silver alloys. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Editions: 1 F. Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae 2, 1866, 88-98 2 PLM 5, 71-82. Secondary…

Carmen de spe

(162 words)

Author(s): Simon, Walter (Tübingen)
[German version] The anonymous poem (Anth. Lat. 415) is extant only in the Codex Vossianus Leidensis Q 86 (c. 850), for that reason virtually unknown in the Middle Ages. However, after the first edition by J. J. Scaliger (1573), much attention has been paid to these 33 distichs. J. G. Herder translated verses 1-16. [2]. The probably medieval title of De spe queritur per exempla provides an exact definition of its contents: a complaint is made about hope as an illusion and a seductress in accordance with  chreia, and its treacherous deeds described in the t…
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