Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gems, Gem and cameo cutters

(9 words)

see  Gem cutting


(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in gesch., sprachl. und arch. Sicht, 1984, 6-21, esp. 13.


(395 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Batavian Revolt Most northerly oppidum of the Celtic tribe of the  Allobroges in the hilly area between the embouchure of the Rhône, Arve and Lake Geneva, modern Geneva. The name, like Genoa, is Ligurian. Even in the pre-Roman period the place was significant from the point of view of traffic policy: harbour complex on the south side of the embouchure of the Rhône for navigation on the Rhône and Lake Geneva, wooden bridge …


(4 words)

see  Sex

Gender roles

(2,903 words)

Author(s): Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt) | Stahlmann, Ines (Berlin) | King, Helen (Reading)
I. Society [German version] A. Greece It was a characteristic of Greek society that the spheres of the two genders were strictly separated in a way that has little in common with the modern distinction between a private, domestic sphere and a public, political one. Neither should the house (  oíkos ) be seen as a purely private sphere, nor can gender roles (GR) be limited to one area only. There were divisions both wi…

Gender studies

(5,320 words)

Author(s): Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG)
Egger, Brigitte (Tübingen RWG) [German version] A. Definition, Concept and Conceptual History (CT) Gender Studies (GS) is an interdisciplinary research approach to the role of sex or gender in culture, society and science. This discipline, which is particularly flourishing in Classical Studies within the Anglo-American sphere, differs from other forms of historical or literary gender research in its combination of methods developed in women's studies with those of post-structuralism. In social and cultural sciences,  the English term gender (originally  'grammatical gend…


(962 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
In early societies, largely based on family organizations, genealogy as a derivation of a person's descent in the form of a pedigree is often used as a means of legitimation and (pseudo-historical) memory, which was always also directed at publicity (genealogy from Greek γενεαλογεῖν; genealogeîn, ‘to talk about [one's] origin’). [German version] I. Near East and Egypt The purpose of lineage, transmitted in the form of a genealogy (generally patrilineal; exceptions in the case of Egyptian rulers), was to legitimate a claim to rulership, to tenure of a …


(237 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Sculptor of the archaic period, famous for the family group with his signature in the Heraion on  Samos (560-550 BC). The group consists of the reclining figure of the founder ...ιλάρχος, three standing girls (unknown name, Philippe, Ornithe), the fragments of a young man, and the enthroned mother Phileia; apart from Ornithe (Berlin, SM, Inv. 1739), all the figures are on Samos (Vathy, Mus. Inv. 768). G. proves himself a master of Ionian sculpture because of the minute detail to w…

Genera causarum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(γένη τῶν λόγων ῥητορικῶν; génē tôn lógōn rhētorikôn). [German version] A. The Branches of Oratory The doctrine of the genera causarum ( GC) was developed in particular by Aristotle, who divided all oratorical topics into three groups (Rh. 1,3 = 1358b6─8), whereas his predecessors distinguished several types ( eídē, species) and only considered two GC, i.e. the deliberativ…

Genera dicendi

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
(χαρακτῆρες τῆς λέξεως, charaktêres tês léxeōs). [German version] A. Concept and Classifications Genera dicendi ( GD) is taken as the usual term for the doctrine of style (as in Cic. Orat. 20; 69; Quint. Inst. 12,10,58; Isid. Orig. 2,17 H.), alongside elocutionis genera (Iul. Vict. rhet. 22 p. 438,8 H., 92,12 Giom.-Celentano; Aquila rhet. 27,10f.H.; Mart. Cap. 479,5 H.; Consultus Fortunatianus 3,8 [5. 510,5f.] as sing. genus e.). In the earliest Latin attestation (Rhet. Her. 4,11), elocutio and genera are linked, albeit separated by twelve words; genera elocutionis does not exist…

General Abbreviations

(564 words)

Common abbreviations (e.g., etc.) are not included in the list of general abbreviations. A. Aulus a.u.c. ab urbe condita abl. ablative acc. accusative aed. cur. aedilis curulis aed. pl. aedilis plebi Ap(p). Appius Athens, AM Athens, Acropolis Museum Athens, BM Athens, Benaki Museum Athens, NM Athens, National Museum Athens, NUM Athens, Numismatic Museum b. born Baltimore, WAG Baltimore,Walters Art Gallery Basle, AM Basle, Antikenmuseum Berlin, PM Berlin, Pergamonmuseum Berlin, SM Berlin, Staatliche Museen bk(s). book(s) Bonn, RL Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Boston, MFA Boston, Museum of Fine Arts Bull. Bulletin…


(74 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (τὰ Γενέσια; tà Genésia). Name of a Greek family festival in honour of a dead ancestor (Hdt. 4,26). In Athens, it became ─ allegedly at Solon's instigation ─ a public festival of the dead, the celebrations of which on the 5th Boedromion also included a sacrifice to  Gaia (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 168). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography F. Jacoby, Γενέσια. A forgotten festival of the dead, in: CQ 38, 1944, 65-75.

Genesis poetry

(6 words)

see  Biblical poetry


(459 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] I. Greek A genethliakón (γενεθλιακόν, sc. μέλος, ᾷ̓σμα) is a poem in honour of a birthday (γενέθλιος ἡμέρα, γενέθλιον ἦμαρ), in association with a gift or standing alone. Callim. Fr. 202 is a iamb to a friend in celebration of the seventh day after the birth of his daughter. There is an isopsephic epigram written by Leonides of Alexandria (Anth. Pal. 6,321) as a birthday present to Caesar γενεθλιακαῖσιν ἐν ὥραις. Other epigrams, particularly by  Crinagoras, accompanied birthday gifts…


(162 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Γενέθλιος; Genéthlios). Greek rhetor from Petra, a pupil of Minocianus and Agapetus, 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD. He taught in Athens in rivalry to Callinicus, and died there aged 28. He wrote epideictic orations and was praised for his talent and his astounding memory (Suda s.v.). The fact that he is mentioned four times in the Schol. Demosth. (18,8; 52; 19,148; 22,3) supports the assumption that G. had written a commentary on that rhetor. Two treatises on the classification of …


(94 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γενετυλλίς; Genetyllís). The Genetyllides (pl.) were Attic goddesses, linked, as their name indicates, to birth and fertility. Their sanctuary was situated on Cape Colias. They were venerated by women in an exuberant celebration and received the sacrifice of a dog. Closely related in function were the Phocaean Gennaides (Paus. 1,1,5), and in particular  Eileithyia, who also received canine sacrifices. Documentary evidence: Aristoph. Lys. 2; Aristoph. Nub. 52; Aristoph. Thesm. 130 with schol.; Paus. 1,1,5 with schol.; Hsch., Suda s.v. G. Graf, Fritz (Columbus…

Geneva Declaration

(155 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] One of the first official acts of the World Medical Association, founded in 1947, was drafting the Geneva Declaration (GD), a contemporary reformulation of the Hippocratic Oath; further improvements were made in 1968. The so-called abortion paragraph and the ban on surgery made way for more modern gen…

Genita Mana

(136 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Goddess, mentioned by Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 52,277a) and Pliny (HN 29,14,58) in conjunction with a canine sacrifice. According to Plutarch, the prayer during the sacrifice was for ‘none of the house slaves to become good (χρηστός, chrēstós)’, interpreted as a euphemism for ‘dead’. Plutarch links the name of the goddess to childbirth. Modern interpretations proceed hardly any further [1; 2]. A Diva Geneta appears in Agnone (mid-3rd c…


(963 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching)
[German version] A. Roman Development Genius is etymologically interpreted as the tutelary deity external to a man (ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, agathòs daímōn) or alternatively his internal power of procreation and in other life events. Academic research [2. 23; 5. 11] has resulted in a synthesis, as no prototype can be assumed for the cult of the genius; the genius is seen as a deified personality/concept located …


(356 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] In Judaism, a genizah (‘safekeeping’, from Aramaic gnaz, ‘to hide’) is a repository for books which are no longer in use but which contain the name of God, or for ritual objects, in order to prevent misuse or profanation. Such rooms were frequently found in synagogues; if the synagogue itself was demolished, the books and objects were ‘interred’ in the cemetery. Of particular importance amongst the multitude of genizahs in the Jewish world is the genizah of the Esra synagogue in Fusṭāṭ (Old Cairo), whose academic evaluation was due mainly to the British…
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