Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gargettus

(136 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαργηττός; Gargēttós). Attic Mesogea deme in the Aegeis phyle, after 307/6 BC in the Antigonis. It provided four (already in IG I3 1040), later seven   bouleutaí . Name pre-Greek [1. 1336]. A decree on the demes of Hagios Giorgios near Ieraka locates it in the marching order between Hymettus and Pentelicum east of Pallene and attests a Dionysus sanctuary as the mustering ground [2. 41; 3. 127]. G. was with Acharnae, Paeania and Pallene a member of the cultic federation of Athena Pallenis (Ath. 234f-235c; [4. 18546]), the hero G. was considered the father of Ion…

Gargilius

(460 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Q. Coredius Gallus G. Antiquus Cos. suff. late in AD 119 His father was perhaps G. Antiquus (AE 1954, 63). Praetorian governor of the Province of Arabia, c. AD 116-118/9; cos. suff. late in 119; proconsul Asiae probably in 134/5 [1; 2. 148ff., 176]. If he is identical with M. Paccius Silvanus Q. Coredius Gallus G. Antiquus ([3. 260ff.] = AE 1991, 1576), he was either consular governor of Iudaea or of Syria. Cf. also [4]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, in: Chiron 12, 1982, 361 2 Id., in: Chiron 13, 1983 3 D. Gera, H. Cotton, in: IEJ 41, 1991 4 E. Dąbrowa, in…

Gargonius

(76 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Rhetoric teacher of the Augustan period, student of Buteo [1. 156f.], then his successor, who is perhaps identical with the example of lacking hygiene cited in Hor. Sat. 1,2,27 (= 1,4,92). His voice was rough and aggressive (Sen. Controv. 1,7,18). The older Seneca always connects the quotes form G. that illustrate his Colores with harsh reproach ( stultitia contr. 10,5,25; cacozelia 9,1,15, insaniens Suas. 2,16). Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) Bibliography 1 H. Bornecque, Les Déclamations, 1902, 168.

Gargoris

(85 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Name derived from an uncertain Indo-European root [1. 118-119]. Legendary king of the Curetes (?) in  Tartessus, who allegedly invented honey gathering. He repeatedly attempted to have his grandson Habis, who was born after a slip by his daughter, killed by wild animals but they spared and even nursed him. G. recognized his growing grandchild and made him his successor (Iust. 44,4,1-14).  Exposure, myths of Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Lourdes Albertos Firmat, La onomastica personal primitiva, 1966. H. J. Rose, Griech. Mythologie, 51978, 2…

Garizim

(5 words)

see  Samaria, Samaritans

Garsaura, Garsauira

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γαρσάουρα, Γαρσαύιρα; Garsáoura, Garsaúira). Main town of the Cappadocian strategia Garsauritis, modern Aksaray; refounded by  Archelaus [7] as  Archelais (later colonia Claudia Augusta; in Str. 12,2,6 called κωμόπολις). From AD 325 to the 14th cent. attested as a bishopric. The original name was preserved (in the Seljuq period Aqsarā). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 205f. Mitchell 1, 95f.

Garsyeris

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Γαρσύηρις; Garsýeris, because of -υηρις/υερις late Hittite-Luwian? [1. 669]). As a cast-out officer of Achaeus [5], he advised the latter in 221/0 BC to secede from Antiochus III. In the dispute of the Pisidian towns Pednelissus and Selge in 218, he intervened against Pednelissus together with several other towns of the region, but without the help of Side. Together with Achaeus he forced Selge to accept a peace and pay money (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-…

Garum

(5 words)

see  Fish dishes

Garumna

(92 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Garunna, Γαρούνας / Garoúnas). One of the main rivers of Gaul (Tib. 1,7,11), the modern Garonne and Gironde, the boundary between the Gauls and the Aquitanians (Caes. Gall. 1,1,1; 5; 7; Str. 4,1,1; 2,1f.; 3,3; 5,2; Mela 3,20f.; Plin. HN 4,105; Amm. Marc. 15,11,2). According to Str. 4,2,1 navigable over more than 370 km. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Boudet (ed.), Les Celtes, la Garonne et les Pays aquitains, 1992 Y. Roman, Les Celtes, les sources antiques et la Garonne, in: Aquitania 12, 1994, 213-219 H. Sion, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 33/1 (Gi…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Gastronomical poetry

(611 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Greek Gastronomical poetry (GP) may be considered a special stream of the parodistic poetry that  Hegemon of Thasos turned into a genuine literary genre in the late 5th cent. BC: light, jesting poetry (though resulting from artistic dedication) sings the delights of the stomach and the table. The lost Δεῖπνον ( Deîpnon, ‘Feast’) of Hegemon was the description of a banquet ( anagraphḗ, Ath. 1,5a; s. also  symposium literature), as are the works of the same name by Numenius of Heraclia (3rd cent. BC, cf. SH 596) and Timachidas of Rhodes (2nd…

Gastronomy

(804 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris)
[German version] A. Origins The art of cooking, which is the search for a balance of flavours, the preference for certain kinds of wine etc., in short, good taste in matters of nourishment, probably always existed in the ancient world but only became the subject of scientific discourse in the classical period. (This impression is based on the current state of documentation.) In antiquity the development of a true art of cooking was considered in a contradictory way both a sign of a high degree of ci…

Gate, deities associated with

(314 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
[German version] The three most important Greek deities associated with gates (for Rome see  Ianus,  Carna) were  Hecate (and  Artemis, who was closely associated with her),  Hermes and  Hercules. Hecataea (small statues or shrines to Hecate) were to be found in front of the gates of private houses and in front of city gates (Aeschyl. TrGF 388; Aristoph. Vesp. 804, Hsch. s. v. προπύλαια). Corresponding with this is the association between Hecate and additional liminal places, particularly road-forks ( tríhodoi), which is in turn connected with her role as protector from t…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Gates

(1,574 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Iconographic and Symbolic Reception in the Middle Ages (CT) Apart from their archaeological and architectural reception, town gates throughout the Middle Ages and beyond represented a symbolic and iconographic formula that was widespread as a sovereignty motif. In this way, gate iconography was an image of the imperial idea of Rome and the Christian concept of Jerusalem [8; 22]. Gates were also considered to be architectural representations of various towns. Be…

Gates; porches

(613 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Gates that went beyond purely military aspects (for these cf.  Fortifications) are to be found in Greek architecture from the 6th cent. BC onwards ─ initially as imposingly designed entrances to sanctuaries, and from about 400 BC also in secular contexts (entrances to the  Agora,  Gymnasium,  Stadium or  Assembly buildings, e.g. in Miletus, Priene, Olympia). The development and extension of the própylon as a decorative entrance gate to a  sanctuary can be reconstructed, for example, from the Acropolis of Athens (cf.  Athens II. with locati…

Gauanes

(68 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg)
[German version] (Γαυάνης/ Gauánēs; etymology doubtful). According to Herodotus (8,137f.) the son of the Heraclid Temenus of Argos, predecessor of the Macedonian king  Alexander [2]. Together with his brothers  Aeropus [1] and  Perdiccas, G. subjected the whole of Macedonia and founded a new dynasty (Hdt. ibid.). With this aetiology the origin of the Macedonian royal family can be traced through the Temenids to  Hercules. Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg)

Gauda

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of the Numidian king Mastanabal, grandson of Massinissa, brother of  Jugurtha, claimed rule despite his mental and physical debility during the war between Rome and Jugurtha. After the war in 105 BC he succeeded his uncle Micipsa with the support of Marius and obtained eastern Numidia (Sall. Iug. 65,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography CAH 9 21994, 30 V. Werner, Quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 1995, 35.

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Gaugamela

(149 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander Large village (κώμη μεγάλη, probably modern Tall Gōmil near Ǧabal Maqlūb, 35 km north-east of Mosul) on the river Bumelos in northern Mesopotamia (Arr. Anab. 6,11,6), near which (cf. Arr. Anab. 3,8,7) the battle between  Alexander [4] the Great and  Darius [3] III took place on 1 October 331 (Arr. Anab. 3,11-15; Curt. 4,13,26-16; Plut. Alexander 31-33; Diod. Sic. 17,56-61; Iust. 11,14). After Alexander stalled a flanking manoe…

Gaulanitis

(4 words)

see  Batanaea

Gauls

(11 words)

see  Gallia;  Gallia Cisalpina;  Celts;  Celtic archaeology;  Celtic languages

Gauls, fear of

(6 words)

see  Metus

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Gaumata

(239 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian Gōmāta; Elamitic Kammadda; Akkadian Gumātu). A magus ( Magi) [3. DB 39], who seized power after Cambyses had his brother  Bardiya [1] assassinated, on Cambyses' absence on campaign in Egypt. To justify his usurpation he claimed to be Bardiya. After Cambyses' death  Darius [1] I. and six noble Persians (Aspathines,  Hydarnes,  Intaphernes,  Gobryas,  Megabyzus, and  Otanes) brought the rule of G./Bardiya to an end and killed him (522 BC). A detailed description is in the  Bi…

Gauradas

(68 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Γαυράδας). Author of an ingenious epigram in iambic trimeters in the form of a dialogue between Echo and her lover (Anth. Pal. 16,152). The popular theme (cf. also Archias, Anth. Pal. 9,27; Evodus, ibid. 16,155; Satyrus, ibid. 16,153; Anon., ibid. 16,156) is developed in an original fashion; dating the poet, whose obviously barbarous name is unique, is impossible. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 111f.

Gaurium

(105 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Γαύρειον, Γαύριον; Gaúreion, Gaúrion). The name of a settlement with a deep harbour on the north-western side of the island of Andros in the Cyclades. In the Hellenistic period, G. served as a port and is mentioned in association with various events in wars: Xen. Hell. 1,4,22; Diod. Sic. 13,69,4f.; Liv. 31,45,3ff.; GGM 1,500. Inland at Hagios Petros are the remains of a Hellenistic round tower, probably used to protect the nearby mines. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography J. T. Bent, Aegean Islands, 21966, 291ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 230 L. Ross, Reisen…

Gavius

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Roman family name, frequently attested in inscriptions, also in the form Cavius [1. 76f.]; in the Republican period its bearers are still politically insignificant; also a Faliscan praenomen [2. 103]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G., P. Crucified as a spy of Spartacus 72 BC from Compsa (Lower Italy), was captured and crucified in Sicily in 72 BC by C.  Verres as an alleged spy of the slave leader  Spartacus (Cic. Verr. 2,5,158-170). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Bassus Roman grammarian and antiquarian of the late Republic Roman grammarian and…

Gaza

(514 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Syria | Zenobia | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | India, trade with | Arabia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Egypt (Arabic Ġazza, Hebrew Azzā, from Semitic ǧzz, ‘being thorny’). From  Thutmosis III (1457 BC) to Ramses IV (mid 12th cent. BC) an Egyptian administrative centre in southern Palestine [1], under the Ramessids ‘the town of Canaan’, short ‘Canaan’ (Κάδυτις, Hdt. 2,159; 3,5); under  Ramses II also the ‘town of Ramses in Canaan’. Taken over…

Gazelle

(244 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas, formerly Antilope dorcas or Gazella africana) represents the antilope subfamily, which also includes the wildebeest and the oryx), in North Africa and the Middle East (ζορκάς, δορκάς, δόρκων, δόρκος, δόρξ, or ζόρξ; zorkás, dorkás, dórkōn, dórkos, dórx or zórx, damma or dorcas). The gazelle is a typical desert dweller (Hdt. 4,192), e.g. in Libya (Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,3,5), and lives in harmony with partridges (πέρδικες; pérdikes) and in herds together with wild asses (ὄναγροι; ónagroi, Timothy of Gaza c. 17 [1. 27f.]). Gazelles…

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

GDR

(8,240 words)

Author(s): Dummer, Jürgen (Jena RWG) | Seidensticker, Bernd (Berlin RWG)
Dummer, Jürgen (Jena RWG) I. Classical Studies (CT) [German version] A. General (CT) On the whole, the development in all disciplines concerned with Antiquity in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SOZ) and, since 1949, in the GDR, was characterised, on the one hand, by efforts to preserve traditional areas of research and forms of work with a view to international scholarship, especially in the non-Socialist world and, in addition, to break new ground. On the other hand, ideological indoctrination continually incr…

Gedrosia, Gadrosia

(220 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Area in south-eastern Iran and south-western Pakistan, roughly equivalent to modern Baluchistan. Now a largely arid mountainous area with deep valleys, known from Arrian's account of the difficulties encountered by Alexander's army on its return march. The coast is described in detail in the Voyage of Nearchus (Arr. Anab. 6,22-26; Str. 15,723). Bearers of various cultures since the 8th millennium, they were possibly the ancestors of the Brahui, who are linguistically close to the …

Gegania

(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] A Roman lady, who entered into a relationship with an ugly slave by the name of Clesippus and eventually made him her heir (probably in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC). After her death he called himself Clesippus Geganius and had built for himself an expensive tomb of which the inscription is still preserved (Plin. HN 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). This widespread story may underlie the character of Trimalchio in  Petronius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Geganius

(141 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician family, which according to tradition was politically significant in Rome during the 5th cent. BC, but then entirely disappeared. The gens supposedly came to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7); a later construction traced the family back to  Gyas, a companion of Aeneas (Serv. Aen. 5,117). [German version] [1] G. Macerinus, M. Cos III, censor 435 BC Consul I in 447 BC, II in 443 (triumph over the Volsci, InscrIt 13,1,67; Liv. 4,9f.), III in 437, censor in 435 with C. Furius [I 25] Pacilus; legate in 431. Elvers, Ka…

Gegeneis

(175 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, ‘Earth Born ’). [German version] [1] Epithet of the Giants Epithet of the Aloads (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482),  Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), the Spartans (Eur. Bacch. 264), Argus [I 5] (Aesch. PV 567), and the  giants (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). As a noun = giants (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lycoph. 1408; explained in Diod. Sic. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Mythical people Mythical people living near Cyzicus, mentioned by Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 with schola). Dei(l)ochus of Proconnesus called them ἐγχειρογάστορες ( Enche…

Geidumni

(34 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 as being subject to the Nervii. Their home in Flanders cannot be located with certainty. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Geison

(331 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (γεῖσον; geîson). Ancient architectural term (instances from Greek antiquity in [1. 32f.]) designating the cornice, the upper section of the entablature, originally in columned buildings with a hipped or saddleback roof, later also in storey and wall construction. The compact, monolithic or many-stone, horizontal cornice runs around the whole colonnade. Used since the first Doric peripteral temples, imitates the overhang of roof beams providing shelter from rain water in buildings …

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Gelanor

(108 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γελάνωρ; Gelánōr). Mythical original king of Argus, son of Sthenelus (Paus. 2,16,1), whose only significance is that he abdicated the rulership to  Danaus (Apollod. 2,13); in Aesch. Supp. 266 he is called  Pelasgus. The change in dynasty took place either after a battle (Plut. Pyrrhus 32,9f., 404e-f) or by referendum (Paus. 2,19,3f.). A battle, understood as an omen, between a bull and a wolf, which the wolf wins, is crucial on both occasions. Danaus is in this way connected to Ar…

Gelasius

(565 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina Bishop of  Caesarea [2] Maritima/Palaestina (died before AD 400). The nephew of  Cyrillus of Jerusalem, installed as bishop around 365/367, took part in the Council of Constantinople in 381 and in the synod there in 394. At the wish of his uncle, G. wrote a continuation of the Church history by  Eusebius [7] of Caesarea, going as far as 395, which had a long-lasting effect (Gelasius of Cyzicus, hagiographic lives, etc.). Parts of the lost s…

Gelduba

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Krefeld-Gellep). Place in Germania inferior, field camp and battle site of the Batavian wars (Tac. Hist. 4,26,3; 32,1; 35,3; 36,1; 58,4); after AD 70 auxiliary fort (Plin. HN 19,90), which after three wood and earth stages was converted into stone before 150. The occupying force was for a long time the cohors II Varcinorum equitata. In the wake of Postumus' uprising in 259 (tombs of the fallen!) and in 275/6 G. was destroyed by the Franks, redesigned into a fortress around 295…

Geleontes

(4 words)

see  Iones

Gelimer

(229 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of  Geisericus, last of the Vandal kings (AD 530-4), took over rulership in 530 after the fall of Hildericus (Procop. Vand. 1,9,8-9; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,3). His adamant refusal of any intervention by Justinian in internal affairs led to war (Procop. Vand. 1,9,10-24). Since G. had dispatched his troops to Sardinia against the rebellious Godas, he could not defend himself either against Pudentius, who was in revolt in Tripolitania, or against  Belisarius, who had landed in …

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Gello

(160 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
[German version] (Γελλώ; Gellṓ) designates the spirit of a girl who died single, which kills unmarried or pregnant women and small children; it is first mentioned in Sappho (fr. 178 L.P. = 168 V.) [1]; G. is also the name of a mythological creature with these characteristics (Suda s.v.). It was still feared in the Byzantine period (Johannes Damascenus Perì Stryngôn, PG 94, 1904 C; Psellos Dihḗgesis perì Gellṓs [2]), something that has survived to the present day in rural Greece [3]. G. has often been associated with  Lamia and  Mormo, two similar spirits, and the strix. Rites to fend off G…

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Geloni

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] (Γελωνοί; Gelōnoí). According to Hdt. (4,102; 108f.; 120; 136), agricultural Scythian tribe in the neighbourhood of the  Budini and speaking a Graeco-Scythian hybrid language; descendants of Gelonus; originally Greek refugees from Greek trade settlements. They apparently took part in the battle against  Darius [1] I. Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
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