Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Galene

(156 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γαλήνη / Galḗne, ‘calmness of the sea’).  Nereid in Hes. Theog. 244; according to the Euhemerist Mnaseas, daughter of Ichthys and Hesychia (FHG 3 155,33). As embodiment of the sea's brighter aspect, G. smoothes the waves in Anth. Pal. 5,156 (Meleager) and 7,668 (Leonidas) as well as in Lucian 5. ‘Conversation of the sea-gods’. An epigram by Adaeus (Anth. Pal. 9,544) describes a cameo of Tryphon with the portrait of G. that, however, cannot be unequivocally identified with extant m…

Galenism

(389 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Whereas between about AD 500 and 1100,  Galen was almost unknown in Western Europe, the orthodox  medicine of the Byzantine and Muslim world was substantially based on his concepts that were increasingly systemized and put into a logical order, with a particular focus on their theoretical content.  Galen's monotheism and teleology commended his works also to an environment dominated by religion. From the 12th cent. on, Galenism reached Western Europe in an Arabic guise where it s…

Galen of Pergamum

(3,449 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γαλήνος; Galḗnos) [German version] A. Life AD 129 to c. 216, Greek doctor and philosopher. As the son of a prosperous architect named Aelius or Iulius Nicon (not Claudius, as older accounts have it), G. enjoyed a wide education, especially in philosophy. When he was 17, Asclepius appeared to Nicon in a dream which turned G. towards a medical career. After studying with Satyrus, Aiphicianus and Stratonicus in Pergamum, G. went to Smyrna c. 149 to learn from Pelops, a pupil of the Hippocratic Quintus. From there he journeyed to Corinth to find Numisianus, another pupi…

Galeoi

(4 words)

see  Galeotae

Galeos

(4 words)

see  Shark

Galeotae

(163 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γαλεῶται; Galeôtai). Name of a Sicilian family of seers, probably from Hybla Galeatis/Gereatis (Paus. 5,23,6), whose members are linked with prophecies relating to the rule of  Dionysius I (Philistus FGrH 556 F 57 in Cic. Div. 1,39; Ael. VH 12,46). Myth associates them with  Telmissus, the location in Caria famous for its prophecy (Cic. Div. 1,91): the eponymous Galeos was said to be, like his brother Telmissus, the son of  Apollo and the Hyperborean princess Themisto. On the advi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Galeria

(82 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Annia G. Faustina see  Faustina [1] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] G. Fundana Wife of the later emperor Vitellius about AD 60 Daughter of a senator of praetorian rank, related also to Galerius [4] [1]. Married A. Vitellius, the later emperor, no later than around AD 60. In 69 she joined her husband in Gaul. After his death she took care of the funeral. PIR2 G 33. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 229f.

Galerianus

(4 words)

see  Calpurnius

Galerius

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] C. G. Eques, Rom. official, praefectus Aegypti probably AD 16-31 Eques, who probably came from Ariminum. Of his public offices only the praefectus Aegypti is known, which he held for 16 years, probably AD 16-31. [1; 2]; P. Oxy 3807. Died returning from Egypt. Married to Helvia, Seneca's aunt. PIR2 G 25. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 270 2 I. Cazzaniga, in: Analecta Papyrologica 4, 1992, 5ff. [German version] [2] M. G. Aurelius Antoninus Son of the later emperor Antoninus Pius, died before AD 138 Son of the later emperor …

Galestes

(100 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Γαλέστης; Galéstēs). Son of the Athamanian king  Amynander, fled to Pydna to Ptolemy VI, whose phílos (φίλος) he became. In 150 BC G. led an expeditionary corps against Demetrius [7] I, and in 145 against Alexander [13] Balas. In 144 Ptolemy VIII took his dōreaí (δωρεαί, ‘benefices’; i.a. in Herakleopolites) away from him; G. fled to Hellas and gathered exiles; he died in an attempt to return to Alexandria and enthrone an alleged son of Ptolemy VI. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Schäfer, PKöln V 223/4 L. Criscuolo, L'archivo di Philô (PKöln V 222-225), in…

Galgala

(212 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne)
[German version] (Biblical Gilgāl, ‘circle of stones’, probably not a settlement). Pre-Israelite sanctuary (Judg. 3:19) on the eastern shore of the oasis of Jericho (Jos 4:19), probably the site of Saul's elevation as king (1 Sam 11:15) and a pilgrimage centre of the 8th/7th cents. BC (Amos 4:4; 5:5; Hos 4:15; 9:15; 12:12), historicized as a memorial for the crossing of the Jordan under Joshua (Jos 4:20-24, hence Δωδεκαλιθον ( Dōdekalithon), ‘place of twelve stones’ on the Madaba map). The Jewish-Christian topographical tradition is continued in Tosefta Sōfṭa 8,6 (2nd cent. AD ?) …

Galilaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Most northern region of  Palaestina. Under Ptolemaic rule ( Ptolemaeus) after the death of  Alexander [4] the Great, together with all of Palestine, G. became a Seleucid territory at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Urbanization, and the  Hellenization that came along with it, resulted in an antagonism between the Hellenized cities and the Judaism in rural G. In 164 BC, in the context of the Maccabaean ( Judas Maccabaeus) rebellion against the Seleucids and the Hellenistic citie…

Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Galli

(339 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γάλλοι/ Gálloi). ‘Servants’, ‘attendants’ and ‘worshippers’ of the  Mater Magna [1] chiefly in late Republican and Imperial Rome, described consistently as ‘priests’ only in Christian contexts. They first arose, along with the  Metragyrtae, in Asia Minor, late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 21,6,6 and 21,37,5, 190 and 189 BC; as literary figures: Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 6,220). The derivation of the name from Gauls or Galatians is now favoured by [4. 229; 3; 2. 118-120]; only from t…

Gallia Cisalpina

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A. Location The Roman province in northern Italy borders on the Alps in the north and west, the Apennines in the south and the Adriatic in the east. Traversed by the Padus (Po) ( Gallia Transpadana to the north and Gallia Cispadana to the south of the Padus), Gallia Cisalpina (GC) was identified with the Po valley ( latissima pars Italiae, Tac. Hist. 1,70,1). In antiquity the geomorphological structure of GC was in many respects quite different from today, especially with regard to the riverbeds of the Padus (which ran further south) and the Atesis …

Gallia/Gaul

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Land and population in pre-Roman times G. comprises the most western part of the European rump, between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. Five large river-systems supply the land with water: the Garumna (Garonne) in the south-west, the Liger (Loire) in the centre and the west, the Sequana (Seine) in the north, the Mosa (Maas) with a tributary of the Rhine, the Mosella (Mosel), in the north-east, and the most important water vein, the Rhodanus (Rhôn…

Gallic

(5 words)

see  Celtic languages

Gallica

(4 words)

see  Shoes

Gallic Wars

(5 words)

see  Caesar

Gallienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. P. Licinius Egnatius G. Augustus, born c. AD 218 near Milan ([Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 33,3), son of the later emperor P. Licinius Valerianus and Egnatia Mariniana. Valerian, who had himself proclaimed emperor in September/October 253, immediately appointed G. Caesar, then Augustus, and had this confirmed by the Senate with a territorial allocation of responsibilities: Valerian went to the east to confront the Persian threat, G. went to the west to defend the Rhine and Danube bo…

Gallinaria

(128 words)

Author(s): Pera, Rossella (Genoa) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Island in the Ligurian Sea (modern Gallinara). Small uninhabited island in the Ligurian Sea (Varro, Rust. 3,9); place of refuge for St. Martinus and Hilarius (Sulp. Sev. Sanctus Martinus 6,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 3,14; Ven. Fort. Sanctus Hilarius 35). Archaeological finds in the sea off the coast. Pera, Rossella (Genoa) Bibliography G. Forni (ed.), Fontes Ligurum et Liguriae Antiquae (Atti della Società ligure di storia patria 16), 1976 G. Spadea, Archeologia Subacquea in Liguria, in: Bollettino di Archeologia Subacquea 2-3, 1995/6, 103. [German version] [2] W…

Gallio

(6 words)

see  Iunius Gallio Annaeanus

Gallius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin family name (Schulze 424), possibly originally denoting descent from a Gallus. [German version] [1] G., M. Supporter of M. Antonius 43 BC Praetor in 44 BC or earlier, served under M. Antonius at Mutina in 43 [I 9] and also fought against Octavian; in his will he adopted the later emperor Tiberius (Cic. Phil. 13,26; Suet. Tib. 6,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Q. Defended by Cicero for bribing voters Aedilis plebis in 67 BC, held magnificent games in 66, as praetor he chaired the trial against C. Cornelius [I 2] in 65 and was probably s…

Gallonius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Family name, also Galonius, Calonius (Schulze 171); bearers of this name are attested several times but are of little historical significance. [German version] [1] G., C. City leader of Gades 49 BC Roman eques, was sent by L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus to Gades to administer an inheritance in 49 BC, became city leader in the Civil War there, but withdrew in favour of Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 2,18,2; 20,2f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., P. Gourmet by Lucilius 1238 M. Made proverbial by Lucilius (1238 M.) as a gourmet and glutton. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Gallus

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[II] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘Gaul’). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] see Cornelius [II 18] Gallus see  Cornelius [II 18] Gallus Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.G. Eques, exiled AD 65 Eques, who was friendly with the praef. praet.  Faenius Rufus and the consular  Antistius [II 12] Vetus and was therefore exiled in AD 65 (PIR2 G 66). In Tacitus the name is rendered as Publius Gallus, but that is out of the question. A nomen gentile is concealed behind Publius, perhaps Publilius? Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendidissima civitas.…

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Galus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (orthographic variation of  Gallus?) in the  Sulpicii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Id., FCap 149 Kajanto, Cognomina 195.

Gamala

(98 words)

Author(s): Colpe, Carsten (Berlin)
[German version] (modern Ḫirbat ehdeb). Town in lower Gaulanitis ( Batanaea; Jos. BI 4,1,1) with a large Jewish component in the population (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,15,3; BI 1,4,8) because of the settlement policy of  Alexander [16] Iannaios. Under the Zealots and  Iosephus (cf. Vita passim), G. therefore became a bulwark against the Romans (Jos. BI 2,20, 4; 6). After an uprising in AD 68, the town was captured by Vespasian, who had all the inhabitants put to death as punishment (Jos. BI 4,1,3-10). Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) Bibliography O. Keel, M. Küchler, Orte und Landschaften der Bibel…

Gamaliel

(279 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] G. I. »The Old Man«; grandson of Hillel Also called ‘the Old Man’ (died c. AD 50), a grandson of Hillel. G. was a Pharisee ( Pharisaei) and member of the Sanhedrin ( Synhedrion). G., about whom little is known historically (for discussion of the problem, cf. [1]), is thought to have been  Paulus' teacher prior to his conversion to Christianity (Acts 22:3). According to Acts 5:34-39 his intervention saved Peter and other apostles from prosecution by the Sanhedrin. Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) [German version] [2] G. II. Successor to Jochanan ben Zakkai Grandson of [1], a…

Gambrium

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάμβρειον; Gámbreion). Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6f.) mentions G. and Palaigambreion as seats of dynasties that allied with the Spartans in 399 BC. Both places are assumed east of Pergamum near today's Kınık. Nothing is known of its earlier history; there is no reference in the Attic tribute lists. However, coins are attested in the 4th and 3rd cents. An inscription (CIG 3562) mentions a king Alexander of G. in 326-325 BC and a temple for a certain Artemis Lochia, with remains still extant. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. G., RE 7, 691.

Gambrivi

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe that Str. 7,1,3 counts among the weaker tribes, together with the Cherusci, Chatti and Chattuari. A version of the Mannus-genealogy ( Herminones) ranked the G., together with the Marsi, Suebi and Vandili, among the original Germanic tribes (Tac. Germ. 2,2). A connection with the Sugambri seems to be linguistically indicated, but the fact that Str. loc. cit. mentions both names in the same context argues against their being identical. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann, D. Timpe, s.v. G., RGA 10, 406-409.

Gamedes

(142 words)

Author(s): Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg)
[German version] Boeotian potter, active around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, who twice signed a jug now in Paris (LV, inventory no. MNB 501): ΓΑΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΕΣΕ ( GAMEDES EPOESE). The clover-leaf jug, with its conical body and knurled rim and its high neck divided by a sharply ridged ring design, can be linked to the shape of other Boeotian jugs. The signatures of G. and Polon are the only ones preserved in Boeotian black-figured vase painting. Named after G. is the G.-painter, who painted the jug in the Louvre (shepherd with…

Games

(1,899 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Krasser, Helmut (Gießen) [German version] A. Game Books from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century (CT) References to Antiquity were less concerned with the purpose of a game or its subject matter. Rather, Classical authorities served to legitimize the very concept of games and game-playing, to explain their rationale, origins and forms. Thus Pythagoras acts as the Protos heuretes of Rhythmomachia, the mathematical battle game of the Middle Ages; Dido and Aeneas are drawn on as the cultural model for courtly games in early modern times and Mercury is c…

Games

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Egypt and Ancient Orient The boundaries between games and  sport are fluid; here only relaxation games ( Board games) are treated that are very well known e.g. for Egypt as originals from tomb contexts and pictorial representations e.g. the Senet board game ( znt) was popular. The position regarding the sources for the Ancient Orient is very limited for climatic reasons (wood barely preserved). We can make only assumptions about the rules of games. In addition to the game boards there are game stones, astragaloi ( Astragalos [2]), dice and little dice rods tha…

Games of dexterity

(530 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] were primarily performed by children. With some of these games  astragaloi (knucklebones), nuts, pebbles, coins, small balls or potsherds were used as toys ( Children's games), with others, sticks, discs, wheels, etc. A favourite was the so-called πεντάλιθα ( pentálitha) (Poll. 9,126), in which five stones (nuts, balls, etc.) were thrown up in the air and caught in the palm of the hand or on the back of the hand. In another, the orca-game, nuts, stones etc. were thrown into a narrow-necked container (Ps.-Ov. Nux 85f.; Pers. 3,50). Similar to this game was the ἐς βόθυνον ( es…

Gamos

(4 words)

see  Marriage

Gandaridae

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] also Gangaridae. Mentioned in accounts of Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map) and in Megasthenes as a powerful people in India. They lived east of the  Prasii on the lower Ganges. Also mentioned in Ptol. 7,1,81. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D. C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, 213ff.

Gandaritis

(210 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Greek Γανδαρικὴ χώρα / Gandaríkē chṓra; Ethnic groups: Gandarai, Gandarioi), district on the Kābul. According to Herodotus (3,91), the Gandarioi, together with the tribes of the Sattagydai, Aparytai and Dadikai, formed the ancient Persian Empire's seventh satrapy, which essentially covered the Kabulistan alpine territory intersected by the Cophen, between Paropanisos (Hindu Kush) and the upper Indus, and the mountain range itself. In spite of difficult passes along the Cophen, the routes through G. were used, from at least the 4th cent. B…

Gandhara

(4 words)

see  Gandaritis

Gandhara art

(10 words)

Gandhara art see Pakistan; Gandhara art

Ganges

(224 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Γάγγης; Gángēs, Sanskrit Gaṅga). The largest river in India, known to the west (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; 5,6,7; 5,9,4; 5,26,1; Curt. 8,9,5, et passim) since Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map), if not already in Ktesias (in Plin. HN 37,39). Its length was measured in the early Hellenistic period and calculated to be 10,000 stadia (Str. 15,689). According to Str. 15,719 its source lay in the Ēmōdá órē (Himalaya). The G. is mentioned several times by Ptolemy (7,1,29; 30; 42; 51 Nobbe, et passim), its delta described as having five arms (7,1,18), and also the Gangētikós…

Gangra

(207 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | | Hellenistic states | Celts | Asia Minor | Patricius | Rome Town in Paphlagonia south of the Olgassys (modern Ilgaz-Dağları), modern Çankırı. This toponym remained almost unchanged until the present: Kanġırı, Çangrı, Çangra. According to Str. 12,3,41 the town included the old basileion of the Paphlagonian dynasts, a fortress and a settlement. In 3 BC the Paphlagonian delegates met here to swear the imperial oath to Augustus [1] after in 5 BC he had elevated G. to a pólis and established the eparchía Pa…

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Ganymeda

(38 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γανυμήδα; Ganymḗda). Female deity in Phleius, patroness of prisoners, later equated with  Hebe because of the linguistic similarity to  Ganymede, the cup-bearer of the gods. The only source is Paus. 2,13,3f. Visser, Edzard (Basle)
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