Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Camara [II]

(116 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Καμάρα; Kamára). [German version] [1] Harbour settlement in eastern Crete Harbour settlement in eastern Crete, originally Lato (Λατὼ πρὸς or ἐπὶ Καμάραι, Ptol. 3,17,5; Hierocles, Synekdemos 650,1), modern Agios Nikolaos. Close political links with  Lato [1. no. 72, p. 428]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996. F. Gschnitzer, Abhängige Orte im griech. Alt., 1958, 49-51. [German version] [2] Empórion on India's south-eastern coast According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 60, an   empórion

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Cambaules

(29 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Καμβαύλης; Kambaúlēs). Leader of a Celtic army that invaded Thrace in 281 BC but who had to retreat from there (Paus. 10,19,5-6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Cambles

(86 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμβλης; Kámblēs, also Κάμβης; Kámbēs). Mythological king of Lydia. His insatiable appetite (perhaps caused by poison given to him by his enemies) drives him to cannibalism. Driven mad by hunger, he devours even his own wife. Upon waking the next morning with the rest of her hand in his mouth and realizing what he had done, he kills himself (Xanthus, Lydiaca, fr. 12., FHG vol. I, 36ff.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 2 A 90 F 28; Ael. VH 1,27). Walde, Christine (Basle)

Cambodunum

(212 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] The modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Limes | Raeti, Raetia modern Kempten in the Allgäu region of Bavaria. Main settlement of the Estiones (Str. 4,6,7); on the right bank of the Iller, Tiberian wooden houses, from the time of emperor Claudius stone buildings in a rectangular grid of streets centred around a sacred precinct comprising of ‘forum’, basilica, and baths. Possibly the first seat of the governor in  Raetia, probably splendidissima colonia (Tac. Germ. 41,1). Displaced by Augsburg, C…

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Cambounia

(64 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Καμβούνια; Kamboúnia). Mountainous region in northern Greece west of Mt. Olympus, which separated the Macedonian region of  Elimea from the tripolis of the Perrhaebi, and forms the southern watershed of the  Haliacmon. The easiest way to cross the C. was via the pass of Volustana (918 m) (cf. Liv. 42,53,6; 44,2,10). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Volustana, RE 9A, 906.

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum

(8 words)

see United Kingdom

Cambridge School

(8 words)

see Religion, history of

Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Camel

(998 words)

Author(s): Becker, Cornelia (Berlin) | de Souza, Philip (Twickenham)
[German version] I. General Cloven-hoofed animal of the Old World from the hot deserts and steppes of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula ( Camelus dromedarius, one-humped) and the cold deserts of South-West and Central Asia ( Camelus bactrianus, two-humped): various anatomical and physiological adaptations to extreme climates. The camel descends from a North American fossil type ( Protolabis) that migrated to Eurasia c. three million years ago. Wild camels were common from Central Asia to North Africa (bone finds). Fertile cross-breedings between the dromeda…

Cameo

(9 words)

see Gem cutting

Cameria, Camerium

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aborigines and Prisci Latini, colony of Alba Longa; seized by Tarquinius Priscus; destroyed 502 BC by the consul Opiter Verginius Tricostus. Listed by Pliny (HN 3,68) as one of the Latian towns that had disappeared by his time. The gens Coruncania came from C. (Tac. Ann. 11,24,2). Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Camicus

(252 words)

Author(s): Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
[German version] (Κάμικος; Kámikos). Town (and river) near  Acragas on Sicily. According to legend (Diod. Sic. 4,78f.), it was there that  Daedalus built a rocky fortress for the Sicanian king Cocalus, on whose orders Minos was murdered there, when the latter demanded that Daedalus be extradited. Cretans were supposedly directed by the gods to send an expeditionary force to Sicily, and for five years laid siege to C. without success (Soph. Kamikoi, fr. 300-304). In 476/5 BC, relatives of Theron of Acragas rose in rebellion against the tyrant and settled in C. (schol. …

Camilla

(252 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A Volscian Amazon maiden warrior, whose myth is recounted only by Verg. Aen. 11,539-828 (cf. [1. 803]). While fleeing with the young C., her father,  Metabus, the king of the Volscians, tied her to an ash spear, dedicated her to Diana, and hurled her across the river Amisenus; she grew up as a huntress in the forest. In the war against the followers of Aeneas, she joined forces  with Turnus, and was killed by the Etruscan Arruns. Set up as an ideal virgo virilis by Hier. Adversus Jovinum 41,306 BD, she became with Dante (Inferno 1,107; 4,124) a heroic Italian v…

Camillus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of presumably Etruscan origin (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122), in its meaning probably linked with camillus ‘noble-born, not yet mature youth’, then‘ assistant at sacrifices’ (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro, Ling. 7,34 et al.) In the Republican Age, C. is the family cognomen of the Furii; its most famous bearer was M.  Furius C., conqueror of Veii in 396 BC and saviour of Rome after the Gallic invasion. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Camirus

(369 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Delian League (Κάμιρος; Kámiros, Lat. Camirus). City on the western coast of  Rhodes near the modern Kalavarda; it was one of the three ancient Rhodian cities, together with  Ialysus and  Lindus (this configuration is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,656). According to the evidence of grave finds, C. was already inhabited in Mycenaean times. Its true foundation was by Dorian settlers. Together with Ialysus and …

Camma

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάμμα; Kámma). Wife of the Galatian tetrarch Sinatus, priestess of Artemis in the 2nd cent. BC. Plutarch notes her as an example of marital love and fidelity because she poisoned the murderer of her husband,  Sinorix, who had forced her to marry him, and herself in the temple (Plut. Mor. 257e-258c; 768b-e; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,39). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Camomile

(81 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ἀνθεμίς; anthemís, Latin anthemis, Plin., later chamomilla, from which the English name is derived) probably is today's composite genus, Matricaria L. Dioscorides 3,137 Wellmann = 3,144 Berendes (cf. Plin. HN 22,53f.) knew of three species with differently coloured flowers that had warming as well as thinning powers. In antiquity the camomile, as a flower infusion, was already used externally and internally as an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic medicine.  Anthemis Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography P. Wagler, s.v. Anthemis (2), RE 1,2364f.
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