Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Geometric pottery

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Schaus, Gerald P. (Waterloo, Ontario)
[German version] From the time of c. 900 BC, the geometric style emerged seamlessly from proto-geometric vase painting in Athens. The previous rather bulbous shapes, decorated with curvy ornaments, were replaced by more slender shapes on which outlines were accentuated through straight-lined systems of decorations, esp. through hatched maeanders and multifarious zigzag bands ( Ornaments). Closed vessel types were primarily painted on the neck and belly areas, open types primarily around the handle. Du…


(4 words)

see  Mathematics


(6 words)

Geometry see Mathematics


(338 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (γεωμόροι; geōmóroi, Dor. γαμόροι; gamóroi), technical term for the social elite in archaic and classical Samos and Syracuse. As is suggested literally in the name itself, the status of this elite was based on land ownership assumed to have been in this group's possession from the time of the earliest settlements. As the ruling class, the geomoroi probably enjoyed legal privileges for a while, a status clearly designated by the term. C. 600 BC or shortly thereafter, their pre-eminence was threatened on Samos (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 303e-304c), but they…


(1,086 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Christmann, Eckhard (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Collective term for agricultural technical literature In the broader sense, G. refers to a genre of  technical literature, represented by numerous writings, which aims at a systematic representation of ‘scientific’ knowledge about all types of agriculture [1; 2; 3. 427ff.]. The spectrum of knowledge contained therein is very broad: it reaches from naïve peasant magic to speculative attempts at classifying types of soil, useful plants, and animals. Aside from the experiental knowledge,…


(3,685 words)

Author(s): Gordesiani, Rismag (Tiflis RWG)
Gordesiani, Rismag (Tiflis RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Besides the traditional interest in Graeco-Roman culture, there are a few factors in Georgia (G.) which determine the standards of scholarly study and the influence of Antiquity: 1. From the earliest times, G. (ancient Colchis and Iberia) had close relations with the ancient world. 2. There is much mythological, geographical and historical information about ancient G. in ancient mythology and literature. 3. Until the first written reco…

Georgia, Georgians

(674 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schyboll, Achim (Schliengen)
(Georgian Sakartvelo, Persian Gurǧistān, Arabic al-Kurǧ or Ǧurzān, Turkish Gürcistan, Russian Gruzija). [German version] I. Geographical location Land in west and central Caucasia south of the main range of the Great  Caucasus. It is divided into two parts by the Liḫi-(Surami) mountain range that runs north-south from the Great to the Small Caucasus:  Colchis in the west, a humid and unhealthy region until the drainage projects of the early 20th cent. which also includes the river system of the Rioni/  Phasis …


(1,064 words)

Author(s): Job, Michael (Marburg) | Schyboll, Achim (Schliengen)
[German version] I. Language The Kartvelic (or south Caucasian) family of languages and peoples (Strabo's Ἴβηρες) is formed by G. alongside Mingrelian-Lazic and Swanic, but its further genetic classification is not clear ( Caucasian languages). The oldest G. monuments in old-G. script (see II. below) date to the 4th cent. AD [1. 12]. Old-G. texts are primarily kept in Georgia but also in the Near East, in Europe, and in the USA [2. 5]. The structure of the language shows the following phonetic characteristics [1; 2]: a) simple vowels ( i, u, e, o, a, no long vowels or diphthongs); b) …


(5 words)

see Bucolics


(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Gepidae, Gepidi

(393 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γήπαιδες; Gḗpaides). Germanic tribe, related to the  Goti according to Iord. Get. 17,94. The original area of settlement was located in the Vistula-Nogat Delta. Groups of G. began to move south-east from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD onward. In 249, the son of Philippus Arabs was defeated by the G. in Dacia (Chron. pasch. 503 de Boor). The G. participated in the great anti-Roman coalition of the Germani in c. 263. C. 290, battles erupted between the G. and the Vandali against the Taifali and the Visigoths (Pan. Lat. 287 Baerens). The G. took part in…


(290 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Γεραιστός; Geraistós). [German version] [1] Southernmost tip of Euboea In antiquity, G. was the name for the southernmost tip of Euboea: Hdt. 8,7,1; 9,105; Str. 10,1,2; Plin. HN 4,63; GGM I, 500; Scyl. 58. Called Cape Tzeraso in the Middle Ages, it became an anchorage for Genoan and Venetian ships (remnants of fortifications). Today Cape Mandelo. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 111ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 231. [German version] [2] Harbour on the southern coast of Euboea The only safe harbour on the dreaded sou…


(98 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Γεράνα; Gerána, ‘Crane woman’), a Pygmy woman, also called Oenoe (Antoninus Liberalis 16). She scorns Hera and Artemis and was worshipped like a goddess by her peers. Hera changed her into a crane and made her into an enemy of the  Pygmies (Ath. 9,394e; Ov. Met. 6,90). Her death led to a war between Pygmies and cranes (Hom. Il. 3,3ff.; Ael. NA 15,29). Three versions of the myth have been transmitted, all going back i.a. to the ‘Ornithogony’ by Boeus [1]. Zingg, Reto (Basle) Bibliography 1 A. Ballabriga, Le malheur des nains, in: REA 83, 1981, 57-74.


(283 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Γεράνεια; Geráneia). Mountain range formed primarily by lime and dolomites of the Trias and the Lower Jura as well as (in the west) by ophiolites (serpentinites), reaching across today's Nomos boundary between Attica and Corinth. In the west, it flattens out in Akron Melankavi (and Akron Heraion) into the Gulf of Corinth; in the east, it drops off steeply to the Gulf of Megara (part of the Saronic Gulf), forming the Scironian Cliffs. In Makriplagi, at the border between Attica and…


(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)


(107 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] Probably Tall Abı̄ Huraira/Tall Haror between  Gaza and Beeršeba. Important settlement of the 18th-11th cents. and the 7th-4th cents. BC. The sources 1 Chr 4,39-40 and 2 Chr 14,8-14 refer to the events of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC, although it remains unclear, where the authors were looking for G. 2 Macc 13,24 no longer refers to G., only to ‘Gerrenians’. In the 4th-6th cents. AD, there is mention of a saltus Gerariticus, seat of the bishop of Orda in 518. Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne) Bibliography 1 O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel, vol. 2, 1982, 134-137 2 NE…


(123 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Γῆρας; Gêras, Lat. Senectus). Personification of hated old age, often depicted as a small, naked, wrinkly old man with a long, drooping penis who is defeated by  Hercules in a burlesque way [1]. As a creature of the night (Hes. Theog. 225), G. belongs to the creatures of horror found at the entrance to the Underworld (Verg. Aen. 6,275; Sen. Herc. f. 696), although he resides on Olympus (Aristoph. Av. 606). Sisyphus is brought back to the Underworld by G. (Eust. Od. 11,592). A sanctuary is attested only for the extremely pious residents of Gades (Philostr. VA 5,4). Schaffner, …


(366 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Hasmonaeans | Pilgrimage | Pompeius (modern Ǧaraš). City located 34 km north of Ammān. Thanks to a stream with the ancient name of Chrysorrhoas, G. was a place of settlement from the time of the early Stone Age. It is therefore reasonable to assume that a settlement already existed when the Macedonians, mentioned in a Roman inscription, introduced the Greek element ─ contrary to legends that  Alexander [4] the Great,  Perdiccas, or  A…


(45 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Praetorian tribune, who instigated the killing of consul Iulius Vestinus in AD 65 under Nero's orders (Tac. Ann. 15,69). His brother is possibly L.G. Fronto (CIL III 14387 g.h = IGLS VI 2786/7). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography B. Dobson, Die Primipilares, 1978, 201f.


(169 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (In Str. also Γέρηνα; Gérēna, on inscriptions ἁ πόλις τῶν Γερηνῶν, formerly Enópē). Spartan perioecic city on the west side of the Taygetus peninsula, member of the league of  Eleutherolakones during the Imperial period. The location is documented on an inscription (finding-place of a decree with the mention τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Μαχάονος, ‘the sanctuary of Machaon’) near today's Kambos, 15 km south-west of Kalamata, home also to a Mycenaean c…


(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…


(272 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γέργις; Gérgis, Gérgitha, Gergíthion, Gérgithos). City in the Troad, not located at the foot of the Balli Dağı as formerly assumed but at the Karıncalı on the Kursak deresi [1. 349]. According to Ath. 6,256 C, it was founded by the descendants of the Troes (Teucri) under the leadership of a Gergithes. In the context of Xerxes' campaign, Herodotus mentions the Gérgithes Teukroí (7,43), to whom he had referred earlier as the successor tribe of the Teucri (Hdt. 5,122). Ceramic finds from Karıncalı go back to the 6th cent. BC. G. is not mentio…


(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later in Aquitania, west of the Elaver, 6 km south of  Augustonemetum on a high plateau that is hard to reach, today Gergovie. Besieged unsuccessfully by Caesar in 52 BC (Vercingetorix: Caes. B Gall. 7,34; Liv. Per. 107; Str. 4,2,3; Suet. Iul. 25; Polyaenus 8,23,9; Cass. Dio 40,35; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,152). Excavations of the large and the small camp and the connec…


(1,658 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Daniel (Cologne)
Schäfer, Daniel (Cologne) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Although the term 'geriatrics' is a 20th cent. creation (J. L. Nascher, 1909), diagnostic and dietetic elements of health care for the elderly were already recorded for ancient medicine. The main sources of its reception, which was very significant in practice until into the 18th cent., were, on one hand, sporadic references in the Corpus Hippocraticum (Aphorisms 3,31; De victu 1,33) to diseases of old age and the age dependence of various ailments, their progress and the recommended diet, and,…

Germa, Germokoloneia

(87 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | | Coloniae (Γέρμα κολωνία, Γερμοκολώνεια; Gérma kolōnía, Germakolṓneia). Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Germenorum, founded between 25/24 and 21/20 BC; at the crossing of the roads Ancyra - Dorylaeum/Ancyra - Pessinus. Attested as a suffragan diocese until the 12th cent. Ruins near modern Babadat. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography H. v. Aulock, Die röm. Kolonie G., in: MDAI(Ist) 18, 1968, 221-237 Belke, 168f. Mitchell I, 87-90, 151f., 155 M. Waelkens, G., Germokoloneia, Germia, in: Byzantion 4…

Germania libera

(6 words)

see  Germanic archaeology


(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Decimius G. Official under Constantius II Under Constantius II he was consularis of the province Baetica (CIL II 2206). In AD 361, he was temporarily praefectus praetorio Galliarum in place of Nebridius, who had refused to give allegiance to Julian, and then again in 363-366 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1; 26,5,5). PLRE 1, 392 (G. 4). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I in AD 366-368 (Cod. Theod. 7,7,1; Cod. Iust. 11,62…


(146 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Limes (Γερμανίκεια; Germaníkeia). City (modern Maraş) in the northern Syrian region of  Commagene mentioned by Ptol. 5,14,8, as well as in Roman itineraries and lists of bishops of late antiquity. The name (on coins Καισαρεία Γερμανική; Kaisareía Germanikḗ) is evidence of the gratitude of the Commagenian king  Antiochus [18] IV towards the emperors Caligula and Claudius, who in AD 38 and 41 restored the indigenous dynasty as rulers of the kingdom of Commagene that had be…

Germanic archaeology

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] A. General Germanic archeology (GA) seeks to study the evolution, development and organization of the tribes and ethnicities of the  Germani by drawing on archaeological sources and methods [5; 7; 8]. Thereby, historical and linguistic knowledge about the Germani can be supplemented and extended. Presently, GA is focussing on two aspects: a) the evolution of the Germani in the undocumented pre-Roman period; b) analysis of archaeological sources on patterns of settlement, everyday li…

Germanic languages

(546 words)

Author(s): Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] Original Germanic can be reconstructed from the individual Germanic languages (GL). Like Latin and Greek, it belongs to the group of  Centum languages within the genetically related  Indo-European languages (e.g. Lat. fer-o, Greek φέρ-ω; phérō, ‘carry, bear’, Gothic baír-an ‘carry, give birth to’, Old High German ber-an ‘give birth to’). The transition to proto-Germanic as a preliminary stage of the individual GL was probably completed around the middle of the 1st millennium BC. Proto-Germanic ( c. 500 BC until the birth of Christ) differs from other Ind…

Germanic languages

(4,363 words)

Author(s): Seebold, Elmar (Munich) | Bulitta, Brigitte (Munich)
Seebold, Elmar (Munich) I. Middle Ages (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The Germanic Languages (GL)constitute a branch of the Indo-European family of languages; its members are related through a range of special linguistic developments such as the Germanic sound shift, the development of a dental preterite/past tense, a 'weak' adjective inflection and other matters. The GL consist of the following language groups: the North Germanic languages (with the modern standard languages Swedish, Danish, No…


(89 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Γερμανικόπολις; Germanikópolis, Hierocles, Synekdemos 710,2). City in Isauria, modern Ermenek, 67 km north of  Anemurium, probably founded by  Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene [1. 960f.]. G. played a leading role in the Isaurian wars of the 4th cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 27,9,7). G. is attested as a diocese from the middle of the 5th cent. Parts of a necropolis are preserved in the north of the modern city [2]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 D. Stiernon, L. Stiernon, s.v. Germanicopolis, DHGE 20, 1984, 960-964 2 H. Hellenkemper, F. Hild, s.v. G., TIB 5, 1990.


(1,417 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Epithet, conferred for a victory over Germanics Epithet, first conferred to Nero  Claudius [II 24] Drusus posthumously by the Senate in 9 BC, for his victories over Germanic tribes; adopted by his successors G. [2], Caligula, Claudius, Nero. Vitellius gave the name to his son. From the time of Domitian, it was again granted by the Senate for victories over Germanic tribes, namely to Nerva, Trajan, and Marcus Aurelius. The intensification 'G. maximus' is found from Commodus to Gratianus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography P. Kneißl, Die Siegestitulatur der röm…

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…


(558 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Byz. general under Justin I Son of a sister of Justin I, cousin of Justinian I, Byzantine general, as magister militum per Thracias under Justin I he conquered the people of the Anti who had invaded the Empire from the lower Danube. As patricius and primus magister militum praesentalis, he successfully combated the military revolt of Stotzas in North Africa in 536-537, on the orders of Justinian I. In a deployment in 540 against the first assault by Chosroes [5] I after the ‘eternal peace’ of 532, a shortage of troops preven…


(31,487 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Johne, Renate (Berlin RWG) | Aurnhammer, Achim (Freiburg i. Br. RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Holtermann, Martin (Mannheim RWG) | Et al.
Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) I. To 1600 (CT) [German version] A. History and Social Development under Carolingian Rule to 918 (CT) The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor (800) laid the foundation for the medieval German empire. In a lengthy process, the German people evolved from those Germanic tribes that had remained settled during the great migration of the peoples, together with some foederati, Rome's former allies. Larger communities developed around many villae, still evident in some place names, particularly in the Rhineland, but settlements also develope…


(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γέρμια; Gérmia). Town on the northern edge of the Dindymon in Galatia II, modern Gümüşkonak (previously Yürme; different [1]); attested from 553 as a suffragan diocese, then as an archdiocese.  Eudoxias Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, G., in: Byzantion 49, 1979, 447-464. K. Belke, G. und Eudoxias, in: W. Hörandner, Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984, 1-11 Belke, 166-168, 247 Mitchell II, 129.


(114 words)

Author(s): Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[German version] (Germanios). Bishop of Sirmium from 351, belonged to the principes Arianorum ( Arianism); together with Valens of Mursa and Ursacius of Singidunum he drafted a creed that mentioned only the ‘similarity’ (ὅμοιος, hómoios), not the identical nature (ὁμοούσιος, homooúsios) of the Son and God-the-Father (4th Sirmic Creed). The (5th) Synod of Rimini (359) imposed anathema (excommunication) on the authors. Consequently, emperor Constantius II enforced revisions and further synods, until the Synod of 378 in Rimini, after G.…


(86 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia (CIL III 1395; Γερμίζερα; Germízera Ptol. 3,8,4; cf. Germigera Geogr. Rav. 4,7; Germizera Tab. Peut. 8,1). Roman fortress and civilian settlement in Dacia superior, modern Geoagiu (Romania). G. lay in the Marisus valley and was administratively dependent on Sarmizegetusa. Tile of the Legio XIII Gemina (CIL III 8065; 14h). Thermae at the site (cult of nymphs) and a quarry in the vicinity. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34, 1968, 60 (Bibliogr.).


(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (γέροντες; gérontes). ‘Elders’, in the Homeric epic not only the aged advisers of a city-king (Hom. Il. 3,149) but also high-ranking dignitaries ( Basileus, I. B. Homeric) with leadership functions in war and peace (Hom. Il. 2,404-408). From the advisory assemblies in early Greek pre-city settlements and defensive communities, committees with distinct competencies and criteria of admission developed along with city structures. An indication of this process is the trial scene in Hom. Il. 18,497-508, in which gerontes resolve a dispute over compensation [1…


(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones, near modern Geraki, still inhabited in the Imperial period and thus even named in Hierocles (Synekdemos 647,9). Paus. 3,22,6f. mentions a temple of Ares with a grove, an agora with a fountain house and a temple of Apollo on the acropolis. Further evidence: Steph. Byz. s.v. Γεράνθραι; Geránthrai; IG V 1, 1110-1141. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliogr…


(304 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Armenian, about AD 350, had great influence at the court in Constantinople Armenian, held his first office in the imperial administration in AD 356-357 (Lib. Ep. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti in 361-362. In 364-365 (without office) he had great influence at the court in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 1484 etc.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Commander of the city of Tomi AD 384-387 Commander of the city of Tomi in AD 384-387. He had barbarians in Roman service executed for planning an assault…


(995 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(γερουσία; gerousía, ‘Council of Elders’). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman In Sparta the gerousia was probably originally an assembly of representatives from leading families. There it gained its institutional character from early on and consisted of the two kings and 28   gérontes (γέροντες), who were appointed for life and were at least 60 years old. Election took place on the basis of the volume of the acclamation in the   apélla (ἀπέλλα), with ‘electoral officials’ in a closed room deciding who got the strongest applause (Plut. Lycurgus …


(250 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Marlies (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with The most important trading post in north-east Arabia at the time of the Seleucids (304-64 BC), at the intersection of India in the east, Mesopotamia in the north, Arabia in the south-west and the Levant in the north-west. Spices and incense were the commodities predominantly traded. The location of the ancient G. is uncertain. Two places on the eastern coast of modern Saudi Arabia, Ǧubail, right on the banks of the Persian Gulf, and Ṯaǧ, c. 100 km to the east inland [1. 89], might correspond to the harb…


(157 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Γέῤῥος; Gérrhos). [German version] [1] River in the north Pontus River in the north Pontus between  Borysthenes and  Maeotis, the border between the monarchic and nomadic Scythians, identified as modern Moločnaja voda (Ptol. 3,5,4; Plin. HN 4,84, Gerrhus). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine, in the 5th/4th cents. BC centre of the monarchic Scythians and seat of their rulers, who were buried in large kurgans ( Funerary architecture) (Hdt. 4,71). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) …


(54 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Fortress in Dassaretia near Antigonea (modern Berat); captured in 200 BC by L. Apustius (Liv. 31,27,2). Probably identical to Gerus (Γεροῦς; Geroûs), that was conquered by Philip V in 217 BC (Pol. 5,108,8). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, Illyris, Rome and Macedon in 229-205 B.C., in: JRS 58, 1968, 16.


(113 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (It. Ant. 247,3; Gerolate Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Roman military encampment established in Pannonia superior between Carnuntum and Ad Flexum before 116 BC, once located on a tributary of the Danuvius, modern Bratislava-Rusovce. In the 2nd and 3rd cents. the ala I Cannenefatium was stationed in G. (CIL III 4391; XVI 64; 76f.; 84; 96f.; 104; 178). The equites sagittarii were mentioned as garrison there during the 4th cent. (Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Rich archaeological finds from the 2nd-4th cents.: temple of Jupiter, remains of buildings, bu…


(4 words)

see  Communications


(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Gerona). The place name is probably Iberian (an almost complete collection of toponymical evidence in [1. 2015]). It is debatable whether the Iberian coins with Krsa (?) on it refer to G. [2. 81]. The place is frequently mentioned in inscriptions (CIL II p. 614; Suppl. p. 1145). According to Plin. HN 3,23, G. was an oppidum civium Latinorum. In the Christian period G. played a role as the city of the martyr Felix (died during the reign of Diocletian; Prudent. 4,2…


(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.
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