Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Gennesar

(4 words)

see  Tiberias

Genoa

(398 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (ancient Genua, modern Genova). Ligurian fortress on the harbour of Mandraccio, used in pre-Roman times by Etruscans and Massiliotes: pre-urban phase end of the 6th cent. BC; settled from the mid 5th cent. BC (wall remains, pottery, bronze and lead, statuette of a discus thrower, Etruscan inscriptions; necropoleis, cremations in ‘well graves’). It was an oppidum allied with Rome, in 218 BC the base of P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio against  H…

Genos

(327 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (γένος; génos, pl. γένη/ génē). The term has been used commonly in archaic Greece with the meaning ‘of aristocratic origin’, in addition in the sense of house, family, generation, species etc. [1]. In the research Attic génē were for a long time regarded as exclusive noble clans whose former dominance was still demonstrated in the later privileges (supervision of admission to the phratria and exclusive holding of positions as priests). According to the investigation by [2] and [3], the génē are today regarded as local village communities which arose in archa…

Genre, genre theory

(4,401 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Huss, Bernhard (Munich)
Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] A. Ancient Foundations (CT) In Antiquity, the genre debate was largely determined by Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica ( Epistula ad Pisones). The views expressed in these texts, albeit at times contradictory, affected the entire modern reception of the ancient genre debate. The trend towards a normative poetics, and thus a prescriptive understanding of ancient theorems, was generally dominant and already evident in Horace's thinking [18. 257]. In the modern debate, theref…

Gens

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Politics and Society The Roman gens comprised the members of a  family who descended from a common ancestor and under whose potestas they would have been, if he had still been alive (Varro, Ling. 8,4). The main distinction between gentiles and agnati lay in the fact that the latter could prove their blood relationship with their progenitor, whereas for the former, this relationship was only a fictitious assumption. The origins of the gens are a matter of scholarly dispute, and will likely remain so because of the lack of source material from Rome's …

Gens Bacchuiana

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Africa proconsularis, in the valley of Oued Siliana near Tichilla and  Thubursicum Bure, modern Bou Djelida. Chief place of the gens Bacchuiana, under Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161), its administration lay in the hands of undecimprimi. Inscriptions: CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12331-12340a; Suppl. 4, 23922-23930. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet 34, no. 74.

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Gentiana

(165 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (gentian). Greece boasts seven, Italy more than 20 species of this family with about 200 species in total. According to Dioscorides (3,3 p.2,4 Wellmann = p.262f. Berendes), the medicinal properties of these species, generally identified as γεντιανή/ gentianḗ ( gentiana: Pliny), were allegedly discovered by an Illyrian king called Gentis (= Gentius: Plin. HN 25,71). In medicine, gentiana found a multitude of applications (Plin. HN 26,29 and passim): Even in antiquity, juice was extracted from the root of the yellow Gentiana lutea L. and related species ─ ascribe…

Gentile

(502 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The gentile ─ signifying membership to a family (  Gens ) ─ is bequeathed by the father to the children and kept by the wife after marriage. It is the defining element in the Roman and Middle Italian system of personal names ( Personal names: Rome and Italia), occupying second place after the praenomen in the formula for names. Aside from birth, other possibilities existed of attaining a gentile: a) through  adoption, wherein the adopted person receives the gentile of the adoptive father; his prior gentile added as a suffix at first ( P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, son of L. …

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Genus

(5 words)

see  Literary genre

Genusia

(90 words)

Author(s): Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
[German version] (modern Ginosa). City west of Tarentum ─ the original centre of the Peucetii; Roman municipium ( Genusini, Plin. HN 3,105). Settlements existed from the Iron Age until the late Roman period; funerary finds. Gargini, Michela (Pisa) Bibliography E. de Juliis, L'attività archeologica in Puglia nel 1983, Atti del XXIII Convegno di Taranto (1983), 1984, 421-446, 429-431 Id., Magna Grecia, 1996, 266 T. Scholjer, Notiziario delle Attività di Tutela, Settembre 1987-Agosto 1988. Ginosa (Taranto), via S. Francesco Saverio, Taras, VIII, 1-2, 1988, 114f. M. T. Giannotta, …

Geographical names

(1,938 words)

Author(s): García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne)
[German version] A. Types: place names and vocabulary In antiquity, the different types of place names (esp. names of regions and cities or settlements, also names of mountains, lakes, rivers, islands, fields, and roads) are thoroughly documented and transmitted in Greek and Latin, however, there are many variations in form, e.g. Πιθηκοῦσσα : Aenāria (today Ischia). If a place name cannot be interpreted from within the vocabulary of the language in which it is documented, it usually goes back to the language(s) of prehistorical populations. On the o…

Geographus Ravennas

(235 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
[German version] Anonymous, apparently clerical, author of the 8th cent. AD from Ravenna (4,31), also referred to as Anonymus Ravennas. His Cosmographia describes the entire world as it was known in his time in 5 bks. Bk. 1 argues ─ in observance of Biblical and patristical traditions ─ for a view of the earth as a flat disc surrounded by oceans, with the sun running along the southern rim during the day. Bks. 2-5 present lists of 5,000 place names, organized by regions and, in part, by Roman provinces (regions, cit…

Geography

(2,061 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Talbert, Richard (Chapel Hill, NC)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The oldest sources for the geography of Mesopotamia consist of topographical lists (3rd millennium BC), of which one lists a total of 289 eastern and central Mesopotamian places. Clay plates from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC occasionally show schematised city maps with labels (Babylon, Nippur, Uruk, Sippar) as well as regional area maps (Nuzi, Tellō, Nippur, Euphratis region, Sippar). These were probably created in the context of land surveying. A world map exists which is unique in its central orientation towards Babylon ( c. 5th cent.…

Geography

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Geography Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Geography belongs to those scientific disciplines in which the state of knowledge of Antiquity  in the modern era has proven to be in need of a great deal of correction and expansion. The discovery of the 'New World' (1492) and the sea route to India (1498) exemplarize the beginning of the modern era [13]. Nevertheless, ancient geographical thought has influenced the practice of scientific geography until today [1. 57-58]. In te…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Geology (and mineralogy)

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich)
Fritscher, Bernhard (Munich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The phenomena and questions with which geology and mineralogy deal today were the subject of two methodologically separate disciplines in Antiquity. Meteorologia inquired into the causes of terrestrial phenomena; the description and classification of rocks and minerals (and fossils) were the subject of historia naturalis (and, with regard to the medicinal benefits of minerals, of pharmacology and medicine). As the science of the Earth's history, geology is, to be sure, a creation …
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