Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Ka

(234 words)

Kaaba

(111 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( kaʿba). The most important shrine of Islam. It is the point towards which prayer is directed, and the destination of pilgrimage, located in the interior court of the Great Mosque in Mecca (accessible only to Muslims). Pilgrims ritually kiss the black stone in the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the exterior walls of which are covered with a black cloth, which is replaced yearly. The name (‘cube’) comes from the shape of the building supposed to have been built by Abraham [1] and I…

Kabbala

(1,656 words)

Author(s): Stuckrad, Kocku Von (Erfurt RWG)
Stuckrad, Kocku Von (Erfurt RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The term Kabbala (Hebrew: tradition, transmission), denotes a current of Jewish mysticism that began in southern France in the 12th cent. and soon influenced the whole of Judaism. In their recourse to ancient traditions, the conservatively-minded Kabbalists molded older elements, primarily from Platonic, but also from Pythagorean philosophy, into a coherent religious-theosophical system of world views, i…

Kabul

(4 words)

see Cabura

Kadiskoi

(127 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (καδίσκοι; kadískoi). Urns used in the courts of Athens ( dikasterion) to receive the votes of the jury, referred to as ἀμφορεῖς (

Kados

(128 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κάδος; kádos, Latin cadus, ‘jug, pail’). Graeco-Latin term for a vessel, usually earthen, for storing fluids. In Athens, kados was also the term for the biggest unit in the measure of volume, synonymous with metretes, equal to 39,4 l. [1. 101-102; 703 table X A]. In Rome,

Kaeso

(91 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also Caeso). Uncommon Latin praenomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, abbreviated K.; according to ancient etymology it indicates a child born by Caesarean section (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 50L; Plin. HN 7,47). Because K. appears among patrician families only in the Fabii and Quinctii, who were the first to hold the priesthood of the luperci, according to Mommsen it may denote the …

Kainon Chorion, Kainon Phrourion

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καινὸν Χωρίον; Kainòn Chōríon, Καινὸν Φρουρίον; Kainòn Phrouríon). Pontic fortification in the Paryadres mountains, captured by Pompey in 64/3 BC, the place where Mithridates VI kept the most precious treasures (Str. 12,3,31) and a secret archive (Plut. Pomp. 37,1). Kainon Chorion may have been located on the rock massif near Akgün (formerly Ahretköy) northwest of Niksar, where fortress ruins with stonework of the Hellenistic through the Byzantine periods, three flights of steps, and a cistern can be found. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 107…

Kairos

(271 words)

Author(s): Schaffner, Brigitte (Basle)
[German version] (Καιρός; Kairós). Male personification of a term that even Cicero was almost unable to translate (Auson. epigrammata 33,10) καιρός; kairós = ‘the right moment’, ‘opportunity’, ‘advantage’, ‘the right measure’, ‘proportion’ [1]; later equated with Chronos and in Byzantine times with Bios. The Romans represent Kairos as a female, Occasio. The essence of Kairos is mainly emphasized by his representation: he is winged (on his feet or shoulders), tiptoes or stands on wheels, balances a scale on a ra…

Kaiser (Caesar, Emperor)

(361 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Old High German cheisar, keisar; Middle High German keiser; even in Gothic kaisar; Old Slavonic cjesari/ kesari; Russian/Slovenian cesar/ car, ‘czar’). The Gothic kaisar probably derives from the Bible translation (Lk 2,1) by Ulfila. In the Annolied (Song of Anno) (v. 271ff.) from the end of the 11th cent. AD keisere is derived from Caesar. The name ‘Caesar’ was initially a cognomen of the Iulii, but after Octavianus ( Augustus) was adopted by Julius Caesar it became Augustus' family name (cf. [3]). Starting with Claudius [III …

Kaisergeschichte

(239 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] A portrayal of the Roman Imperial period in short biographies, to be dated between AD 337 and 361, the date of the first user (Aurelius Victor), and extending to the death of Constantinus. The establishment of its date by A. Enmann [1], who explains the relationship (linguistic and structural properties, factual errors) of Victor, Eutropius, the Historia Augusta and the

Kakegoria

(166 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακηγορία; kakēgoría), verbal insult, an offence in Athens since the period of Solon (6th cent. BC). Deceased persons were always protected, living persons only in the case of defamation in public (Plut. Solon 21; Dem. Or. 20,104). The insulted person could file a private complaint ( dike), but had to share the compensation fine …

Kakogamion

(71 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακογάμιον; kakogámion, literally ‘marrying badly’) was a punishable offence in Sparta (Stob. 66,16), or ‘it appears’ (Plut. Lysander 30,7) to have been prosecuted through dike , although c…

Kakosis

(229 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κάκωσις; kákōsis), literally ‘bad treatment’ of people requiring special assistance. In Athens there were three such groups: 1. parents, 2. orphans, 3. heiresses ( epikleros ), Aristot. A…

Kakotechnion dike

(119 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακοτεχνιῶν δίκη; kakotechniôn díkē). Action against ‘wheeling and dealing’, in Athens sp…

Kakourgoi

(134 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κακοῦργοι; kakoûrgoi). Generally ‘malefactors’ but in Athens criminal offenders listed in a specific law: night thieves, thieves of clothing, kidnappers, burglars, and pickpockets. When they were caught in the act, anybody could take action against these mostly lower-class criminals through private arrests ( apagoge ), and could bring them before the Eleven ( Hende…

Kalach

(4 words)

see Kalhu

Kalam

(264 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( kalām). In Islam, (scholastic) theology, (defensive) apologetic. In fact: ʿilm al-kalām, literally: ‘science of the word, of speech’, which means presentation and explanation, dispute, discussion, (rational and dialectical) argumentation, reasoning, and the defence of Islamic beliefs and of the divine unity, against persons of different faiths, infidels, doubters, and heretics ( Heresiology). A theological discipline since the 7th cent. The emphasis is on a rational-dialectical, and, from …

Kalamos

(5 words)

see Calamus; Pen

Kalapodi

(4 words)

see Hyampolis
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