Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gaba

(345 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] (Canaanite * gab, ‘hill’). Settlement 5 km northwest of  Megiddo in the Valley of Jezreel, modern Tall Abı̄ Šūša. The name first appears as qb (no. 114) on  Thutmosis' III (1479-1425 BC) list of conquered Palestine cities, and is probably identical with Γαιβαι (Γεβαι, Γαβαι) in Jdt 3,10. Under  Alexander [16] Iannaeus (103-76 BC), G. was part of the Hasmonaean kingdom (Sync. 558,17-559,3). According to Josephus (Jos. BI 1,166; Ant. Iud. 14,88), the settlement was ‘restored’ by Gabinius between 57 and 55 BC; however, accordi…

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Gabara

(132 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] (Γαβαρα; Gabara, also Γαβαρωθ, Γαδαρα, Γαμαλα, Γαραβα, Γαβαρους; Gabarōth, Gadara, Gamala, Garaba, Gabarous [1]; from the Semitic ǧrb ‘to bear a grudge against someone’ or ‘to be angry’, which is the root of all variations of the name ─ apart from orthographic mistakes). Settlement in Lower Galilee, more likely the modern Arrāba/Arāv than Ḫirbat al-Qabra. At the beginning of the Jewish War (AD 66-70), G. sympathized with Josephus' opponent John of Gischala (Jos BI 2,629; Vita 82; 123f.; 203; 229…

Gabii

(480 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus City of the Latini east of Rome on the south-eastern banks of the Lago di Castiglione (a volcanic crater) left of the Anio, 12 miles from Rome, modern Gabi (Roma). According to legend, it was of Siculan origin or a foundation by Alba Longa. It was here that Romulus and Remus allegedly were instructed in literature, music, and the use of Greek weapons (links with Greece, culturally dominating position amongst the Latin cities). The text of a foedus with Rome, concluded under Tarquinius Priscus, was preserved on a l…

Gabinius

(906 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Roman family name, probably related to Gabii (Schulze 532f.), widespread in Latium, and documented from the 3rd cent. BC; during the 2nd cent. BC, the family gained senatorial rank. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] G., A. People's tribune 139 BC Allegedly the grandson of a slave (Liv. Per. Oxyrhynch. 54; cf. Cic. Leg. 3,35), in 146 BC envoy to the Achaeans; as people's tribune he introduced the secret ballot with voting tablets ( tabellae) for the election of officials in 139 (1. lex tabellaria, Cic. loc. cit.; Lael. 41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography M. Jehne, Ge…

Gable

(306 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Greek ἀ(ι)ετός/ a(i)etós (architectural inscriptions: [1. 33f.]); Latin fastigium, fronton; triangular front, framed by the horizontal and raking cornices, of the saddleback roof of a typical Greek columned building; sacred architecture, the gable field (tympanon, for the terminology see: Vitr. De arch. 3,5,12; 4,3,2) is frequently decorated with sculptures; cf.  architectural sculpture. The pitch and hight of a gable in  proportion to the columns and the entablature provide some indicati…

Gabriel

(320 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] (Archangel) Archangel In the Jewish tradition, the angel G. (‘man of God’) is one of the six archangels, together with Uriel, Rafael, Raguel, Michael, and Sariel (1 Enoch, 20:1-7; for seven archangels cf. Tob 12:12-15; for four archangels: 1 Enoch 9-10; 40:9f.). In the biblical tradition, G. appears already together with Michael in the role of angelus interpres, who interprets the seer's visions (Dan 8:16; 9:21), and who announces the births of John the Baptist and Jesus (Lc 1:19.26). According to 1 Enoch 20:7, G. is placed above the…

Gabrielus

(53 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae in AD 543; while in office, he resumed charge of the capital's grain supply, which John the Cappadocian ( Iohannes [16]) had assigned to the praefectus praetorio Orientis (Lydus, Mag. 3,38; Nov. Iust. 125). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 3 A, 498 Stein, Spätröm. R., vol. 2, 441.

Gadara

(263 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Hasmonaeans | Pilgrimage | Pompeius (modern Umm Qais). Town in north-eastern Transjordania, east of Lake Gennesareth; traces of settlement date back to the 7th cent. BC. After the fall of the Achaemenid kingdom ( Achaemenids), the district of G. came under the control of the Ptolemies for a short period, but became part of the Seleucid kingdom under  Antiochus [5] III in 198 BC. For some time, the name of the town appears on coins as S…

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira), Latin Gades, modern Cádiz). The date of its foundation is linked to the foundations of Utica and Carthage; according to literary sources, it is estimated for c. 1100 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,2; Iust. 44,5,2; Mela 3,46; Plin. HN 16,216; cf. [3. 5-12;…

Gadfly

(197 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (οἶστρος; oîstros, tabanus bovinus, substituted in Verg. G. 3,147 by asilus, later considered antiquated by Seneca in Epist. 58,2). Earlier authors generally equated it with the horsefly μύωψ ( mýōps) (cf. Aesch. Suppl. 511 and 308; Prom. 567 and 675), but Aristotle distinguishes between the two (Hist. an. 1,5,490a20 and 8,11,596b14, without description). As the μύωψ in Aristot. Hist. an. 5,19,552a30, are described in the tabanus and the cossus (Pliny HN 11,113) as originating from wood. Apparently, the gadfly was only properly identified in Augus…

G(a)eli

(98 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γῆλαι / Gēlai, Str. 11,5,1, cf. 11,7,1; 11,8,1; Γηλύς / Gēlýs, Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.; Γηλοί / Gēloí, Dionys. Per. 1019 [GGM II, 167]). Median tribe of Scythian origins, first mentioned by Strabo (according to Theophanes of Mytilene), who inhabited the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea. Some ancient authors (Plin. HN 6,48; Ptol. 6,2,5) identified them with the  Cadusii. The tribe's name lives on in the region's (or rather the Sassanid province's) modern name of Gı̄lān (middle Persian Gēlān). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) Bibliography R. Gyselen, La géographie a…

Gaesati

(166 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
[German version] According to Polybius (Pol. 2,22,1; 2,34), the G. were a Gallic tribe, living in the Alps and along the Rhône; G. went into service as mercenaries, hence their name (Pol. 2,22,1). They took part in the Gallic invasion of Italy in 225 BC, but were beaten off, and subsequently defeated in 222 BC. Gaesum is also the name of a Gallic spear (Caes. B Gall. 3,4), sometimes carried by lightly armed Roman troops (Liv. 8,8,5). In the early Principate, auxiliary troops recruited from Raetia and apparently equipped with this kind of spear were referred to as gaesati. They were stationed…

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Gaetuli

(324 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribe, whose numerous clans lived in the area between the Syrtis Minor and the Atlantic Ocean. Source references: Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,2; 9; 19; Mela 1,23; 3,104; Plin. HN 5,9f.; 17; 30; 43; Apul. Apol. 24,1; 41,4; Dimensuratio provinciarum 25; Aug. De ordine 2,5,15; Aug. In psalmos 148,10; Divisio orbis terrarum 26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γαιτοῦλοι; Anon. Geographia compendiaria 15 (GGM II 497); Eust. epit. de commentariis in Dionysium Periegeten 215 (GGM II 254). A branch of the G., who had intermarried with black Africans, was called the Melanogaitoûloi (Μελανογαιτο…

Gaetulicus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] ‘Victor over the Gaetuli’, cognomen of Cossus  Cornelius [II 26] Lentulus G. and his son Cn.  Cornelius [II 29] Lentulus G., as well as C.  Iulius Tiro G. and D. ( Iunius) Silanus G. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 206.

Gaetulicus

(122 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [I] (Γαιτουλικός; Gaitoulikós). Epigrammatist, to whom ten poems are ascribed in the Anthologia Palatina (not authentic, however, Anth. Pal. 7,245 and perhaps 6,154), which in style and topics (but not by their arrangement) bear resemblance to the ‘Garlands’ of Meleager or Philippus; however, 11,409 originates from the Anthologion of Diogenianus [2] of Heraclea. The identification with the poet Cn.  Cornelius [II 29] Lentulus Gaetulicus, who was cos. in AD 26 and executed by Caligula in 39, is controversial. G.'s poetry is without originality. I…

Gaia

(507 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γαῖα, Γῆ; Gaîa, ). Greek personification of the earth as the basis of all existence; her name can be interpreted possibly in Indo-European as ‘she who gives birth’ [1]. From Hesiod (Theog. 117ff.), she is seen in theogonic poetry as a primal power, who first gave birth to  Uranus, the sky, and Pontus, the Sea, then became the mother of the subsequent generation of deities as well as that of a number of monsters, whose birth even posed a threat to the order of Zeus ( Giants,  Typho…

Gaianus

(92 words)

Author(s): Redies, Michael (Berlin)
[German version] A Tyrian (Lib. Ep. 336), a friend of  Libanius, also not a Christian (Lib. Ep. 1364); he is only known from Libanius' letters. G. was a lawyer (Lib. Ep. 119; 336); in 360, he became assessor to a magistrate in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 780; 799), and in 362 he was promoted to the office of consularis Phoenices (Lib. Ep. 780; 799; 800 et al.), from which he resigned in 363 (Lib. Ep. 1218). He died after 388 (Lib. Ep. 881). PLRE 1, 378f. (G. 6). Redies, Michael (Berlin)

Gaia Taracia

(109 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (or Gaia Fufetia). A Vestal, who donated to the city of Rome the campus Tiberinus (the Tiber island according to Plut. Publicola 8,8,101b, or rather the Campus Martius according to Gell. NA 7,7,4); therefore, she was not only honoured with a statue (Plin. HN 34,11,25), but also with a law which set out the central prerogatives of the vestals ( lex Horatia, Gell. NA 7,7,2-4). This story is the aition for these rather unusual privileges, which in many aspects gave the Vestals an equal standing with men. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography A. Momigliano, Tre figure miti…

Gaieochos

(125 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γαιήοχος; Gaiēochos). Ep. epithet meaning ‘earth shaker’, used in Homer as a metric substitute or complimentary cognomen for Poseidon (especially in conjunction with γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος; gaiēochos ennosígaios). Only late antique texts extend the reference of gaieochos beyond Poseidon to Zeus (Opp. Hal. 1,74) and Oceanus (Quint. Smyrn. 2,208). In antiquity, it was generally understood as a composite of γαῖα and ἔχειν (etymologically not tenable) or ὀχεῖσθαι (either in the form of the earth carrying Poseidon as a r…

Gainas

(235 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Tervingian Goth of low birth, Arian. Recruited by Theodosius I in AD 378, he led eastern troops to support Arcadius in Constantinople as comes rei militaris (for his military career, see Socr. 6,6,2; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,1), at the order of  Stilicho, after Theodosius' victory over Eugenios in 394. As Stilicho's confidant, he was involved in the death of  Rufinus in 399 ([1. 107,99], Zos. 5,7,4; Philostorgius 11,3, Iohannes Antiochenus 190 FHG 4,610). In 399, he was elevated to magister utriusque militiae, and was sent by  Eutropius to Phrygia against the r…

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Gaius

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[II] Widespread Roman praenomen (probably connected with the Latin family name Gavius, but not related to gaudere), abbreviated as C., more rarely G.; in late Greek inscriptions also Γα ( Ga). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Physician of the school of Herophilus Physician of the school of Herophilus, probably 1st cent. BC or AD, wrote about hydrophobia (Caelius Aurelianus morb. ac. 3,113-4). He explained that this disease affected the brain as well as the meninges, because the nerves surrounding the stomach and responsi…

Gaius

(153 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
[German version] [I] (Γάϊος; Gáïos). Platonic philosopher of the early 2nd cent. AD. The physician  Galen studied with two of his students [3. 34f.]. No works are extant. His commentary on the myth of  Er [1. 18, 205] and his comments on Plato's dual teaching methods [1. 213; 2.98, 357ff.] were most likely part of (lost) lecture notes taken by his student  Albinus [1. 28, 182ff.]. He was held in high regard particularly by Plotinus, Porphyrius, and Priscian; Proclus saw him as one of the great autho…

Gaizatorix

(97 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαιζατόριξ, Γεζατόριος; Gaizatórix, Gezatórios). Celtic name, ‘lord of the Gaesati (spear bearers)’ [2. 215]. Leader of the Galates, who in 180 BC together with  Cassignatus approached Eumenes II for help against  Pharnaces of Pontus. Eumenes refused, as the Galates had previously sided with the latter (Pol. 24,14; 25,2). A region in western Paphlagonia may also have been named after G. (Str. 12,3,41). Regarding a forged silver coin of the ‘Boian king’ Gesatorix, see [1. 77-79]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Göbl, Typologie und Chronolo…

Galaad

(309 words)

Author(s): Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna)
(Γαλαάδ; Galaád, LXX, Eus.), Gilead (Hebrew gilad). [German version] [1] Town in eastern Jordan Town in eastern Jordan (Judg. 10:17; Hos. 6:8; 12:12), the modern Ḫirbat Ǧalad south of the Jabboq 10 km north-northeast of as-Salṭ, on the homonymous mountain range (Gen. 31:21, et al.: hăr [hăg]gilad, modern Ǧabal Ǧalad) (cf. Euseb. On. 62,1f.). Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna) [German version] [2] Area east of the Jordan Region east of the Jordan (LXX alongside Γ. also Γαλαδ[ε]ῖτις; Galad[e]ītis; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1,324 et al. Γαλαδηνή; Galadēnē; 5,164 et al., Γαλα[α]δῖτις; Gala[a]dītis; 12,3…

Galactophagi

(86 words)

Author(s): Ungefehr-Kortus, Claudia (Alten-Buseck)
[German version] (Γαλακτοφάγοι / Galaktophágoi, ‘milk eaters’) are fist mentioned in Hom. Il. 13,5f. together with the Hippemolgi (‘mare-milkers’) and  Abii as neighbours of the Thracians. Ancient literature offers three different views on the identity of the G.: 1. G., Hippemolgi, and Abii as three fabulous tribes who live on the edge of the inhabited world (Str. 7,3,7; 12,3,27). 2. G. and Hippemolgi as Scythian or Sarmatian nomadic tribes (Str. 7,3,7-9), or 3. G. as a real, geographically locatable Scythian tribe (Ptol. 6,14,12). Ungefehr-Kortus, Claudia (Alten-Buseck)

Galaei

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γαλαῖοι; Galaîoi). The G., who appear in the Athenian tribute lists from 436/435 BC, were the citizens of a town on the western coast of Sithonia, close to the modern Neos Marmaras, referred to by Herodotus (Hdt. 7,122), probably erroneously, as Galepsos in his description of Xerxes' campaign. In 432, the G. seceded from Athens and resettled in the enlarged city of Olynthus, but their town was recaptured by Athens before 425, and declared independent in the peace of Nicias of 421. After that, the sources no longer mention it. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt,…

Galaesus

(71 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] River, also known as Eurotas (Pol. 8,35,8), 40 stades (Pol. loc. cit.) or 5 miles (Liv. 25,11,8) from Tarentum. In 212 BC, Hannibal built a camp on its banks. Mentioned in Virgil (Georg. 4,12,6), Horace (Carm. 2,6,10), and Propertius (2,34,67). Its water is praised as particularly suited for the washing of wool (Mart. 2,43,3; 4,28,3; 5,37,2; 8,28,3; 12,63,6; Stat. Silv. 3,3,93). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 870.

Galanthis

(4 words)

see  Galinthias

Galaria

(129 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Town of the Siculi, localized by Rizzo [1. 67] near the Sicilian S. Mauro di Caltagirone. Only mentioned by Diodorus twice: in the context of the battle against the Carthaginians alongside  Entella in 334 BC (Diod. Sic. 16,67,3) and in the context of the 312/311 BC revolt against Agathocles (Diod. Sic. 19,104). Archaeological finds: rare silver lítrai, originating from the area north-west of Mineo (cf. [2. 84-87; 3. 36-39]). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. E. Rizzo, Monete greche di Sicilia, 1946 2 K. Jenkins, in: Atti di IV Con…

Galata

(84 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Small island off the north African coast between Karalis and Thabraca (modern Tabarka), formed from volcanic rocks, modern Galita. Source references: Mela 2,120; Plin. HN 3,92; 5,42; 35,202; Ptol. 4,3,44 (Καλάθη; Kaláthē); It. Ant. 494,7-495,1; 514,4-8 (providing some wrong distances); Tab. Peut. 3,4; Liber generationis, Chron. min. 1, p. 103,134; 109,212; Liber genealogus, Chron. min. 1, p. 168,165; Mart. Cap. 6,645; Geogr. Rav. p. 102,1. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Toutain, Note sur l'île de la Galite, in: MEFRA 11, 1891, 454-456.

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Galatia

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
I. Region [German version] A. Definition Region in central Anatolia; it received its ethnically derived name following the conquest, settlement, and formation of states by the Celtic  Tolistobogii,  Tectosages, and  Trocmi, thus replacing the older names for its constituent regions (Phrygia, Cappadocia). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] B. Geography Before 188 BC, the tribal states of G. included, in the north, peripheral areas of  Paphlagonia and the territory of the  Mariandyni (basins of Bolu and Gerede), the zone ─ rich in woodl…

Galaxaure

(68 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλαξαύρη; Galaxaúrē).  Oceanid, mentioned in Hes. Theog. 353 (alongside Plexaure) and in H. Hom. 5,423 (based on that Orph. Fr. 49,26) where she picks flowers with Persephone when the latter is abducted by Hades. The etymology of the name is uncertain (for hypotheses see [1; 2]). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 E. Maass, Aglaurion, in: MDAI(A) 35, 1910, 338 2 P. Kretschmer, Mythische Namen, in: Glotta 10, 1920, 51ff.

Galaxia

(71 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (τὰ Γαλάξια; tà Galáxia). Athenian festival in honour of the mother of the gods, named after the milk gruel served on the occasion (Hsch. s.v. G.). The importance of the festival is indicated by the evidence provided by ephebic inscriptions, that in the Hellenistic period the epheboi offered sacrifices for the goddess and dedicated a golden bowl to her (from IG II1 470,13). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Galba

(956 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] King of the  Suessiones and commander-in-chief of the coalition of Belgic tribes against Caesar in 57 BC. Following his victory over the Belgae and the capture of  Noviodunum, the main town of the Suessiones, Caesar took two of G.'s son as hostages (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7; 2,13,1; Cass. Dio 39,1,2). ‘Galba’ appears frequently as a cognomen of the Roman gens Sulpicia, but its Celtic origin (Suet. Galba 3,1) is not certain [1. 1621ff.; 2. 349-350]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 Evans. [German version] [2] Rom. emperor AD 68-9 Roman emperor f…

Galea

(4 words)

see  Armour

Galene

(156 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλήνη / Galḗne, ‘calmness of the sea’).  Nereid in Hes. Theog. 244; according to the Euhemerist Mnaseas, daughter of Ichthys and Hesychia (FHG 3 155,33). As embodiment of the sea's brighter aspect, G. smoothes the waves in Anth. Pal. 5,156 (Meleager) and 7,668 (Leonidas) as well as in Lucian 5. ‘Conversation of the sea-gods’. An epigram by Adaeus (Anth. Pal. 9,544) describes a cameo of Tryphon with the portrait of G. that, however, cannot be unequivocally identified with extant m…

Galenism

(389 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Whereas between about AD 500 and 1100,  Galen was almost unknown in Western Europe, the orthodox  medicine of the Byzantine and Muslim world was substantially based on his concepts that were increasingly systemized and put into a logical order, with a particular focus on their theoretical content.  Galen's monotheism and teleology commended his works also to an environment dominated by religion. From the 12th cent. on, Galenism reached Western Europe in an Arabic guise where it s…

Galen of Pergamum

(3,449 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γαλήνος; Galḗnos) [German version] A. Life AD 129 to c. 216, Greek doctor and philosopher. As the son of a prosperous architect named Aelius or Iulius Nicon (not Claudius, as older accounts have it), G. enjoyed a wide education, especially in philosophy. When he was 17, Asclepius appeared to Nicon in a dream which turned G. towards a medical career. After studying with Satyrus, Aiphicianus and Stratonicus in Pergamum, G. went to Smyrna c. 149 to learn from Pelops, a pupil of the Hippocratic Quintus. From there he journeyed to Corinth to find Numisianus, another pupi…

Galeoi

(4 words)

see  Galeotae

Galeos

(4 words)

see  Shark

Galeotae

(163 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γαλεῶται; Galeôtai). Name of a Sicilian family of seers, probably from Hybla Galeatis/Gereatis (Paus. 5,23,6), whose members are linked with prophecies relating to the rule of  Dionysius I (Philistus FGrH 556 F 57 in Cic. Div. 1,39; Ael. VH 12,46). Myth associates them with  Telmissus, the location in Caria famous for its prophecy (Cic. Div. 1,91): the eponymous Galeos was said to be, like his brother Telmissus, the son of  Apollo and the Hyperborean princess Themisto. On the advi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Galeria

(82 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Annia G. Faustina see  Faustina [1] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] G. Fundana Wife of the later emperor Vitellius about AD 60 Daughter of a senator of praetorian rank, related also to Galerius [4] [1]. Married A. Vitellius, the later emperor, no later than around AD 60. In 69 she joined her husband in Gaul. After his death she took care of the funeral. PIR2 G 33. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 229f.

Galerianus

(4 words)

see  Calpurnius

Galerius

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] C. G. Eques, Rom. official, praefectus Aegypti probably AD 16-31 Eques, who probably came from Ariminum. Of his public offices only the praefectus Aegypti is known, which he held for 16 years, probably AD 16-31. [1; 2]; P. Oxy 3807. Died returning from Egypt. Married to Helvia, Seneca's aunt. PIR2 G 25. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 270 2 I. Cazzaniga, in: Analecta Papyrologica 4, 1992, 5ff. [German version] [2] M. G. Aurelius Antoninus Son of the later emperor Antoninus Pius, died before AD 138 Son of the later emperor …

Galestes

(100 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Γαλέστης; Galéstēs). Son of the Athamanian king  Amynander, fled to Pydna to Ptolemy VI, whose phílos (φίλος) he became. In 150 BC G. led an expeditionary corps against Demetrius [7] I, and in 145 against Alexander [13] Balas. In 144 Ptolemy VIII took his dōreaí (δωρεαί, ‘benefices’; i.a. in Herakleopolites) away from him; G. fled to Hellas and gathered exiles; he died in an attempt to return to Alexandria and enthrone an alleged son of Ptolemy VI. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Schäfer, PKöln V 223/4 L. Criscuolo, L'archivo di Philô (PKöln V 222-225), in…

Galgala

(212 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] (Biblical Gilgāl, ‘circle of stones’, probably not a settlement). Pre-Israelite sanctuary (Judg. 3:19) on the eastern shore of the oasis of Jericho (Jos 4:19), probably the site of Saul's elevation as king (1 Sam 11:15) and a pilgrimage centre of the 8th/7th cents. BC (Amos 4:4; 5:5; Hos 4:15; 9:15; 12:12), historicized as a memorial for the crossing of the Jordan under Joshua (Jos 4:20-24, hence Δωδεκαλιθον ( Dōdekalithon), ‘place of twelve stones’ on the Madaba map). The Jewish-Christian topographical tradition is continued in Tosefta Sōfṭa 8,6 (2nd cent. AD ?) …

Galilaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Most northern region of  Palaestina. Under Ptolemaic rule ( Ptolemaeus) after the death of  Alexander [4] the Great, together with all of Palestine, G. became a Seleucid territory at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Urbanization, and the  Hellenization that came along with it, resulted in an antagonism between the Hellenized cities and the Judaism in rural G. In 164 BC, in the context of the Maccabaean ( Judas Maccabaeus) rebellion against the Seleucids and the Hellenistic citie…

Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Galli

(339 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γάλλοι/ Gálloi). ‘Servants’, ‘attendants’ and ‘worshippers’ of the  Mater Magna [1] chiefly in late Republican and Imperial Rome, described consistently as ‘priests’ only in Christian contexts. They first arose, along with the  Metragyrtae, in Asia Minor, late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 21,6,6 and 21,37,5, 190 and 189 BC; as literary figures: Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 6,220). The derivation of the name from Gauls or Galatians is now favoured by [4. 229; 3; 2. 118-120]; only from t…

Gallia Cisalpina

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A. Location The Roman province in northern Italy borders on the Alps in the north and west, the Apennines in the south and the Adriatic in the east. Traversed by the Padus (Po) ( Gallia Transpadana to the north and Gallia Cispadana to the south of the Padus), Gallia Cisalpina (GC) was identified with the Po valley ( latissima pars Italiae, Tac. Hist. 1,70,1). In antiquity the geomorphological structure of GC was in many respects quite different from today, especially with regard to the riverbeds of the Padus (which ran further south) and the Atesis …

Gallia/Gaul

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Land and population in pre-Roman times G. comprises the most western part of the European rump, between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. Five large river-systems supply the land with water: the Garumna (Garonne) in the south-west, the Liger (Loire) in the centre and the west, the Sequana (Seine) in the north, the Mosa (Maas) with a tributary of the Rhine, the Mosella (Mosel), in the north-east, and the most important water vein, the Rhodanus (Rhôn…

Gallic

(5 words)

see  Celtic languages

Gallica

(4 words)

see  Shoes

Gallic Wars

(5 words)

see  Caesar

Gallienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. P. Licinius Egnatius G. Augustus, born c. AD 218 near Milan ([Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 33,3), son of the later emperor P. Licinius Valerianus and Egnatia Mariniana. Valerian, who had himself proclaimed emperor in September/October 253, immediately appointed G. Caesar, then Augustus, and had this confirmed by the Senate with a territorial allocation of responsibilities: Valerian went to the east to confront the Persian threat, G. went to the west to defend the Rhine and Danube bo…

Gallinaria

(128 words)

Author(s): Pera, Rossella (Genoa) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Island in the Ligurian Sea (modern Gallinara). Small uninhabited island in the Ligurian Sea (Varro, Rust. 3,9); place of refuge for St. Martinus and Hilarius (Sulp. Sev. Sanctus Martinus 6,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 3,14; Ven. Fort. Sanctus Hilarius 35). Archaeological finds in the sea off the coast. Pera, Rossella (Genoa) Bibliography G. Forni (ed.), Fontes Ligurum et Liguriae Antiquae (Atti della Società ligure di storia patria 16), 1976 G. Spadea, Archeologia Subacquea in Liguria, in: Bollettino di Archeologia Subacquea 2-3, 1995/6, 103. [German version] [2] W…

Gallio

(6 words)

see  Iunius Gallio Annaeanus

Gallius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin family name (Schulze 424), possibly originally denoting descent from a Gallus. [German version] [1] G., M. Supporter of M. Antonius 43 BC Praetor in 44 BC or earlier, served under M. Antonius at Mutina in 43 [I 9] and also fought against Octavian; in his will he adopted the later emperor Tiberius (Cic. Phil. 13,26; Suet. Tib. 6,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Q. Defended by Cicero for bribing voters Aedilis plebis in 67 BC, held magnificent games in 66, as praetor he chaired the trial against C. Cornelius [I 2] in 65 and was probably s…

Gallonius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Family name, also Galonius, Calonius (Schulze 171); bearers of this name are attested several times but are of little historical significance. [German version] [1] G., C. City leader of Gades 49 BC Roman eques, was sent by L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus to Gades to administer an inheritance in 49 BC, became city leader in the Civil War there, but withdrew in favour of Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 2,18,2; 20,2f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., P. Gourmet by Lucilius 1238 M. Made proverbial by Lucilius (1238 M.) as a gourmet and glutton. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Gallus

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[II] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘Gaul’). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] see Cornelius [II 18] Gallus see  Cornelius [II 18] Gallus Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.G. Eques, exiled AD 65 Eques, who was friendly with the praef. praet.  Faenius Rufus and the consular  Antistius [II 12] Vetus and was therefore exiled in AD 65 (PIR2 G 66). In Tacitus the name is rendered as Publius Gallus, but that is out of the question. A nomen gentile is concealed behind Publius, perhaps Publilius? Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendidissima civitas.…

Galus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (orthographic variation of  Gallus?) in the  Sulpicii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Id., FCap 149 Kajanto, Cognomina 195.

Gamala

(98 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (modern Ḫirbat ehdeb). Town in lower Gaulanitis ( Batanaea; Jos. BI 4,1,1) with a large Jewish component in the population (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,15,3; BI 1,4,8) because of the settlement policy of  Alexander [16] Iannaios. Under the Zealots and  Iosephus (cf. Vita passim), G. therefore became a bulwark against the Romans (Jos. BI 2,20, 4; 6). After an uprising in AD 68, the town was captured by Vespasian, who had all the inhabitants put to death as punishment (Jos. BI 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel…

Gamaliel

(279 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] G. I. »The Old Man«; grandson of Hillel Also called ‘the Old Man’ (died c. AD 50), a grandson of Hillel. G. was a Pharisee ( Pharisaei) and member of the Sanhedrin ( Synhedrion). G., about whom little is known historically (for discussion of the problem, cf. [1]), is thought to have been  Paulus' teacher prior to his conversion to Christianity (Acts 22:3). According to Acts 5:34-39 his intervention saved Peter and other apostles from prosecution by the Sanhedrin. Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) [German version] [2] G. II. Successor to Jochanan ben Zakkai Grandson of [1], a…

Gambrium

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάμβρειον; Gámbreion). Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6f.) mentions G. and Palaigambreion as seats of dynasties that allied with the Spartans in 399 BC. Both places are assumed east of Pergamum near today's Kınık. Nothing is known of its earlier history; there is no reference in the Attic tribute lists. However, coins are attested in the 4th and 3rd cents. An inscription (CIG 3562) mentions a king Alexander of G. in 326-325 BC and a temple for a certain Artemis Lochia, with remains still extant. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. G., RE 7, 691.

Gambrivi

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe that Str. 7,1,3 counts among the weaker tribes, together with the Cherusci, Chatti and Chattuari. A version of the Mannus-genealogy ( Herminones) ranked the G., together with the Marsi, Suebi and Vandili, among the original Germanic tribes (Tac. Germ. 2,2). A connection with the Sugambri seems to be linguistically indicated, but the fact that Str. loc. cit. mentions both names in the same context argues against their being identical. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann, D. Timpe, s.v. G., RGA 10, 406-409.

Gamedes

(142 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Boeotian potter, active around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, who twice signed a jug now in Paris (LV, inventory no. MNB 501): ΓΑΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΕΣΕ ( GAMEDES EPOESE). The clover-leaf jug, with its conical body and knurled rim and its high neck divided by a sharply ridged ring design, can be linked to the shape of other Boeotian jugs. The signatures of G. and Polon are the only ones preserved in Boeotian black-figured vase painting. Named after G. is the G.-painter, who painted the jug in the Louvre (shepherd with…

Games

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Egypt and Ancient Orient The boundaries between games and  sport are fluid; here only relaxation games ( Board games) are treated that are very well known e.g. for Egypt as originals from tomb contexts and pictorial representations e.g. the Senet board game ( znt) was popular. The position regarding the sources for the Ancient Orient is very limited for climatic reasons (wood barely preserved). We can make only assumptions about the rules of games. In addition to the game boards there are game stones, astragaloi ( Astragalos [2]), dice and little dice rods tha…

Games

(1,899 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] A. Game Books from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century (CT) References to Antiquity were less concerned with the purpose of a game or its subject matter. Rather, Classical authorities served to legitimize the very concept of games and game-playing, to explain their rationale, origins and forms. Thus Pythagoras acts as the Protos heuretes of Rhythmomachia, the mathematical battle game of the Middle Ages; Dido and Aeneas are drawn on as the cultural model for courtly games in early modern times and Mercury is c…

Games of dexterity

(530 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] were primarily performed by children. With some of these games  astragaloi (knucklebones), nuts, pebbles, coins, small balls or potsherds were used as toys ( Children's games), with others, sticks, discs, wheels, etc. A favourite was the so-called πεντάλιθα ( pentálitha) (Poll. 9,126), in which five stones (nuts, balls, etc.) were thrown up in the air and caught in the palm of the hand or on the back of the hand. In another, the orca-game, nuts, stones etc. were thrown into a narrow-necked container (Ps.-Ov. Nux 85f.; Pers. 3,50). Similar to this game was the ἐς βόθυνον ( es…

Gamos

(4 words)

see  Marriage

Gandaridae

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] also Gangaridae. Mentioned in accounts of Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map) and in Megasthenes as a powerful people in India. They lived east of the  Prasii on the lower Ganges. Also mentioned in Ptol. 7,1,81. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D. C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, 213ff.

Gandaritis

(210 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Greek Γανδαρικὴ χώρα / Gandaríkē chṓra; Ethnic groups: Gandarai, Gandarioi), district on the Kābul. According to Herodotus (3,91), the Gandarioi, together with the tribes of the Sattagydai, Aparytai and Dadikai, formed the ancient Persian Empire's seventh satrapy, which essentially covered the Kabulistan alpine territory intersected by the Cophen, between Paropanisos (Hindu Kush) and the upper Indus, and the mountain range itself. In spite of difficult passes along the Cophen, the routes through G. were used, from at least the 4th cent. B…

Gandhara

(4 words)

see  Gandaritis

Gandhara art

(10 words)

Gandhara art see Pakistan; Gandhara art

Ganges

(224 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Γάγγης; Gángēs, Sanskrit Gaṅga). The largest river in India, known to the west (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; 5,6,7; 5,9,4; 5,26,1; Curt. 8,9,5, et passim) since Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map), if not already in Ktesias (in Plin. HN 37,39). Its length was measured in the early Hellenistic period and calculated to be 10,000 stadia (Str. 15,689). According to Str. 15,719 its source lay in the Ēmōdá órē (Himalaya). The G. is mentioned several times by Ptolemy (7,1,29; 30; 42; 51 Nobbe, et passim), its delta described as having five arms (7,1,18), and also the Gangētikós…

Gangra

(207 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | | Hellenistic states | Celts | Asia Minor | Patricius | Rome Town in Paphlagonia south of the Olgassys (modern Ilgaz-Dağları), modern Çankırı. This toponym remained almost unchanged until the present: Kanġırı, Çangrı, Çangra. According to Str. 12,3,41 the town included the old basileion of the Paphlagonian dynasts, a fortress and a settlement. In 3 BC the Paphlagonian delegates met here to swear the imperial oath to Augustus [1] after in 5 BC he had elevated G. to a pólis and established the eparchía Pa…

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Ganymeda

(38 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γανυμήδα; Ganymḗda). Female deity in Phleius, patroness of prisoners, later equated with  Hebe because of the linguistic similarity to  Ganymede, the cup-bearer of the gods. The only source is Paus. 2,13,3f. Visser, Edzard (Basle)

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Gaon

(240 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew gāōn, ‘Eminence’, later ‘Excellency’; pl.: Gōnı̄m). Official title of the head of the Rabbinic academies in Babylonian  Sura and  Pumbedita. There the gaons functioned from the 6th cent. AD to the end of the academies in the 11th cent. as the highest teaching authorities (cf. the name of this period as the ‘Gaonic period’). The most important representatives of this office were Amram ben Sheshna (died about AD 875; author of the earliest preserved prayer book), Saadiah be…

Garama

(92 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Africa | Limes Main town of the  Garamantes, northeast of Mursuk (Fezzan), modern Djerma. References: Plin. HN 5,36; Ptol. 1,8,5; 10,2; 4,6,30; 8,16,7; Solin. 29,5. L. Cornelius Balbus, procos. Africae, led an expedition in 20 BC that certainly reached Garama. Subsequently, there was a close but sometimes stormy relationship between Garama and Rome. Many archaeological finds attest to this close relationship. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Ch. M. Daniels, Garamantian Excavations..., in: Libya Anti…

Garamantes

(206 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Berber tribe in the Libyan interior centered on  Garama. References: Hdt. 4,174; 183,1-184,1; Str. 2,5,33; 17,3,19; 23; Liv. 29,33,9; Mela 1,23; 45; Plin. HN 5,26; 36; 38; 6,209; 8,142; 178; 13,111; Flor. Epit. 2,31; Ptol. 1,8,5-7; 9,9; 10,2; 4,6,16; Solin. 29,7; 30,2; Arnob. 6,5; Tab. Peut. 7,4; Amm. Marc. 22,15,2; Oros. 1,2,88; 90; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48; B 47; Chronicum Alexandrinum in: Chron. min. 1, p. 107,167; Isid. Orig. 9,2,128; Geogr. Rav. p. 36,22-40. The influence of the G., who perhaps included a sub-Saharan racial element, exten…

Garden rocket

(162 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (εὔζωμον / eúzōmon, Latin eruca), of the Cruciferae family with few species, the most important being the common rocket ( Eruca sativa), cultivated in the Mediterranean region, with a lignified stem (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,2,8). According to Plin. HN 19,117 the seeds open after only three days (cf. Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,1,3). Its popularity as a spice gave rocket its Greek name according to Plin. HN 20,126 (literally ‘good for soups’). It was enjoyed raw and with onions and was considered an aphrodisiac for which the only antidote was to simultaneously eat lettuce (  lactuca…

Gardens

(2,325 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen (Cologne) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Horticulture s.  Horticulture Renger, Johannes (Berlin) [2] Gardens [German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the immediate proximity of homes, gardens were important providers of shade for humans and livestock. Pleasure gardens as part of palace grounds enhanced prestige. As part of the temple grounds they symbolized the cosmos. The Garden of Eden is a mythological invention (Gen 2,8; 2,15). Gardens were depicted in reliefs (Assyria) and wall paintings (Egypt). Assyrian kings recorded …

Gardens

(6 words)

Gardens see Park

Gardens, hanging

(11 words)

see  Hanging Gardens;  Semiramis;  Wonders of the World

Gargaphia

(70 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Γαργαφία; Gargaphía). Source fountain near  Plataeae, from which the Greek army drew water before the battle in 479 BC until it was filled in by the Persians (Hdt. 9,25,2; 49,2-51,1; 52; Paus. 9,4,3; Plin. HN 4,25); located by [2. 557; 3. 113-115]; regarding G.'s identification as the place where  Actaeon surprised Artemis while bathing [1. 757]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Bölte, s.v. G. 2), RE 7, 757 2 Müller 3 Pritchett, 1.

Gargara, Gargaris

(240 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάργαρα, Γαργαρίς; Gárgara, Gargarís), town in Aeolis on the 780 m high crest of Koca Kaya, a western extension of the Ida range (Hom. Il. 8,48; 14,292; 14,352 Γάργαρον ἄκρον; Plin. HN 5,122 Gargara mons). Founded by Assus (Str. 13,1,58) and inhabited by Leleges (EM s.v. Γ.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γ.), G. already existed in the mid-6th cent. BC, as temple finds on the acropolis indicate [1]. G. is mentioned in the Attic tribute lists with an amount of 4,500 drachmes. When the, probably only partial, resettlement to a …
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