Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gargettus

(136 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαργηττός; Gargēttós). Attic Mesogea deme in the Aegeis phyle, after 307/6 BC in the Antigonis. It provided four (already in IG I3 1040), later seven   bouleutaí . Name pre-Greek [1. 1336]. A decree on the demes of Hagios Giorgios near Ieraka locates it in the marching order between Hymettus and Pentelicum east of Pallene and attests a Dionysus sanctuary as the mustering ground [2. 41; 3. 127]. G. was with Acharnae, Paeania and Pallene a member of the cultic federation of Athena Pallenis (Ath. 234f-235c; [4. 18546]), the hero G. was considered the father of Ion…

Gargilius

(460 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Q. Coredius Gallus G. Antiquus Cos. suff. late in AD 119 His father was perhaps G. Antiquus (AE 1954, 63). Praetorian governor of the Province of Arabia, c. AD 116-118/9; cos. suff. late in 119; proconsul Asiae probably in 134/5 [1; 2. 148ff., 176]. If he is identical with M. Paccius Silvanus Q. Coredius Gallus G. Antiquus ([3. 260ff.] = AE 1991, 1576), he was either consular governor of Iudaea or of Syria. Cf. also [4]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, in: Chiron 12, 1982, 361 2 Id., in: Chiron 13, 1983 3 D. Gera, H. Cotton, in: IEJ 41, 1991 4 E. Dąbrowa, in…

Gargonius

(76 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Rhetoric teacher of the Augustan period, student of Buteo [1. 156f.], then his successor, who is perhaps identical with the example of lacking hygiene cited in Hor. Sat. 1,2,27 (= 1,4,92). His voice was rough and aggressive (Sen. Controv. 1,7,18). The older Seneca always connects the quotes form G. that illustrate his Colores with harsh reproach ( stultitia contr. 10,5,25; cacozelia 9,1,15, insaniens Suas. 2,16). Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) Bibliography 1 H. Bornecque, Les Déclamations, 1902, 168.

Gargoris

(85 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Name derived from an uncertain Indo-European root [1. 118-119]. Legendary king of the Curetes (?) in  Tartessus, who allegedly invented honey gathering. He repeatedly attempted to have his grandson Habis, who was born after a slip by his daughter, killed by wild animals but they spared and even nursed him. G. recognized his growing grandchild and made him his successor (Iust. 44,4,1-14).  Exposure, myths of Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Lourdes Albertos Firmat, La onomastica personal primitiva, 1966. H. J. Rose, Griech. Mythologie, 51978, 2…

Garizim

(5 words)

see  Samaria, Samaritans

Garsaura, Garsauira

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γαρσάουρα, Γαρσαύιρα; Garsáoura, Garsaúira). Main town of the Cappadocian strategia Garsauritis, modern Aksaray; refounded by  Archelaus [7] as  Archelais (later colonia Claudia Augusta; in Str. 12,2,6 called κωμόπολις). From AD 325 to the 14th cent. attested as a bishopric. The original name was preserved (in the Seljuq period Aqsarā). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 205f. Mitchell 1, 95f.

Garsyeris

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Γαρσύηρις; Garsýeris, because of -υηρις/υερις late Hittite-Luwian? [1. 669]). As a cast-out officer of Achaeus [5], he advised the latter in 221/0 BC to secede from Antiochus III. In the dispute of the Pisidian towns Pednelissus and Selge in 218, he intervened against Pednelissus together with several other towns of the region, but without the help of Side. Together with Achaeus he forced Selge to accept a peace and pay money (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-…

Garum

(5 words)

see  Fish dishes

Garumna

(92 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Garunna, Γαρούνας / Garoúnas). One of the main rivers of Gaul (Tib. 1,7,11), the modern Garonne and Gironde, the boundary between the Gauls and the Aquitanians (Caes. Gall. 1,1,1; 5; 7; Str. 4,1,1; 2,1f.; 3,3; 5,2; Mela 3,20f.; Plin. HN 4,105; Amm. Marc. 15,11,2). According to Str. 4,2,1 navigable over more than 370 km. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Boudet (ed.), Les Celtes, la Garonne et les Pays aquitains, 1992 Y. Roman, Les Celtes, les sources antiques et la Garonne, in: Aquitania 12, 1994, 213-219 H. Sion, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 33/1 (Gi…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Gastronomical poetry

(611 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Greek Gastronomical poetry (GP) may be considered a special stream of the parodistic poetry that  Hegemon of Thasos turned into a genuine literary genre in the late 5th cent. BC: light, jesting poetry (though resulting from artistic dedication) sings the delights of the stomach and the table. The lost Δεῖπνον ( Deîpnon, ‘Feast’) of Hegemon was the description of a banquet ( anagraphḗ, Ath. 1,5a; s. also  symposium literature), as are the works of the same name by Numenius of Heraclia (3rd cent. BC, cf. SH 596) and Timachidas of Rhodes (2nd…

Gastronomy

(804 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] A. Origins The art of cooking, which is the search for a balance of flavours, the preference for certain kinds of wine etc., in short, good taste in matters of nourishment, probably always existed in the ancient world but only became the subject of scientific discourse in the classical period. (This impression is based on the current state of documentation.) In antiquity the development of a true art of cooking was considered in a contradictory way both a sign of a high degree of ci…

Gate, deities associated with

(314 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
[German version] The three most important Greek deities associated with gates (for Rome see  Ianus,  Carna) were  Hecate (and  Artemis, who was closely associated with her),  Hermes and  Hercules. Hecataea (small statues or shrines to Hecate) were to be found in front of the gates of private houses and in front of city gates (Aeschyl. TrGF 388; Aristoph. Vesp. 804, Hsch. s. v. προπύλαια). Corresponding with this is the association between Hecate and additional liminal places, particularly road-forks ( tríhodoi), which is in turn connected with her role as protector from t…

Gates

(1,574 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Iconographic and Symbolic Reception in the Middle Ages (CT) Apart from their archaeological and architectural reception, town gates throughout the Middle Ages and beyond represented a symbolic and iconographic formula that was widespread as a sovereignty motif. In this way, gate iconography was an image of the imperial idea of Rome and the Christian concept of Jerusalem [8; 22]. Gates were also considered to be architectural representations of various towns. Be…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Gates; porches

(613 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Gates that went beyond purely military aspects (for these cf.  Fortifications) are to be found in Greek architecture from the 6th cent. BC onwards ─ initially as imposingly designed entrances to sanctuaries, and from about 400 BC also in secular contexts (entrances to the  Agora,  Gymnasium,  Stadium or  Assembly buildings, e.g. in Miletus, Priene, Olympia). The development and extension of the própylon as a decorative entrance gate to a  sanctuary can be reconstructed, for example, from the Acropolis of Athens (cf.  Athens II. with locati…

Gauanes

(68 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg)
[German version] (Γαυάνης/ Gauánēs; etymology doubtful). According to Herodotus (8,137f.) the son of the Heraclid Temenus of Argos, predecessor of the Macedonian king  Alexander [2]. Together with his brothers  Aeropus [1] and  Perdiccas, G. subjected the whole of Macedonia and founded a new dynasty (Hdt. ibid.). With this aetiology the origin of the Macedonian royal family can be traced through the Temenids to  Hercules. Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg)

Gauda

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of the Numidian king Mastanabal, grandson of Massinissa, brother of  Jugurtha, claimed rule despite his mental and physical debility during the war between Rome and Jugurtha. After the war in 105 BC he succeeded his uncle Micipsa with the support of Marius and obtained eastern Numidia (Sall. Iug. 65,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH 9 21994, 30 V. Werner, Quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 1995, 35.

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Gaugamela

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander Large village (κώμη μεγάλη, probably modern Tall Gōmil near Ǧabal Maqlūb, 35 km north-east of Mosul) on the river Bumelos in northern Mesopotamia (Arr. Anab. 6,11,6), near which (cf. Arr. Anab. 3,8,7) the battle between  Alexander [4] the Great and  Darius [3] III took place on 1 October 331 (Arr. Anab. 3,11-15; Curt. 4,13,26-16; Plut. Alexander 31-33; Diod. Sic. 17,56-61; Iust. 11,14). After Alexander stalled a flanking manoe…

Gaulanitis

(4 words)

see  Batanaea

Gauls

(11 words)

see  Gallia;  Gallia Cisalpina;  Celts;  Celtic archaeology;  Celtic languages

Gauls, fear of

(6 words)

see  Metus

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Gaumata

(239 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian Gōmāta; Elamitic Kammadda; Akkadian Gumātu). A magus ( Magi) [3. DB 39], who seized power after Cambyses had his brother  Bardiya [1] assassinated, on Cambyses' absence on campaign in Egypt. To justify his usurpation he claimed to be Bardiya. After Cambyses' death  Darius [1] I. and six noble Persians (Aspathines,  Hydarnes,  Intaphernes,  Gobryas,  Megabyzus, and  Otanes) brought the rule of G./Bardiya to an end and killed him (522 BC). A detailed description is in the  Bi…

Gauradas

(68 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Γαυράδας). Author of an ingenious epigram in iambic trimeters in the form of a dialogue between Echo and her lover (Anth. Pal. 16,152). The popular theme (cf. also Archias, Anth. Pal. 9,27; Evodus, ibid. 16,155; Satyrus, ibid. 16,153; Anon., ibid. 16,156) is developed in an original fashion; dating the poet, whose obviously barbarous name is unique, is impossible. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 111f.

Gaurium

(105 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γαύρειον, Γαύριον; Gaúreion, Gaúrion). The name of a settlement with a deep harbour on the north-western side of the island of Andros in the Cyclades. In the Hellenistic period, G. served as a port and is mentioned in association with various events in wars: Xen. Hell. 1,4,22; Diod. Sic. 13,69,4f.; Liv. 31,45,3ff.; GGM 1,500. Inland at Hagios Petros are the remains of a Hellenistic round tower, probably used to protect the nearby mines. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography J. T. Bent, Aegean Islands, 21966, 291ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 230 L. Ross, Reisen…

Gavius

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Roman family name, frequently attested in inscriptions, also in the form Cavius [1. 76f.]; in the Republican period its bearers are still politically insignificant; also a Faliscan praenomen [2. 103]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G., P. Crucified as a spy of Spartacus 72 BC from Compsa (Lower Italy), was captured and crucified in Sicily in 72 BC by C.  Verres as an alleged spy of the slave leader  Spartacus (Cic. Verr. 2,5,158-170). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Bassus Roman grammarian and antiquarian of the late Republic Roman grammarian and…

Gaza

(514 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Syria | Zenobia | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | India, trade with | Arabia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Egypt (Arabic Ġazza, Hebrew Azzā, from Semitic ǧzz, ‘being thorny’). From  Thutmosis III (1457 BC) to Ramses IV (mid 12th cent. BC) an Egyptian administrative centre in southern Palestine [1], under the Ramessids ‘the town of Canaan’, short ‘Canaan’ (Κάδυτις, Hdt. 2,159; 3,5); under  Ramses II also the ‘town of Ramses in Canaan’. Taken over…

Gazelle

(244 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas, formerly Antilope dorcas or Gazella africana) represents the antilope subfamily, which also includes the wildebeest and the oryx), in North Africa and the Middle East (ζορκάς, δορκάς, δόρκων, δόρκος, δόρξ, or ζόρξ; zorkás, dorkás, dórkōn, dórkos, dórx or zórx, damma or dorcas). The gazelle is a typical desert dweller (Hdt. 4,192), e.g. in Libya (Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,3,5), and lives in harmony with partridges (πέρδικες; pérdikes) and in herds together with wild asses (ὄναγροι; ónagroi, Timothy of Gaza c. 17 [1. 27f.]). Gazelles…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

GDR

(8,240 words)

Author(s): Dummer, Jürgen (Jena RWG) | Seidensticker, Bernd (Berlin RWG)
Dummer, Jürgen (Jena RWG) I. Classical Studies (CT) [German version] A. General (CT) On the whole, the development in all disciplines concerned with Antiquity in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SOZ) and, since 1949, in the GDR, was characterised, on the one hand, by efforts to preserve traditional areas of research and forms of work with a view to international scholarship, especially in the non-Socialist world and, in addition, to break new ground. On the other hand, ideological indoctrination continually incr…

Gedrosia, Gadrosia

(220 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Area in south-eastern Iran and south-western Pakistan, roughly equivalent to modern Baluchistan. Now a largely arid mountainous area with deep valleys, known from Arrian's account of the difficulties encountered by Alexander's army on its return march. The coast is described in detail in the Voyage of Nearchus (Arr. Anab. 6,22-26; Str. 15,723). Bearers of various cultures since the 8th millennium, they were possibly the ancestors of the Brahui, who are linguistically close to the …

Gegania

(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] A Roman lady, who entered into a relationship with an ugly slave by the name of Clesippus and eventually made him her heir (probably in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC). After her death he called himself Clesippus Geganius and had built for himself an expensive tomb of which the inscription is still preserved (Plin. HN 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). This widespread story may underlie the character of Trimalchio in  Petronius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Geganius

(141 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician family, which according to tradition was politically significant in Rome during the 5th cent. BC, but then entirely disappeared. The gens supposedly came to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7); a later construction traced the family back to  Gyas, a companion of Aeneas (Serv. Aen. 5,117). [German version] [1] G. Macerinus, M. Cos III, censor 435 BC Consul I in 447 BC, II in 443 (triumph over the Volsci, InscrIt 13,1,67; Liv. 4,9f.), III in 437, censor in 435 with C. Furius [I 25] Pacilus; legate in 431. Elvers, Ka…

Gegeneis

(175 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, ‘Earth Born ’). [German version] [1] Epithet of the Giants Epithet of the Aloads (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482),  Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), the Spartans (Eur. Bacch. 264), Argus [I 5] (Aesch. PV 567), and the  giants (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). As a noun = giants (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lycoph. 1408; explained in Diod. Sic. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Mythical people Mythical people living near Cyzicus, mentioned by Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 with schola). Dei(l)ochus of Proconnesus called them ἐγχειρογάστορες ( Enche…

Geidumni

(34 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 as being subject to the Nervii. Their home in Flanders cannot be located with certainty. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Geison

(331 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (γεῖσον; geîson). Ancient architectural term (instances from Greek antiquity in [1. 32f.]) designating the cornice, the upper section of the entablature, originally in columned buildings with a hipped or saddleback roof, later also in storey and wall construction. The compact, monolithic or many-stone, horizontal cornice runs around the whole colonnade. Used since the first Doric peripteral temples, imitates the overhang of roof beams providing shelter from rain water in buildings …

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Gelanor

(108 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γελάνωρ; Gelánōr). Mythical original king of Argus, son of Sthenelus (Paus. 2,16,1), whose only significance is that he abdicated the rulership to  Danaus (Apollod. 2,13); in Aesch. Supp. 266 he is called  Pelasgus. The change in dynasty took place either after a battle (Plut. Pyrrhus 32,9f., 404e-f) or by referendum (Paus. 2,19,3f.). A battle, understood as an omen, between a bull and a wolf, which the wolf wins, is crucial on both occasions. Danaus is in this way connected to Ar…

Gelasius

(565 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina Bishop of  Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina (died before AD 400). The nephew of  Cyrillus of Jerusalem, installed as bishop around 365/367, took part in the Council of Constantinople in 381 and in the synod there in 394. At the wish of his uncle, G. wrote a continuation of the Church history by  Eusebius [7] of Caesarea, going as far as 395, which had a long-lasting effect (Gelasius of Cyzicus, hagiographic lives, etc.). Parts of the lost s…

Gelduba

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Krefeld-Gellep). Place in Germania inferior, field camp and battle site of the Batavian wars (Tac. Hist. 4,26,3; 32,1; 35,3; 36,1; 58,4); after AD 70 auxiliary fort (Plin. HN 19,90), which after three wood and earth stages was converted into stone before 150. The occupying force was for a long time the cohors II Varcinorum equitata. In the wake of Postumus' uprising in 259 (tombs of the fallen!) and in 275/6 G. was destroyed by the Franks, redesigned into a fortress around 295…

Geleontes

(4 words)

see  Iones

Gelimer

(229 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of  Geisericus, last of the Vandal kings (AD 530-4), took over rulership in 530 after the fall of Hildericus (Procop. Vand. 1,9,8-9; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,3). His adamant refusal of any intervention by Justinian in internal affairs led to war (Procop. Vand. 1,9,10-24). Since G. had dispatched his troops to Sardinia against the rebellious Godas, he could not defend himself either against Pudentius, who was in revolt in Tripolitania, or against  Belisarius, who had landed in …

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Gello

(160 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
[German version] (Γελλώ; Gellṓ) designates the spirit of a girl who died single, which kills unmarried or pregnant women and small children; it is first mentioned in Sappho (fr. 178 L.P. = 168 V.) [1]; G. is also the name of a mythological creature with these characteristics (Suda s.v.). It was still feared in the Byzantine period (Johannes Damascenus Perì Stryngôn, PG 94, 1904 C; Psellos Dihḗgesis perì Gellṓs [2]), something that has survived to the present day in rural Greece [3]. G. has often been associated with  Lamia and  Mormo, two similar spirits, and the strix. Rites to fend off G…

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Geloni

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γελωνοί; Gelōnoí). According to Hdt. (4,102; 108f.; 120; 136), agricultural Scythian tribe in the neighbourhood of the  Budini and speaking a Graeco-Scythian hybrid language; descendants of Gelonus; originally Greek refugees from Greek trade settlements. They apparently took part in the battle against  Darius [1] I. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)

Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Gem

(7 words)

Gem see Gem cutting

Gem cutting

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
Michel, Simone (Hamburg) A. Research History (CT) [German version] 1. From the Middle Ages to the Late Renaissance (CT) During the early Middle Ages interest in cut gems had declined rapidly. Colourful gemstones were indeed used to decorate objects, but generally without figurative motifs. In the Carolingian and the Hohenstaufen periods (9th cent.; 12th/13th cents.), the cutting of cameos was once again taken up [2; 11. 2. fn. 3, 375. fn. 2 und 6, 380. fn. 30]. In the Middle Ages, gems and cameos from Antiquity w…

Gem cutting

(2,838 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient see  Seals Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] II. Phoenician Phoenician and Punic gem cutting (GC) (= glyptography) is known almost exclusively through stamp seals in the form of scarabees ( Scarabee) or scaraboids that were very widespread in the ancient world; the body of the beetle is graphically linear in the Phoenician east, whilst in the Punic west ─ under the Ionian-Etruscan influence ─ it is structured much more three-dimensionally. Here Greek motifs (He…

Gemellae

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Limes Camp and city in Numidia, situated 25 km south-west of Biskra, modern El-Kasbat. G. was part of the fortification system of the fossatum. A detachment of the legio III Augusta and the ala I Pannoniorum were here at various times. In the 4th cent. the praepositus limitis Gemellensis had its quarters in G. Evidence: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. Dign. Occ. 25,24. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 no. 741(?); 1989, 287 no. 883.  Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., …

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Gemini

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Friend des M. Antonius Friend of the triumvir Marcus Antonius [I 9], who tried in vain to persuade the latter to return to Rome in 32 BC and become reconciled with Octavian (Plut. Antonius 59,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1]…

Geminus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] Cognomen (‘twin’) of the Tusculan  Maecius G.; in the fasti of the Republican period otherwise used by the Servilii and Veturii; widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap. 145 Id., FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 294 Walde/Hofmann 1, 586f.

Geminus

(723 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γέμινος; Géminos) [I]. [German version] [1] Astronomer and mathematician Astronomer and mathematician from the school of Posidonius. Almost nothing is known about his life. The height of his creativity was around 70 BC. It is generally accepted that he lived in Rhodes. The only fully extant treatise by G. is the ‘Introduction to Astronomy’ (Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα). It is in the tradition of  Eudoxus and  Aratus [4]. Similarly to the later writing by  Cleomedes, it is an elementary textbook on astrono…

Gems, Gem and cameo cutters

(9 words)

see  Gem cutting

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Genava

(395 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Batavian Revolt Most northerly oppidum of the Celtic tribe of the  Allobroges in the hilly area between the embouchure of the Rhône, Arve and Lake Geneva, modern Geneva. The name, like Genoa, is Ligurian. Even in the pre-Roman period the place was significant from the point of view of traffic policy: harbour complex on the south side of the embouchure of the Rhône for navigation on the Rhône and Lake Geneva, wooden bridge …

Gender

(4 words)

see  Sex

Gender roles

(2,903 words)

Author(s): Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt) | Stahlmann, Ines (Berlin) | King, Helen (Reading)
I. Society [German version] A. Greece It was a characteristic of Greek society that the spheres of the two genders were strictly separated in a way that has little in common with the modern distinction between a private, domestic sphere and a public, political one. Neither should the house (  oíkos ) be seen as a purely private sphere, nor can gender roles (GR) be limited to one area only. There were divisions both within the house and within the public sphere of ancient cities. The ancient discourse on GR was characterized both by complimentariness and by demarcation. Wagner-Hasel, Beate (D…

Gender studies

(5,320 words)

Author(s): Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG)
Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG) [German version] A. Definition, Concept and Conceptual History (CT) Gender Studies (GS) is an interdisciplinary research approach to the role of sex or gender in culture, society and science. This discipline, which is particularly flourishing in Classical Studies within the Anglo-American sphere, differs from other forms of historical or literary gender research in its combination of methods developed in women's studies with those of post-structuralism. In social and cultural sciences,  the English term gender (originally  'grammatical gend…

Genealogy

(962 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
In early societies, largely based on family organizations, genealogy as a derivation of a person's descent in the form of a pedigree is often used as a means of legitimation and (pseudo-historical) memory, which was always also directed at publicity (genealogy from Greek γενεαλογεῖν; genealogeîn, ‘to talk about [one's] origin’). [German version] I. Near East and Egypt The purpose of lineage, transmitted in the form of a genealogy (generally patrilineal; exceptions in the case of Egyptian rulers), was to legitimate a claim to rulership, to tenure of a …

Geneleus

(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Sculptor of the archaic period, famous for the family group with his signature in the Heraion on  Samos (560-550 BC). The group consists of the reclining figure of the founder ...ιλάρχος, three standing girls (unknown name, Philippe, Ornithe), the fragments of a young man, and the enthroned mother Phileia; apart from Ornithe (Berlin, SM, Inv. 1739), all the figures are on Samos (Vathy, Mus. Inv. 768). G. proves himself a master of Ionian sculpture because of the minute detail to w…

Genera causarum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(γένη τῶν λόγων ῥητορικῶν; génē tôn lógōn rhētorikôn). [German version] A. The Branches of Oratory The doctrine of the genera causarum ( GC) was developed in particular by Aristotle, who divided all oratorical topics into three groups (Rh. 1,3 = 1358b6─8), whereas his predecessors distinguished several types ( eídē, species) and only considered two GC, i.e. the deliberative and the judicial. Two GC are mentioned in Pl. Phdr. 261b [7. 170; 4. 258], and the same two GC together with seven eídē appear in the  Rhetorica ad Alexandrum (1,1 = 1421b6-12), written in c. 340 BC before Aristotl…

Genera dicendi

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(χαρακτῆρες τῆς λέξεως, charaktêres tês léxeōs). [German version] A. Concept and Classifications Genera dicendi ( GD) is taken as the usual term for the doctrine of style (as in Cic. Orat. 20; 69; Quint. Inst. 12,10,58; Isid. Orig. 2,17 H.), alongside elocutionis genera (Iul. Vict. rhet. 22 p. 438,8 H., 92,12 Giom.-Celentano; Aquila rhet. 27,10f.H.; Mart. Cap. 479,5 H.; Consultus Fortunatianus 3,8 [5. 510,5f.] as sing. genus e.). In the earliest Latin attestation (Rhet. Her. 4,11), elocutio and genera are linked, albeit separated by twelve words; genera elocutionis does not exist…

General Abbreviations

(564 words)

Common abbreviations (e.g., etc.) are not included in the list of general abbreviations. A. Aulus a.u.c. ab urbe condita abl. ablative acc. accusative aed. cur. aedilis curulis aed. pl. aedilis plebi Ap(p). Appius Athens, AM Athens, Acropolis Museum Athens, BM Athens, Benaki Museum Athens, NM Athens, National Museum Athens, NUM Athens, Numismatic Museum b. born Baltimore, WAG Baltimore,Walters Art Gallery Basle, AM Basle, Antikenmuseum Berlin, PM Berlin, Pergamonmuseum Berlin, SM Berlin, Staatliche Museen bk(s). book(s) Bonn, RL Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Boston, MFA Bost…

Genesia

(74 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (τὰ Γενέσια; tà Genésia). Name of a Greek family festival in honour of a dead ancestor (Hdt. 4,26). In Athens, it became ─ allegedly at Solon's instigation ─ a public festival of the dead, the celebrations of which on the 5th Boedromion also included a sacrifice to  Gaia (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 168). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography F. Jacoby, Γενέσια. A forgotten festival of the dead, in: CQ 38, 1944, 65-75.

Genesis poetry

(6 words)

see  Biblical poetry

Genethliakon

(459 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] I. Greek A genethliakón (γενεθλιακόν, sc. μέλος, ᾷ̓σμα) is a poem in honour of a birthday (γενέθλιος ἡμέρα, γενέθλιον ἦμαρ), in association with a gift or standing alone. Callim. Fr. 202 is a iamb to a friend in celebration of the seventh day after the birth of his daughter. There is an isopsephic epigram written by Leonides of Alexandria (Anth. Pal. 6,321) as a birthday present to Caesar γενεθλιακαῖσιν ἐν ὥραις. Other epigrams, particularly by  Crinagoras, accompanied birthday gifts…

Genethlius

(162 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Γενέθλιος; Genéthlios). Greek rhetor from Petra, a pupil of Minocianus and Agapetus, 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD. He taught in Athens in rivalry to Callinicus, and died there aged 28. He wrote epideictic orations and was praised for his talent and his astounding memory (Suda s.v.). The fact that he is mentioned four times in the Schol. Demosth. (18,8; 52; 19,148; 22,3) supports the assumption that G. had written a commentary on that rhetor. Two treatises on the classification of …

Genetyllis

(94 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γενετυλλίς; Genetyllís). The Genetyllides (pl.) were Attic goddesses, linked, as their name indicates, to birth and fertility. Their sanctuary was situated on Cape Colias. They were venerated by women in an exuberant celebration and received the sacrifice of a dog. Closely related in function were the Phocaean Gennaides (Paus. 1,1,5), and in particular  Eileithyia, who also received canine sacrifices. Documentary evidence: Aristoph. Lys. 2; Aristoph. Nub. 52; Aristoph. Thesm. 130 with schol.; Paus. 1,1,5 with schol.; Hsch., Suda s.v. G. Graf, Fritz (Columbus…

Geneva Declaration

(155 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] One of the first official acts of the World Medical Association, founded in 1947, was drafting the Geneva Declaration (GD), a contemporary reformulation of the Hippocratic Oath; further improvements were made in 1968. The so-called abortion paragraph and the ban on surgery made way for more modern general provisions to respect human life from the moment of conception and always to use medical knowledge in harmony with the laws of humanity. It retained mention of a doctor's obliga…

Genita Mana

(136 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Goddess, mentioned by Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 52,277a) and Pliny (HN 29,14,58) in conjunction with a canine sacrifice. According to Plutarch, the prayer during the sacrifice was for ‘none of the house slaves to become good (χρηστός, chrēstós)’, interpreted as a euphemism for ‘dead’. Plutarch links the name of the goddess to childbirth. Modern interpretations proceed hardly any further [1; 2]. A Diva Geneta appears in Agnone (mid-3rd cent. BC [3]), whereas Mana is referred to as a deity of the Underworld in Mart. Cap.…

Genius

(963 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching)
[German version] A. Roman Development Genius is etymologically interpreted as the tutelary deity external to a man (ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, agathòs daímōn) or alternatively his internal power of procreation and in other life events. Academic research [2. 23; 5. 11] has resulted in a synthesis, as no prototype can be assumed for the cult of the genius; the genius is seen as a deified personality/concept located in the forehead, as manifest in an individual's innate qualities: the procreational force within each man, the power embracing his personality. The genius is divine and responsible…

Genizah

(356 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] In Judaism, a genizah (‘safekeeping’, from Aramaic gnaz, ‘to hide’) is a repository for books which are no longer in use but which contain the name of God, or for ritual objects, in order to prevent misuse or profanation. Such rooms were frequently found in synagogues; if the synagogue itself was demolished, the books and objects were ‘interred’ in the cemetery. Of particular importance amongst the multitude of genizahs in the Jewish world is the genizah of the Esra synagogue in Fusṭāṭ (Old Cairo), whose academic evaluation was due mainly to the British…

Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Gennesar

(4 words)

see  Tiberias

Genoa

(398 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (ancient Genua, modern Genova). Ligurian fortress on the harbour of Mandraccio, used in pre-Roman times by Etruscans and Massiliotes: pre-urban phase end of the 6th cent. BC; settled from the mid 5th cent. BC (wall remains, pottery, bronze and lead, statuette of a discus thrower, Etruscan inscriptions; necropoleis, cremations in ‘well graves’). It was an oppidum allied with Rome, in 218 BC the base of P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio against  H…

Genos

(327 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (γένος; génos, pl. γένη/ génē). The term has been used commonly in archaic Greece with the meaning ‘of aristocratic origin’, in addition in the sense of house, family, generation, species etc. [1]. In the research Attic génē were for a long time regarded as exclusive noble clans whose former dominance was still demonstrated in the later privileges (supervision of admission to the phratria and exclusive holding of positions as priests). According to the investigation by [2] and [3], the génē are today regarded as local village communities which arose in archa…

Genre, genre theory

(4,401 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Huss, Bernhard (Munich)
Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. Ancient Foundations (CT) In Antiquity, the genre debate was largely determined by Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica ( Epistula ad Pisones). The views expressed in these texts, albeit at times contradictory, affected the entire modern reception of the ancient genre debate. The trend towards a normative poetics, and thus a prescriptive understanding of ancient theorems, was generally dominant and already evident in Horace's thinking [18. 257]. In the modern debate, theref…

Gens

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Politics and Society The Roman gens comprised the members of a  family who descended from a common ancestor and under whose potestas they would have been, if he had still been alive (Varro, Ling. 8,4). The main distinction between gentiles and agnati lay in the fact that the latter could prove their blood relationship with their progenitor, whereas for the former, this relationship was only a fictitious assumption. The origins of the gens are a matter of scholarly dispute, and will likely remain so because of the lack of source material from Rome's …

Gens Bacchuiana

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Africa proconsularis, in the valley of Oued Siliana near Tichilla and  Thubursicum Bure, modern Bou Djelida. Chief place of the gens Bacchuiana, under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), its administration lay in the hands of undecimprimi. Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12331-12340a; Suppl. 4, 23922-23930. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 34, no. 74.

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Gentiana

(165 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (gentian). Greece boasts seven, Italy more than 20 species of this family with about 200 species in total. According to Dioscorides (3,3 p.2,4 Wellmann = p.262f. Berendes), the medicinal properties of these species, generally identified as γεντιανή/ gentianḗ ( gentiana: Pliny), were allegedly discovered by an Illyrian king called Gentis (= Gentius: Plin. HN 25,71). In medicine, gentiana found a multitude of applications (Plin. HN 26,29 and passim): Even in antiquity, juice was extracted from the root of the yellow Gentiana lutea L. and related species ─ ascribe…

Gentile

(502 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The gentile ─ signifying membership to a family (  Gens ) ─ is bequeathed by the father to the children and kept by the wife after marriage. It is the defining element in the Roman and Middle Italian system of personal names ( Personal names: Rome and Italia), occupying second place after the praenomen in the formula for names. Aside from birth, other possibilities existed of attaining a gentile: a) through  adoption, wherein the adopted person receives the gentile of the adoptive father; his prior gentile added as a suffix at first ( P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, son of L. …

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Genus

(5 words)

see  Literary genre

Genusia

(90 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] (modern Ginosa). City west of Tarentum ─ the original centre of the Peucetii; Roman municipium ( Genusini, Plin. HN 3,105). Settlements existed from the Iron Age until the late Roman period; funerary finds. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography E. de Juliis, L'attività archeologica in Puglia nel 1983, Atti del XXIII Convegno di Taranto (1983), 1984, 421-446, 429-431 Id., Magna Grecia, 1996, 266 T. Scholjer, Notiziario delle Attività di Tutela, Settembre 1987-Agosto 1988. Ginosa (Taranto), via S. Francesco Saverio, Taras, VIII, 1-2, 1988, 114f. M. T. Giannotta, …

Geographical names

(1,938 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne)
[German version] A. Types: place names and vocabulary In antiquity, the different types of place names (esp. names of regions and cities or settlements, also names of mountains, lakes, rivers, islands, fields, and roads) are thoroughly documented and transmitted in Greek and Latin, however, there are many variations in form, e.g. Πιθηκοῦσσα : Aenāria (today Ischia). If a place name cannot be interpreted from within the vocabulary of the language in which it is documented, it usually goes back to the language(s) of prehistorical populations. On the o…

Geographus Ravennas

(235 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
[German version] Anonymous, apparently clerical, author of the 8th cent. AD from Ravenna (4,31), also referred to as Anonymus Ravennas. His Cosmographia describes the entire world as it was known in his time in 5 bks. Bk. 1 argues ─ in observance of Biblical and patristical traditions ─ for a view of the earth as a flat disc surrounded by oceans, with the sun running along the southern rim during the day. Bks. 2-5 present lists of 5,000 place names, organized by regions and, in part, by Roman provinces (regions, cit…

Geography

(2,061 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Talbert, Richard (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The oldest sources for the geography of Mesopotamia consist of topographical lists (3rd millennium BC), of which one lists a total of 289 eastern and central Mesopotamian places. Clay plates from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC occasionally show schematised city maps with labels (Babylon, Nippur, Uruk, Sippar) as well as regional area maps (Nuzi, Tellō, Nippur, Euphratis region, Sippar). These were probably created in the context of land surveying. A world map exists which is unique in its central orientation towards Babylon ( c. 5th cent.…

Geography

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Geography Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Geography belongs to those scientific disciplines in which the state of knowledge of Antiquity  in the modern era has proven to be in need of a great deal of correction and expansion. The discovery of the 'New World' (1492) and the sea route to India (1498) exemplarize the beginning of the modern era [13]. Nevertheless, ancient geographical thought has influenced the practice of scientific geography until today [1. 57-58]. In te…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Geology (and mineralogy)

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The phenomena and questions with which geology and mineralogy deal today were the subject of two methodologically separate disciplines in Antiquity. Meteorologia inquired into the causes of terrestrial phenomena; the description and classification of rocks and minerals (and fossils) were the subject of historia naturalis (and, with regard to the medicinal benefits of minerals, of pharmacology and medicine). As the science of the Earth's history, geology is, to be sure, a creation …
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