Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Gem

(7 words)

Gem see Gem cutting

Gem cutting

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
Michel, Simone (Hamburg) A. Research History (CT) [German version] 1. From the Middle Ages to the Late Renaissance (CT) During the early Middle Ages interest in cut gems had declined rapidly. Colourful gemstones were indeed used to decorate objects, but generally without figurative motifs. In the Carolingian and the Hohenstaufen periods (9th cent.; 12th/13th cents.), the cutting of cameos was once again taken up [2; 11. 2. fn. 3, 375. fn. 2 und 6, 380. fn. 30]. In the Middle Ages, gems and cameos from Antiquity w…

Gem cutting

(2,838 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient see  Seals Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] II. Phoenician Phoenician and Punic gem cutting (GC) (= glyptography) is known almost exclusively through stamp seals in the form of scarabees ( Scarabee) or scaraboids that were very widespread in the ancient world; the body of the beetle is graphically linear in the Phoenician east, whilst in the Punic west ─ under the Ionian-Etruscan influence ─ it is structured much more three-dimensionally. Here Greek motifs (He…

Gemellae

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Limes Camp and city in Numidia, situated 25 km south-west of Biskra, modern El-Kasbat. G. was part of the fortification system of the fossatum. A detachment of the legio III Augusta and the ala I Pannoniorum were here at various times. In the 4th cent. the praepositus limitis Gemellensis had its quarters in G. Evidence: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. Dign. Occ. 25,24. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 no. 741(?); 1989, 287 no. 883.  Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., …

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Gemini

(4 words)

see  Constellations

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Friend des M. Antonius Friend of the triumvir Marcus Antonius [I 9], who tried in vain to persuade the latter to return to Rome in 32 BC and become reconciled with Octavian (Plut. Antonius 59,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1]…

Geminus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] Cognomen (‘twin’) of the Tusculan  Maecius G.; in the fasti of the Republican period otherwise used by the Servilii and Veturii; widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap. 145 Id., FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 294 Walde/Hofmann 1, 586f.

Geminus

(723 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γέμινος; Géminos) [I]. [German version] [1] Astronomer and mathematician Astronomer and mathematician from the school of Posidonius. Almost nothing is known about his life. The height of his creativity was around 70 BC. It is generally accepted that he lived in Rhodes. The only fully extant treatise by G. is the ‘Introduction to Astronomy’ (Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα). It is in the tradition of  Eudoxus and  Aratus [4]. Similarly to the later writing by  Cleomedes, it is an elementary textbook on astrono…

Gems, Gem and cameo cutters

(9 words)

see  Gem cutting

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Genava

(395 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Batavian Revolt Most northerly oppidum of the Celtic tribe of the  Allobroges in the hilly area between the embouchure of the Rhône, Arve and Lake Geneva, modern Geneva. The name, like Genoa, is Ligurian. Even in the pre-Roman period the place was significant from the point of view of traffic policy: harbour complex on the south side of the embouchure of the Rhône for navigation on the Rhône and Lake Geneva, wooden bridge …

Gender

(4 words)

see  Sex

Gender roles

(2,903 words)

Author(s): Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt) | Stahlmann, Ines (Berlin) | King, Helen (Reading)
I. Society [German version] A. Greece It was a characteristic of Greek society that the spheres of the two genders were strictly separated in a way that has little in common with the modern distinction between a private, domestic sphere and a public, political one. Neither should the house (  oíkos ) be seen as a purely private sphere, nor can gender roles (GR) be limited to one area only. There were divisions both within the house and within the public sphere of ancient cities. The ancient discourse on GR was characterized both by complimentariness and by demarcation. Wagner-Hasel, Beate (D…

Gender studies

(5,320 words)

Author(s): Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG)
Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG) [German version] A. Definition, Concept and Conceptual History (CT) Gender Studies (GS) is an interdisciplinary research approach to the role of sex or gender in culture, society and science. This discipline, which is particularly flourishing in Classical Studies within the Anglo-American sphere, differs from other forms of historical or literary gender research in its combination of methods developed in women's studies with those of post-structuralism. In social and cultural sciences,  the English term gender (originally  'grammatical gend…

Genealogy

(962 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
In early societies, largely based on family organizations, genealogy as a derivation of a person's descent in the form of a pedigree is often used as a means of legitimation and (pseudo-historical) memory, which was always also directed at publicity (genealogy from Greek γενεαλογεῖν; genealogeîn, ‘to talk about [one's] origin’). [German version] I. Near East and Egypt The purpose of lineage, transmitted in the form of a genealogy (generally patrilineal; exceptions in the case of Egyptian rulers), was to legitimate a claim to rulership, to tenure of a …

Geneleus

(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Sculptor of the archaic period, famous for the family group with his signature in the Heraion on  Samos (560-550 BC). The group consists of the reclining figure of the founder ...ιλάρχος, three standing girls (unknown name, Philippe, Ornithe), the fragments of a young man, and the enthroned mother Phileia; apart from Ornithe (Berlin, SM, Inv. 1739), all the figures are on Samos (Vathy, Mus. Inv. 768). G. proves himself a master of Ionian sculpture because of the minute detail to w…

Genera causarum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(γένη τῶν λόγων ῥητορικῶν; génē tôn lógōn rhētorikôn). [German version] A. The Branches of Oratory The doctrine of the genera causarum ( GC) was developed in particular by Aristotle, who divided all oratorical topics into three groups (Rh. 1,3 = 1358b6─8), whereas his predecessors distinguished several types ( eídē, species) and only considered two GC, i.e. the deliberative and the judicial. Two GC are mentioned in Pl. Phdr. 261b [7. 170; 4. 258], and the same two GC together with seven eídē appear in the  Rhetorica ad Alexandrum (1,1 = 1421b6-12), written in c. 340 BC before Aristotl…

Genera dicendi

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(χαρακτῆρες τῆς λέξεως, charaktêres tês léxeōs). [German version] A. Concept and Classifications Genera dicendi ( GD) is taken as the usual term for the doctrine of style (as in Cic. Orat. 20; 69; Quint. Inst. 12,10,58; Isid. Orig. 2,17 H.), alongside elocutionis genera (Iul. Vict. rhet. 22 p. 438,8 H., 92,12 Giom.-Celentano; Aquila rhet. 27,10f.H.; Mart. Cap. 479,5 H.; Consultus Fortunatianus 3,8 [5. 510,5f.] as sing. genus e.). In the earliest Latin attestation (Rhet. Her. 4,11), elocutio and genera are linked, albeit separated by twelve words; genera elocutionis does not exist…

General Abbreviations

(564 words)

Common abbreviations (e.g., etc.) are not included in the list of general abbreviations. A. Aulus a.u.c. ab urbe condita abl. ablative acc. accusative aed. cur. aedilis curulis aed. pl. aedilis plebi Ap(p). Appius Athens, AM Athens, Acropolis Museum Athens, BM Athens, Benaki Museum Athens, NM Athens, National Museum Athens, NUM Athens, Numismatic Museum b. born Baltimore, WAG Baltimore,Walters Art Gallery Basle, AM Basle, Antikenmuseum Berlin, PM Berlin, Pergamonmuseum Berlin, SM Berlin, Staatliche Museen bk(s). book(s) Bonn, RL Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Boston, MFA Bost…

Genesia

(74 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (τὰ Γενέσια; tà Genésia). Name of a Greek family festival in honour of a dead ancestor (Hdt. 4,26). In Athens, it became ─ allegedly at Solon's instigation ─ a public festival of the dead, the celebrations of which on the 5th Boedromion also included a sacrifice to  Gaia (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 168). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography F. Jacoby, Γενέσια. A forgotten festival of the dead, in: CQ 38, 1944, 65-75.

Genesis poetry

(6 words)

see  Biblical poetry

Genethliakon

(459 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] I. Greek A genethliakón (γενεθλιακόν, sc. μέλος, ᾷ̓σμα) is a poem in honour of a birthday (γενέθλιος ἡμέρα, γενέθλιον ἦμαρ), in association with a gift or standing alone. Callim. Fr. 202 is a iamb to a friend in celebration of the seventh day after the birth of his daughter. There is an isopsephic epigram written by Leonides of Alexandria (Anth. Pal. 6,321) as a birthday present to Caesar γενεθλιακαῖσιν ἐν ὥραις. Other epigrams, particularly by  Crinagoras, accompanied birthday gifts…

Genethlius

(162 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Γενέθλιος; Genéthlios). Greek rhetor from Petra, a pupil of Minocianus and Agapetus, 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD. He taught in Athens in rivalry to Callinicus, and died there aged 28. He wrote epideictic orations and was praised for his talent and his astounding memory (Suda s.v.). The fact that he is mentioned four times in the Schol. Demosth. (18,8; 52; 19,148; 22,3) supports the assumption that G. had written a commentary on that rhetor. Two treatises on the classification of …

Genetyllis

(94 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γενετυλλίς; Genetyllís). The Genetyllides (pl.) were Attic goddesses, linked, as their name indicates, to birth and fertility. Their sanctuary was situated on Cape Colias. They were venerated by women in an exuberant celebration and received the sacrifice of a dog. Closely related in function were the Phocaean Gennaides (Paus. 1,1,5), and in particular  Eileithyia, who also received canine sacrifices. Documentary evidence: Aristoph. Lys. 2; Aristoph. Nub. 52; Aristoph. Thesm. 130 with schol.; Paus. 1,1,5 with schol.; Hsch., Suda s.v. G. Graf, Fritz (Columbus…

Geneva Declaration

(155 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] One of the first official acts of the World Medical Association, founded in 1947, was drafting the Geneva Declaration (GD), a contemporary reformulation of the Hippocratic Oath; further improvements were made in 1968. The so-called abortion paragraph and the ban on surgery made way for more modern general provisions to respect human life from the moment of conception and always to use medical knowledge in harmony with the laws of humanity. It retained mention of a doctor's obliga…

Genita Mana

(136 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Goddess, mentioned by Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 52,277a) and Pliny (HN 29,14,58) in conjunction with a canine sacrifice. According to Plutarch, the prayer during the sacrifice was for ‘none of the house slaves to become good (χρηστός, chrēstós)’, interpreted as a euphemism for ‘dead’. Plutarch links the name of the goddess to childbirth. Modern interpretations proceed hardly any further [1; 2]. A Diva Geneta appears in Agnone (mid-3rd cent. BC [3]), whereas Mana is referred to as a deity of the Underworld in Mart. Cap.…

Genius

(963 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching)
[German version] A. Roman Development Genius is etymologically interpreted as the tutelary deity external to a man (ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, agathòs daímōn) or alternatively his internal power of procreation and in other life events. Academic research [2. 23; 5. 11] has resulted in a synthesis, as no prototype can be assumed for the cult of the genius; the genius is seen as a deified personality/concept located in the forehead, as manifest in an individual's innate qualities: the procreational force within each man, the power embracing his personality. The genius is divine and responsible…

Genizah

(356 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] In Judaism, a genizah (‘safekeeping’, from Aramaic gnaz, ‘to hide’) is a repository for books which are no longer in use but which contain the name of God, or for ritual objects, in order to prevent misuse or profanation. Such rooms were frequently found in synagogues; if the synagogue itself was demolished, the books and objects were ‘interred’ in the cemetery. Of particular importance amongst the multitude of genizahs in the Jewish world is the genizah of the Esra synagogue in Fusṭāṭ (Old Cairo), whose academic evaluation was due mainly to the British…

Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Gennesar

(4 words)

see  Tiberias

Genoa

(398 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (ancient Genua, modern Genova). Ligurian fortress on the harbour of Mandraccio, used in pre-Roman times by Etruscans and Massiliotes: pre-urban phase end of the 6th cent. BC; settled from the mid 5th cent. BC (wall remains, pottery, bronze and lead, statuette of a discus thrower, Etruscan inscriptions; necropoleis, cremations in ‘well graves’). It was an oppidum allied with Rome, in 218 BC the base of P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio against  H…

Genos

(327 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (γένος; génos, pl. γένη/ génē). The term has been used commonly in archaic Greece with the meaning ‘of aristocratic origin’, in addition in the sense of house, family, generation, species etc. [1]. In the research Attic génē were for a long time regarded as exclusive noble clans whose former dominance was still demonstrated in the later privileges (supervision of admission to the phratria and exclusive holding of positions as priests). According to the investigation by [2] and [3], the génē are today regarded as local village communities which arose in archa…

Genre, genre theory

(4,401 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Huss, Bernhard (Munich)
Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. Ancient Foundations (CT) In Antiquity, the genre debate was largely determined by Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica ( Epistula ad Pisones). The views expressed in these texts, albeit at times contradictory, affected the entire modern reception of the ancient genre debate. The trend towards a normative poetics, and thus a prescriptive understanding of ancient theorems, was generally dominant and already evident in Horace's thinking [18. 257]. In the modern debate, theref…

Gens

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Politics and Society The Roman gens comprised the members of a  family who descended from a common ancestor and under whose potestas they would have been, if he had still been alive (Varro, Ling. 8,4). The main distinction between gentiles and agnati lay in the fact that the latter could prove their blood relationship with their progenitor, whereas for the former, this relationship was only a fictitious assumption. The origins of the gens are a matter of scholarly dispute, and will likely remain so because of the lack of source material from Rome's …

Gens Bacchuiana

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Africa proconsularis, in the valley of Oued Siliana near Tichilla and  Thubursicum Bure, modern Bou Djelida. Chief place of the gens Bacchuiana, under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), its administration lay in the hands of undecimprimi. Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12331-12340a; Suppl. 4, 23922-23930. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 34, no. 74.

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Gentiana

(165 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (gentian). Greece boasts seven, Italy more than 20 species of this family with about 200 species in total. According to Dioscorides (3,3 p.2,4 Wellmann = p.262f. Berendes), the medicinal properties of these species, generally identified as γεντιανή/ gentianḗ ( gentiana: Pliny), were allegedly discovered by an Illyrian king called Gentis (= Gentius: Plin. HN 25,71). In medicine, gentiana found a multitude of applications (Plin. HN 26,29 and passim): Even in antiquity, juice was extracted from the root of the yellow Gentiana lutea L. and related species ─ ascribe…

Gentile

(502 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The gentile ─ signifying membership to a family (  Gens ) ─ is bequeathed by the father to the children and kept by the wife after marriage. It is the defining element in the Roman and Middle Italian system of personal names ( Personal names: Rome and Italia), occupying second place after the praenomen in the formula for names. Aside from birth, other possibilities existed of attaining a gentile: a) through  adoption, wherein the adopted person receives the gentile of the adoptive father; his prior gentile added as a suffix at first ( P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, son of L. …

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Genus

(5 words)

see  Literary genre

Genusia

(90 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] (modern Ginosa). City west of Tarentum ─ the original centre of the Peucetii; Roman municipium ( Genusini, Plin. HN 3,105). Settlements existed from the Iron Age until the late Roman period; funerary finds. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography E. de Juliis, L'attività archeologica in Puglia nel 1983, Atti del XXIII Convegno di Taranto (1983), 1984, 421-446, 429-431 Id., Magna Grecia, 1996, 266 T. Scholjer, Notiziario delle Attività di Tutela, Settembre 1987-Agosto 1988. Ginosa (Taranto), via S. Francesco Saverio, Taras, VIII, 1-2, 1988, 114f. M. T. Giannotta, …

Geographical names

(1,938 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne)
[German version] A. Types: place names and vocabulary In antiquity, the different types of place names (esp. names of regions and cities or settlements, also names of mountains, lakes, rivers, islands, fields, and roads) are thoroughly documented and transmitted in Greek and Latin, however, there are many variations in form, e.g. Πιθηκοῦσσα : Aenāria (today Ischia). If a place name cannot be interpreted from within the vocabulary of the language in which it is documented, it usually goes back to the language(s) of prehistorical populations. On the o…

Geographus Ravennas

(235 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
[German version] Anonymous, apparently clerical, author of the 8th cent. AD from Ravenna (4,31), also referred to as Anonymus Ravennas. His Cosmographia describes the entire world as it was known in his time in 5 bks. Bk. 1 argues ─ in observance of Biblical and patristical traditions ─ for a view of the earth as a flat disc surrounded by oceans, with the sun running along the southern rim during the day. Bks. 2-5 present lists of 5,000 place names, organized by regions and, in part, by Roman provinces (regions, cit…

Geography

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Geography Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Geography belongs to those scientific disciplines in which the state of knowledge of Antiquity  in the modern era has proven to be in need of a great deal of correction and expansion. The discovery of the 'New World' (1492) and the sea route to India (1498) exemplarize the beginning of the modern era [13]. Nevertheless, ancient geographical thought has influenced the practice of scientific geography until today [1. 57-58]. In te…

Geography

(2,061 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Talbert, Richard (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The oldest sources for the geography of Mesopotamia consist of topographical lists (3rd millennium BC), of which one lists a total of 289 eastern and central Mesopotamian places. Clay plates from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC occasionally show schematised city maps with labels (Babylon, Nippur, Uruk, Sippar) as well as regional area maps (Nuzi, Tellō, Nippur, Euphratis region, Sippar). These were probably created in the context of land surveying. A world map exists which is unique in its central orientation towards Babylon ( c. 5th cent.…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Geology (and mineralogy)

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The phenomena and questions with which geology and mineralogy deal today were the subject of two methodologically separate disciplines in Antiquity. Meteorologia inquired into the causes of terrestrial phenomena; the description and classification of rocks and minerals (and fossils) were the subject of historia naturalis (and, with regard to the medicinal benefits of minerals, of pharmacology and medicine). As the science of the Earth's history, geology is, to be sure, a creation …
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