Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Lactodurum

(65 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Present-day Towcester, Northamptonshire; It. Ant. 2; 6. Late Iron Age settlement; from the mid 1st cent. AD a Roman army station. The town was protected in the 2nd cent. by the construction of a rampart and ditch; stone fortifications were added in the 3rd cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Lactora

(183 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Suburb of a civitas in Aquitania, modern Lectoure (Département Gers), south of Aginnum (modern Agen). Other name evidence: Lacturatis, Notae Tironianae 87,77; Lactura, It. Ant. 462,5; Lactora, Tab. Peut. 2,2; Lacura, Geogr. Rav. 4,41; in provincia Novempopulana ... civitas Lactoratium, Notitia Galliarum 14; ordo Lactor( atium), CIL XIII 511. Oldest historical evidence is a honorary inscription of AD 105, mentioning a procurat( or) provinciarum Lugduniensis et Aquitanicae item Lactorae (CIL V 875 = ILS 1374). 22 altars testify to a taurobolium

Lactuca

(307 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Lettuce plant Lettuce (θρίδαξ/ thrídax, also θρύ-, θρόδαξ/ thrý-, thródax, θριδακίνη/ thridakínē, Lactuca sativa L.), the lettuce plant known in several varieties (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,4,5 et passim), whose cultivation and protection against pests, as well as culinary and medical uses, are described by Theophrastus. Thus, according to Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,6,2, its juice is said to help against dropsy and eye sores. Lettuce has been cultivated in Europe, North Africa and Asia for a long time …

Lacunar

(269 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Passed down in Vitruvius [1. s.v. l.], an architectural technical term, on many occasions there also designated as lacunaria (pl.), for the sunken panels that decorated the ceiling between wooden beams crossing one another ( Roofing), the Greek equivalent being phátnōma, gastḗr, kaláthōsis [2. 45-52 with additional terms for details of the lacunar]. Lacunaria were as a rule three-dimensionally recessed and decorated with paintings or reliefs (mostly ornamental). In the temple or columned building, the place where they were first app…

Lacus

(5 words)

see Wells; Cistern

Lacus Albanus

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in the largest of the volcanic craters of the mons Albanus , where Alba Longa and various villas were located, e.g. those of Pompey and Domitian, as well as the Castra Albana of Septimius Severus. In 398 BC the water level was regulated through a drainage channel (Liv. 5,15; Cic. Div. 1,100). Famous wines grew on the slopes (Plin. HN 14,64; 23,33). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography P. Chiarucci, Albano Laziale, 1988.

Lacus Alsietinus

(96 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in southern Etruria in a small volcanic crater, modern Lago di Martignano. Augustus had an aqueduct built from here, the aqua Augusta Alsietina, which provided water for the naumachia in Rome and the nemus Caesarum (Frontin. Aq. 1,11; 2,71) in Trastevere. At Careiae (modern Santa Maria di Galeria) it reached the Aro, an outlet for the lacus Sabatinus (modern Lago Bracchiano), which added more water; an overflow channel was intended for irrigation. The aqueduct continued south at the foot of the Ianiculum; the water was not potable. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Lacus Avernus

(206 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] (Greek Ἄορνος, Áornos). Volcanic lake connected to the sea near Baiae ( Campi Phlegraei ), especially deep (Lycoph. 704; Diod. Sic. 4,22; Aristot. Mir. 102), sulphurous vapours (Verg. Aen. 6,242; Lucr. 6,744; Plin. HN 31,21; Serv. Aen. 3,442). The lacus Avernus (LA) owed its reputation above all to its connection with the Underworld. The Cimmerii were alleged to have lived here in deep holes (Str. 5,4,5); here Odysseus (Str. 5,4,5f.) and Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 3,442; 6,126; Ov. Met. 14,101ff.) entered the world of the dead, for which reason the LA was the Ianua Ditis ( Dis Pa…

Lacus Benacus

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Lago di Garda. Largest Alpine lake in the area of Verona (Plin. HN 9,75), with a length of 500 stadia (along the eastern shore road; cf. Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131); the river Mincius flows through it. It was navigable despite severe storms (Verg. G. 2,160). The Benacenses (TIR L 32,33) lived on the western shore. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,80 A. Mosca, Caratteri della navigazione nell'area benacense in età romana, in: Latomus 50, 1991, 269-284.

Lacus Brigantinus

(178 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Lake formed by the river Rhenus at the northern foot of the Alps (538.5 km2, greatest depth 252 m), named after the Brigantii ( Brigantium) who lived there, modern Lake Constance. Mentioned by Str. 4,3,3 without a name of its own (cf. also Str. 4,4,9; 7,1,5; 5,1; Mela 3,24; Cass. Dio 54,22,4; first by Plin. HN 9,63: lacus Raetiae Brigantinus). Inhabitants of the region were the Vindelici, Helvetii and Raeti. Mela 3,24 differentiates between the upper lake ( lacus Venetus) and the lower lake ( lacus Acronus). Plin. HN 9,63 mentions a type of fish, mustela, in the lacus Briganti…

Lacus Curtius

(156 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Monument on the Forum Romanum in Rome, which already in antiquity was associated with various myths of Rome's early history ( Curtius [1]). Probably built in the Augustan period, the lacus Curtius (LC) was among the monuments on the Roman Forum that served as vivid, palpable manifestations of early Roman history and, as such, provided a means by which mythology could be given a role to play in the depiction of historical reality, which so far had been recorded primarily in the form of chronicles. The LC consist…

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Lacus Larius

(156 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Modern Lago Lario or Lago di Como. Formed by the Addua, which flows out again from the eastern arm (Plin. HN 2,224; Str. 4,6,12), it bisects the central foothills of the Alps. In antiquity, it stretched further towards the north (Cato fr. 38). The via Regina [1] runs parallel along the western shore from Comum to the Alpine passes (Splügen/Cuneus Aureus, Maloja, Julier) [2. 14]. In the pre-Roman period ( Golasecca culture) [3. 159] it was an important connection from the Po Plain to central Europe, in the Roman period a com…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Lacus Lucrinus

(140 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] Brackish lagoon on the Campi Phlegraei, separated from the sea by a sandbar, on which Hercules is supposed to have built the via Herculanea (Str. 5,4,5f.). The lake was known for its wealth of fish. The later Augustus and Agrippa had the lacus Lucrinus (LL), together with lacus Avernus, converted into the portus Iulius (Plin. HN 36,125; Serv. Aen. 2,161). There were many famous villas on the LL (Cic. Att. 14,16), of which there are no remains due to volcanic eruptions and shifting shorelines (bradyseism); the lake, too, is now largely buried. de Vido, Stefania (Venice) Bibli…

Lacus Nemorensis

(332 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake in Latium near Aricia in the Alban Hills (Plin. HN 19,141), modern Lago di Nemi. An underground drainage adit (Str. 5,3,13) was cut around the 4th cent. BC [1]. The forested slopes on its banks formed the nemus Dianae (grove of Diana, with temple and high priest, rex Nemorensis, who - always a runaway slave - had to kill his predecessor in single combat [2; 3; 4]). The nemus Dianae led to the lake being called lacus Nemorensis (Prop. 3,22), but also speculum Dianae (‘Mirror of Diana’) (Serv. Aen. 7,516). There was a community of villas (Cic. Att. 6,1,4…

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…

Lacus Prelius

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Coastal lake in Etruria (Cic. Mil. 74; Prile, Plin. HN 3,51) between Vetulonia and Rusellae (the remnants of which can still be seen in the Padule di Raspollino), with a station ad lacum Aprilem of the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 229; 500; Tab. Peut. 4,3). It was fed by the Bruna, which emptied into the mare Tyrrhenum at Castiglione della Pescaia (province of Grosseto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Lacus Regillus

(90 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake (now dry) in agro Tusculano (Liv. 2,19ff.) near Frascati; modern Pantano Secco. In 499 or 496 BC, a battle between Romans and Latini took place there (Liv. l.c.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,3,3, with the rumour that the Dioscuri had caused the Roman victory). The foedus Cassianum , which was agreed afterwards, regulated the return of Rome into the Latin League. Bianchetti, Serena (Florence) Bibliography A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1965, 111-116 M. Pallottino, Origini e storia primitiva di Roma, 1993, 322-323.

Lacus Trasumenus

(126 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] Lake between Cortona [1] and Perusia, modern Lago Trasimeno. It was here in 217 BC that Hannibal [4] defeated the Romans under C. Flaminius [1] (Pol. 3,80-85; App. Hann. 38-41; Liv. 22,4,1) in the Second Punic War. The site of the battle is uncertain: between Montigeto and Montecolognola [1], between Borghetto and Montigeto [2. 105-115] or between Borghetto and Tuoro [3. fig. 15]. Bianchetti, Serena (Florence) Bibliography 1 J. Kromayer, Die Schlacht am Trasimenischen See und die Methode der Schlachtfeldforsch., in: Neue Jbb. für das klass. Alt. 25, 1910, 185-200 2 G. D…

Lacus Vadimonis

(86 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake in southern Etruria between Orte and Bomarzo, modern Lago di Bassano (Plin. Ep. 8,20; Plin. HN 2,209; Sen. Q Nat. 3,25,8). The Romans under P. Cornelius [I 27] Dolabella defeated Etrusci and Galli there in 283 BC (Pol. 2,19,7-20,6; 310 BC according to Liv. 9,39). Bianchetti, Serena (Florence) Bibliography A. N. Sherwin-White, The Letters of Pliny, 1966, 472-473 M. Torelli, Storia degli Etruschi, 1981, 255 C. Saylor, Overlooking Lake Vadimon: Pliny on Tourism (Epist. 8,20), in: CPh 77, 1982, 139-144.

Lacus Velinus

(231 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A lake formed by the rivers Avens, Himella and Tolenus in the territory of the Sabini in the plains below Reate. It was partially drained in 272 BC by the consul Curius [4], through the drainage system of the Cascata delle Marmore, which gave the waters of the Avens an artificial outlet. The lake drained into the Nar above Interamna [1]. Q. Axius (Varro, Rust. 2,1,8) and Cicero (Att. 4,15) [1] had villas here. The drainage of Lacus Velinus caused quarrels between Reate and Interamna (Varro, Rust. 3,2,3; Cic. Att. 4,15,5; Cic. Scaur. 12,27; Tac. Ann. 1,79; palus Reatina, Plin. …

Lacus Verban(n)us

(59 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] A lake formed by the Ticinus in the Alpine foothills, modern Lago Verbano or Lago Maggiore (Pol. 34,10,21 = Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131; 9,69); Verg. G. 2,159 possibly hints at the lacus Verban(n)us. Vicus Sebuinus, later called Angleria (modern Angera), is on the eastern shore. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 1, 181.

Lacydes

(230 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λακύδης; Lakýdēs) of Cyrene. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC. Took over the leadership of the Academy from Arcesilaus [5], which he held, according to Diog. Laert. 4,60/61, for 26 years and handed over in his own lifetime to Evander and Telecles. How the information contained in Philod. Academicorum Index 27,1-7 is to be reconciled with this is disputed (details in [1. 831]). L. died most likely in the year 207 BC ([1. 830], differently [2. 50]). He lectured in a garden…

Ladas

(5 words)

see Olympic champions

Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Laeca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, in the family of the Porcii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 358.

Laecanius

(181 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C.L. Bassus Senator from Pola, cos. Suff. In 40 AD Senator from Pola in Istria. Praetor urbanus in AD 32; cos. suff. AD 40. L. ran a sizeable pottery production on his property on the Istrian peninsula; his son carried it on [1. 230ff.]. PIR2 L 30. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.L. Bassus Consul ord. 64 AD Son of L. [1]. Consul ordinarius AD 64. He died in the reign of Vespasian [1. 230ff.]; his adoptive son was L. [4] (cf. [2. 115f.]). PIR2 L 31. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C.L. Bassus Caecina Paetus see Caecina [II 6]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) …

Laeceni

(83 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λαικηνοί/ Laikēnoí, Λαιηνοί/ Laiēnoí, Λεηνοί/ Leēnoí, Ptol. 6,7,22). Tribe who settled to the east of the central Arabian mountain range of Zámēs. Their name is not mentioned in any other ancient source and has to date not been satisfactorily interpreted. Perhaps the L. should be identified with the aṣḥāb al-Aika, the ‘people of the thicket’ or, rather, the ‘people of al-Aika’ mentioned in the Koran (15,78 et passim), a prehistoric people allegedly annihilated by the wrath of God. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (…

Laelaps

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαῖλαψ/ Laîlaps, ‘hurricane’). [German version] [1] Dog of Cephalus The dog of Cephalus, inescapable because of its swiftness. L. is turned to stone during the chase (Ov. Met. 7,771ff.; Hyg. Fab. 189; Serv. Aen. 6,445). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Dog of Actaeon Dog of Actaeon that, together with the rest of a pack of hounds, attacks and kills his master who has been transformed into a stag by Artemis (Ov. Met. 3,211; Hyg. Fab. 181). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laelia

(121 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola Elder daughter of C. Laelius [I 2], born 160 BC, wife of Q. Mucius Scaevola. One of her two daughters married the orator L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus, the tutor of Cicero, who observed that L. had adopted the speaking style of her father (Cic. Brut. 211). Cicero may have been encouraged to write of L.'s father ( Laelius sive de amicitia) while in her house. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Younger sister of L. [1], wife of the annalist C. Fannius [I 1] Younger sister of L. [1], born after 160 BC, w…

Laelianus

(128 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar Ulp(ius) Cor(nelius) Laelianus (RIC V 2, 373 no. 8; [1. 66 no. 6]). Probably commander of the legio XXII Primigenia in Mogontiacum (Mainz) or governor of the province of Germania superior, rebelled early in AD 269 against Postumus and was proclaimed Augustus. Shortly afterwards Postumus defeated and killed him (Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,8; Eutr. 9,9; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 152 FHG, here incorrectly ‘Lollianus’); according to another tradition (SHA Tyr. Trig. 4; 5; 6,3; 8,1), L. was murdered by Victorinus or by his own soldiers. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bib…

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Laena

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A coat-like cloak made of thick wool (Greek: (χ)λαῖνα/ (ch)laîna). Cited in Rome as an article of clothing of the Augures and Flamines when offering sacrifice, as well as of the mythical kings, and found on monuments; in the Imperial period it was part of men's and women's costume. The laena was a special form of the toga and was made by doubling the semicircular-shaped cut of the toga praetexta to an almost circular cloth. By laying together the two circular segments, a toga-like garment was formed that was laid around the shoulders and covered both arms. The laena was worn o…

Laenas

(72 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived by Cicero (Brut. 56) from laena, the cloak of the flamines , but in fact of Etruscan origin and probably an ethnicon (cf. Asprenas, Maenas, etc.). In the Republican era it was the hereditary surname in the Popillius family (from cos. 359 BC on), in the Imperial period also in the Octavius and Vipsanius families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210 Schulze, 83; 186; 530.

Laenes

(46 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λαίνης; Laínēs). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, attested only in inscriptions; he won three victories at the Dionysia (1. test. 2), one of which is dated to 185 BC (1. test. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Laerces

(62 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Λαέρκης/ Laérkēs, ‘where there is protection for warriors’). [German version] [1] Myrmidon A Myrmidon, son of Haemon, father of Alcimedon [2] (Hom. Il. 16,197; 17,467). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Goldsmith from Pylos A goldsmith from Pylos; he had to gild the horns of an ox that was destined to be sacrificed to Athena (Hom. Od. 3,425). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Laertes

(236 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαέρτης; Laértēs). Son of Arcesius and of Chalcomedusa, husband of Anticlea, father of Odysseus (cf. the latter's patronymic, Laertiádēs, ‘son of L.’); in his various depictions, the last is the most important function of L., who has little significance of his own. The image of him in the ‘Odyssey’ is the formative one it has shaped all later representations. Before the beginning of the Trojan War, for reasons of age, L. passes his power to Odysseus. Even when Odysseus does return to assume the th…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fairy-tale-like people of man-eating giants, who raise cattle but do not engage in agriculture (cf. Cyclopes). In the course of his wanderings, Odysseus lands in their country, where the sun never sets. After an initial friendly greeting of his scouts by the king's daughter, the mood shifts when they catch sight of the giant queen. The king, summoned by his wife, devours one of the Greeks, and the rest of the L. destroy the entire fleet.…

Laestrygoni campi

(6 words)

see Laestrygones; Leontini

Laeta

(149 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2] from AD 383 on Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2], whom she married in AD 383. Following his death shortly afterwards, L. lived on as a widow at Rome, where she used her own funds to help alleviate the famine during Alaricus' [2] siege in 409 (Zos. 5,39,4). PLRE 1,492 (L. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Clarissima femina, addressee of Jerome's epist. 107 Clarissima femina, daughter of one Albinus, wife of Toxotius, daughter-in-law of the elder Paula, sister-in-law of E…

Laeti

(200 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
[German version] Etymologically (Etruscan, Celtic, Germanic, Latin?) disputed technical term for descendants of prisoners or dediticii , predominantly of Germanic origin (Amm. Marc. 20,8,13), who settled in Gaul under state supervision on barren, remote estates ( terrae laeticae: Cod. Theod. 13,11,10). Laeti had limited rights, were bound to the soil, obliged to do military service, but were not ‘soldier-farmers’ [2]. The Notitia dignitatum records, under the magister peditum in Gallia, twelve praefecti laetorum (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,33-44) with details of nationality…

Laetorius

(319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin [1. 187; 200; 205]. The gens is attested firmly from the end of the 4th cent. BC; 5th century bearers of the name are annalistic inventions (the people's tribune 471 BC: Liv. 2,56, 6-15; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,46,1-48,5). Originally plebeian, the family was patrician from the time of Caesar or Augustus (Suet. Aug. 5,1; [2. 89f.]). [German version] [1] L., C. Curule aedile in 216 BC Curule aedile in 216 BC, propraetor in Gaul in 209, legate in Greece (?) in 205, in Upper Italy in 200, Triumvir at the foundation of the colony in Croton in 194 (Liv. 34,45,4). Elvers,…

Laetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Successful commander of Septimius [II 7] Severus during the Parthian War of AD 195 and again in 198. L. was murdered because he was too popular with the army; Severus denied that this was on his orders; L. probably fell victim to the thirst for power of the praetorian prefect Fulvius [II 10] Plautianus. PIR2 L 69. L.'s identification is disputed: according to [1. 116f.] he was identical to Iulius Laetus, who led the vanguard of Severus' army on their march into Rome in 193, and who in 197, allegedly after much hesitation, won the vic…

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Laevinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen for the Valerii in the Republican era, no longer attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 243.

Laevius

(374 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] L. (Baebius or Manius), dictator Latinus L. (Baebius or Manius) Egerius [2] had the sanctuary of Diana Nemorensis (Cato fr. 58 Peter) dedicated in his capacity as dictator Latinus. Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) Bibliography C. Ampolo, Ricerche sulla lega latina, II. La dedica di Egerius Baebius, in: PdP 212, 1983, 321-326. [German version] [2] Probably the first lyric love poet of Rome, 2nd or early 1st cent. BC Probably the first lyric love poet of Rome, 2nd (cf. [8]) or early 1st cent. BC (for example, according to [2. 118]), and in the latt…

Lafrenius, T.

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] One of the twelve praetors of the insurgent Italians during the Social War [3]. L. fell in 90 BC, in the battle against Ser. Sulpicius Galba (App. B Civ. 1,181; 204-206; ILLRP 1089). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Laganum

(4 words)

see Pastries

Lagaš

(73 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Town and territorial state (capital Girsu) in southern Mesopotamia, with important inscriptions, architectural and artistic finds from the 25th-21st cents. BC, which have been of great significance in reconstructing early Mesopotamian history and culture, as also for establishing a Sumerian Grammar ( Ancient oriental philology and history). Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Bauer, D. P. Hanson, s.v. L., RLA 6, 419-431 A. Falkenstein, Die Inschr. Gudeas von L. Introduction, 1966.

Lagbe

(107 words)

Author(s): Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λάγβη; Lágbē). Town in north-east Lycia, near modern Alifahrettin; it dominated the small, high plain north of Lake Cabalitis (the former Söğüt Gölü, today dried up) and belonged to the territory of Cibyra. Part of the Roman province of Asia (Caria province from Diocletian on), plundered by Manlius Vulso during his campaign of 189 BC (Liv. 38,15,2). Epigraphical evidence attests a cult of Artemis Lagbene and the existence of a private estate. Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) Bibliography Chr. Naour, Tyriaion en Caba…

Lagids

(5 words)

see Lagus [1]

Lagina

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (τὰ Λάγινα; tà Lágina). Location, north of Stratoniceia, of a sanctuary of the Carian Hecate (modern Leyna, near Turgut); annual Panegyris (Str. 14,2,25; 29), procession with the sacred key, mystery plays, penteteric agons. In 81 BC, it was established as Hekatesia Rhomaea, the right to grant asylum given by the Senate later confirmed by Caesar, Augustus and, in AD 22, Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 3,62,2). Archaeological findings: square, lined by Doric stoai, surrounding a pseudodipteros temple wit…

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town near Numantia; name possibly Iberian [1]. For coin evidence cf. [2; 3]. Allied to Numantia, L. was conquered and destroyed by the consul Q. Pompeius in 141 BC (Diod. Sic. 33,17). L. may be identical to Malia (App. Hisp. 329); on the contradictory reports in the sources cf. [4]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 64 3 A. Hübner, Monumenta linguae Ibericae, s.v. lagne, 1893, 38 4 H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 110. Tovar 3, 461.

Lagodius

(65 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Spanish relative, probably cousin, of the emperor Honorius [3]; after the collapse of the resistance put up by his brothers Didymus and Verenianus against the usurper Constantinus [3] III in Spain in AD 408/9, he fled to the eastern part of the Empire (Zos. 6,4,4; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,12,1; cf. Oros. 7,40,5-8). PLRE 2,654; cf. 358, 1099, 1155. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)

Lagona

(4 words)

s. La(u)gona

Lago(o)s

(7 words)

see Constellations (add. vol. 4)

Lagopus

(91 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (λαγώπους/ lagṓpous, ‘hare foot’) was the name for the ptarmigan, Lagopus mutus ( Montin), due to its feathered legs. It was highly esteemed as game (Hor. Sat. 2,2,22: lagois; Plin. HN 10,133). In its brown summer plumage (Plin. HN 10,134) it was considered to be a different species. The plant of the same name (Plin. HN 26,53 = Ps.-Apul. de herbis 61,6: herba leporis pes) was said to cure diarrhoea when taken in wine or (in cases of fever) water. Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) Bibliography H. Steier, s.v. L., RE 12,461.

Lagoras

(93 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Λαγόρας; Lagóras). As an officer of Ptolemaios IV, L. of Crete tried in vain in 219 BC to occupy the narrow pass of Berytus before Antiochus [5] III. Later, he defected to Antiochus. In the latter's war against Achaeus [5], L. forced his way into the besieged city of Sardis at an unguarded position on the city wall and opened a gate to the besiegers (Pol. 5,61,9; 7,15-18). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, 21987, 1163 H. H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Geschichte Antiochos' d.Gr., 1964.

La Graufesenque ware

(7 words)

see terra sigillata

Lagus

(171 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λάγος, Λαγός/ Lágos, Lagós; personal name not from lagṓs, ‘hare’, but probably from laoí, ‘people’). [German version] [1] Macedonian from Eordaia or Orestis, father of Ptolemy I Macedonian from Eordaea or Orestis. His status is unknown; no definite conclusion about high nobility can be drawn from his marriage to Arsinoe [II 1]. Father of Ptolemaios I and Menelaus. Ptolemy fostered the memory of L.: a hippodrome in Alexandria and a town in Arsinoe were called Lágeion. The legend of Philippus II fathering Ptolemy I is, therefore, probably of later origin. The Ptolemies …

Lagynos

(104 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ λάγυνος; ho/ hē lágynos). Wine bottle with handle, wide flat body, high narrow neck and sealable mouth (see Vessels, shapes and types of, fig. B 10). A Hellenistic type of vessel prevalent up to and into the Imperial period. Every participant in the lagynophória (λαγυνοφόρια), a Dionysiac street festival in Alexandria, brought along a lagynos for his share of wine (Ath. 7,276a-c). Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) Bibliography G. Leroux, L., 1913 F. v. Lorentz, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 6, 216f. R. Pierobon, L. Funzione e forma, in: Riv. Studi Liguri 45, 1979, 27-50 S. I. Rotro…

Laias

(112 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαίας, Λαΐας; Laías, Laïas). [German version] [1] Son of the Aegid Hyraeus Son of the Aegid Hyraeus. Together with his brothers, L. erected heroic sanctuaries in Sparta to Cadmus and Aegeus, among others, because the Aegids trace themselves to the Theban dynasty (Paus. 3,15,8; Hdt. 4,147). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Oxylus Son of Oxylus, king of Elis, and Pieria. After the death of his older brother Aetolus, L. takes over the kingdom from his father; L.'s children, however, do not receive the royal title (Paus. 5,4,4f.). A…

Lairbenos

(76 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Λαιρβηνός; Lairbēnós) is the epiclesis of Apollo in Phrygia, as attested to in numerous inscriptions. The missing Greek etymology as well as the variants point to the fact that this is the Greek interpretatio of an indigenous name. Many confession inscriptions stem from his shrine in the region of modern Ortaköy. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography K. M. Miller, Apollo L., in: Numen 32, 1985, 46-70 G. Petzl, Die Beichtinschr. Westkleinasiens, 1994, 122-143.

Lais

(388 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Λαίς; Laís). The ‘general acquaintance’, from λαός (‘people’) [1] or from the Semitic, ‘lioness’. Popular name for hetaerae, which makes identification difficult. [German version] [1] Hetaera from Corinth Hetaera ( Hetaerae) from Corinth. L. is described as beautiful (Ath. 13,587d), quick-witted (in conversation with Euripides in Ath. 13,582cd; he quotes her Eur. Med. 1346), discriminating and expensive; in old age, L. is said to have become impoverished and a dipsomaniac (Ath. 13,570cd). She died in 392 BC (schol. Aristo…

Laius

(699 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος; Láios). [German version] [1] Mythical Theban king Mythical Theban king, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus [1] and great-grandson of Cadmus [1] (Hdt. 5,59); his mother's name is not mentioned. He lives four generations before the Trojan War (his great-great-grandson Tisamenus is a minor when the war begins: Paus. 9,5,13). He loses his father when he is one year old (Apollod. 3,40); Lycus, the brother of L.'s great-grandfather on his mother's side, Nycteus (Paus. 9,5,5), becomes his guardi…

Lakaina

(116 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λάκαινα; lákaina). A drinking vessel listed as a cup in Ath. 11,484f.; the technical term is used in archaeological research to describe a vessel with a goblet-like body and round-bellied lower part, with two horizontal handles. Produced predominantly in Sparta from the 8th cent. BC onwards, the L. became a model for Laconian vasepainting of the 7th cent. BC. The design was discontinued after the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Its decoration was usually ornamental, but black- glazed examples do occur. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography C. M. Stibbe, Lakon. Vasenma…

Lake Van

(7 words)

see Thospitis Limne; Urarṭu

Lakhmids

(166 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] (Arabic Banū Laḫm). Kings of the Arabian tribal confederacy of the Tanūḫ (2nd quarter of 3rd cent. - early 7th cent. AD). The seat of the L. was al-Ḥīra, a caravan centre in south-western Iraq, south of Kerbela. As vassals of the Persian Sassanids, the L. controlled the tribes of the Arabian peninsula, and joined the Sassanids' war against Rome, later against Byzantium and her Syrian allies ( Palmyra, Ghassanids). Some L. were Nestorian Christians ( Nestorianism); through their in…

Lakonikai

(64 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (λακωνικαί; lakōnikaí). Men's shoes or boots, similar to the embas ( Shoes). Originally a Lacedaemonian (Spartan) phenomenon (Aristoph. Vesp. 1158-1165), later also worn elsewhere (Aristoph. Eccl. 74; 269; 345; 507, Aristoph. Thesm. 142); the elegant lakonikai were white (Ath. 215c) and red (Poll. 7,88). Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griech.-röm. Lit. und Kunst, 1967, 126f.

Lamache

(41 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λαμάχη; Lamáchē). Lemnian woman who conceives Leucophanes with the Argonaut Euphemus. From Leucophanes is descended Battus [1], who founds the city of Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 455b; [1]). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) Bibliography 1 L. Malten, Kyrene, 1911, 192.

Lamachus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμαχος; Lámachos). Athenian, carried out a successful expedition in c. 436/5 BC against the tyrant of Sinope (Plut. Pericles 20,1). As stratēgós in 424, L. lost ten warships in a storm off Heraclea (Thuc. 4,75,1f.; Diod. Sic. 12,72,4). In early 421, L. was one of the Athenian emissaries who swore to uphold the Peace of Nicias [1] and the Athenian-Spartan symmachía (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 416/5, Alcibiades [3], Nicias and L. were elected stratēgoí autokrátores (‘authorized military leaders’) of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 6,8,2; And. 1,11; Lys. 13,…

Lamasba

(156 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Significant Numidian road junction, c. 50 km north-west of Lambaesis, modern Henchir Merouana ( Lamasba, It. Ant. 35,2; 5; 6; Lamasbua, Tab. Peut. 2,5; Lamasba oppidum, Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 48). L. was probably a municipium from the time of Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22511; cf. 22467). It was an episcopal see from as early as 256 (Cypr. sententiae episcoporum 75). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22427-22466. The text of an inscription of the Elagabalan period (AD 218-222) regulates the distribution of the waters of the aqua Claudian…

Lamb

(4 words)

see Sheep

Lambaesis

(399 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Legio | Limes | Limes | Rome Camp and town in Numidia on the northern slope of Mons Aurasius (modern Aurès), modern Tazoult-Lambèse (on Lam- place-names of the immediate vicinity and beyond cf. [1. 539]). Documentary evidence: Ptol. 4,3,29 (Λάμβαισα; Lámbaisa); It. Ant. 32,4; 33,2f.; 34,2; 40,6 ( Lambese); Tab. Peut. 3,2 ( Lambese); in inscriptions more frequently Lambaesis than Lambaese. L. was close to the beginning of the road leading through the gorge of Calceus Herculis (to…

Lambafundi

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Thamugadi, modern Henchir Touchine (CIL VIII 1, 2438 = Suppl. 2, 17941 [ saltus? La] m[ b] afundensium; Tab. Peut. 3,3: Lambafudi; Geogr. Rav. 39,40: Lambafudin). The following designations of origin may be attributable to the episcopal see of L.: Lampuensis ( plebs) (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 411, 1,133,292), Iamfuensis (Not. episcoporum Numidiae 87a), Lamfuensis (Concilium Carthaginiense anno 525; [2. 647]). In Procop. Aed. 6,7,10, a Numidian town newly fortified by Iustinianus is named as Λαμφουαομβά/ Lamphoua…

Lambagae

(44 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] According to Ptol. 7,1,42, a people of north-western India, in the east of modern Afghanistan; Old Indian Lampāka. Its name is preserved in the modern Lamghan; several fragments of Aramaic inscriptions of king Aśoka were discovered there. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Lambdia

(66 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Mauretania Caesariensis, c. 100 km south-south-west of Icosium, modern Médéa. Literary evidence: Ptol. 4,2,27 (Λαβδία; Labdía); CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 22567 ( Lambdienses); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,201,8 ( Lambiensis); Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Caesariensis 46a ( Ambiensis). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 9239-9246; 10443. Sparse ruins are preserved. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 14, no. 48 H. Dessau, s.v. L., RE 12, 542.

Lambiridi

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Settlement in Numidia between Lambaesis and Lamasba, modern Kherbet Ouled Arif. Literary evidence: Tab. Peut. 3,1 ( Lambiridi); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia A 44 ( Lamuiridi oppidum); Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,206,32 ( episcopus Lambiriditanus); Not. episcoporum Numidiae 19a ( Iamuiritanus). L. was a municipium in the 3rd cent. AD. Some ruins are preserved - including a grave with a mosaic, opinions vary as to its interpretation [1. 464]. Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 4413-4435; Suppl. 2, 18564-18584. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 M. Le …

Lambrus

(74 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] (modern Lambro). Left-bank tributary of the Padus (Po), rises in the mountains at the lacus Larius, forms the lacus Eupilis (Plin. HN 3,131; modern Lago di Pusiano), flows through the Brianza and joins the Padus east of Mediolanum. Name pre-Roman, possibly Mediterranean (* lambrusca, ‘wild grapevine’) or Celtic (* Ambrones). Sources: Plin. HN 16,20; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1; 5; Tab. Peut. 4,2 (river and station). Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 180.

Lamenting the dead

(14 words)

see Burial; Nenia; Threnos; Death; Dead, cult of the; Mourning

Lamia

(900 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Female spirit (Λάμια; Lámia). A female spirit who specialized in attacking children (Duris, FGrH 76 F 17; Diod. Sic. 20,41,3-5; Str. 1,2,8; [1. ch. 5]). In this function, L. was often confused with Gello, Mormo and the Strix. In later sources, L. also seduces and destroys attractive men (Philostr. VA 4,25; cf. Apul. Met. 1,17). Her name is etymologically related to laimós (‘maw’), which is an expression of her all-consuming hunger (cf. Hor. Ars P. 340; Hom. Od. 10,81-117 on Lamus, the king of the cannibalistic Laestrygones; lamía is also a designation for ‘shark’…

Lamian War

(157 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Lamian (or ‘Hellenic’) War, named after the polis of Lamia, was waged by the Athenians and Aetolians and their allies against Antipater [1]. Its causes were, specifically, Alexander [4] the Great's decree on the exiles, and generally, the hope that the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas could be undone in the wake of Alexander's death (323 BC). After early successes under the leadership of Leosthenes [2], the land war became bogged down at Lamia, where Antipater was besieged i…

Lamiggiga

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Numidia between Lambaesis and Diana Veteranorum, modern Sériana. L. was probably in the territory of Diana Veteranorum, but around AD 200 it had its own magistri and received an ordo decurionum. Legionaries and veterans of the legio III Augusta lived in the town. In 411, L. was predominantly on the side of the Donatists ( Donatus [1]; Concilia Carthaginiensia anno 411, 1,133,1-13; 187,98-100; 198,55f.). Some ruins - churches, baths and wine-presses - are preserved. L. was consolidated into a fortress in the Byza…

Lamis

(131 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμις; Lámis). From Megara, leader of a party of Megarian colonists who, probably together with settlers from Chalcis [1], went to Sicily around 730 BC. There the Megarians separated from the Chalcidians, and, the latter already having occupied the most favourable locations (Naxos, Catana, Leontini), founded Trotilum. They accepted an invitation from Leontini to drive out the Sicels ( Siculi) and live in the polis, but they were soon driven out themselves, founding Thapsus (moder…

Lamiscus

(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)

Lamp

(725 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] As containers for flammable oil and wick holders, lamps made of clay are a ubiquitous find from antiquity; less numerous are lamps made of bronze, marble and plaster. The basic shape of the lamp was the stone bowl, which was already used as a lamp early in the Stone Age. Early lamps of clay follow this basic form; they are shaped on a potter's wheel and creased one or several times to accommodate the wick in the spout that is thereby created. These Phoenician lamps (also called ‘P…

Lampadarii

(101 words)

Author(s): Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Greek lampás = torch, light; Greek lychnophóroi). Generally torch-bearer (Suet. Aug. 29,3); in late antiquity, the lampadarii in the Imperial Palace or high departments were collected into scholae (‘units’) and probably given prime responsibility for issues of ‘lighting’ (torches, candles, lamps etc.). The Codex Iustinianus (12,59,10) mentions lampadarii along with invitatores, admissionales, memoriales etc. as auxiliary staff whose numbers had grown out of proportion (cf. also Not. Dign. Or. 11,12-17). Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) Bibliography…

Lampadedromia

(399 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (λαμπαδηδρομία/ lampadēdromía, schol. Aristoph. Ran. 131; Ionian λαμπαδηφορίη/ lampadēphoríē, Hdt. 8,98; more commonly λαμπάς/ lampás since Hdt. 6,105; Pl. Resp. 328a and inscriptions) is the cultic agōn (contest) of the torch race, which was mostly performed as a relay race. In addition there were individual races, and in the cult of Bendis at Athens, a spectacular horse race. The ritual goal of the lampadedromía was ultimately the renewal of the fire; for this reason it always began at important altars. In antiquity, this renewal was unders…

Lampadius

(144 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] From 398 AD praefectus urbis Romae Praef. urbis Romae for around two months early in AD 398; his task was to enforce the conscription of slaves as recruits for the conflict with Gildo (Symmachus, Ep. 6,64; 8,63; 65); after the expulsion of Symmachus, L. restored order in Rome. Perhaps identical to L. [2]. PLRE 2, 654f. (L. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Senator, early 5th cent. AD Senator, protested in AD 408 against the agreement concluded by Stilicho with Alaricus [2], whereby the latter would receive 4,0…

Lampas

(64 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle)
[German version] (Λα[μ]πάς/ La[m]pás, ‘torch’) is documented as the name of a maenad in a vase inscription, as the name of a hetaera (Ath. 13,583e), and the name of one of the five dogs of Daphnis who perish over his grave (Ael. NA 11,13; cf. schol. Theoc. 1,65); L. can also be a person's name [1]. Zingg, Reto (Basle) Bibliography 1 Bechtel, HPN, 604f.

Lampeia

(50 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάμπεια). Mountain range, up to 1,793 m high, south of the Erymanthus mountain range, in the north-east of the nomos Elis [1], modern Lambia (Apoll. Rhod. 1,127; Diod. Sic. 4,112,1; Str. 8,3,10; Paus. 8,24,4; Plin. HN 4,20; Stat. Theb. 4,290). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Lampetia

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [2] (Pol. 13 in Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτεια/ Lampéteia; Λαμπέτης/ Lampétēs, Lycoph. Alexandra 1068 [promontory, modern Capo Súvero]; Liv. 29,30,1; 30,19,10; Plin. HN 3,72; Clampetia, Mela 2,69; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2; Clampeia, Tab. Peut. 7,1). Harbour town in Bruttium ( Bruttii) near modern Amantea. Conquered by the Romans in 204 BC, probably deserted since then. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 928. [German version] [1] Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera (Λαμπετίη; Lampetíē). Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera. As a girl s…

Lampetus

(60 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Λάμπετος; Lámpetos). Hero of Lesbos. In the epic Λέσβου κτίσις/ Lésbou ktísis (‘The Founding of Lesbos’), preserved in fragments, Achilles devastates the island, slaying L. and the other heroes in the siege of Methymna (Anonymus FGrH 479 F 1; Parthenius 21). In later times a tomb is attributed to L. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτειον). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Lampito

(87 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λαμπιτώ; Lampitṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, 5th cent. BC Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, wife of king Archidamus [1] II, mother of the later king Agis [2] II (Hdt. 6,71; Plut. Agesilaus 1; Pl. Alc. 1,123c); Aristophanes (Lys.) uses the name for a typical female representative of Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] c. 300 BC Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] (Ath. 13,593e-f; Diog. Laert. 5,76). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lampon

(420 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Λάμπων; Lámpōn). [German version] [1] Son of Pytheas of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Son of Pytheas of Aegina; after the victory at Plataeae (479 BC), he suggested to Pausanias that the body of Mardonius be defiled just like the latter had dishonoured the body of Leonidas [1] at Thermopylae (Hdt. 9,78f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Seer, co-founders of Thurii L. the Seer. He participated in the founding of Thurii (Diod. Sic. 12,10,3; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 332; Phot. s.v. Θουριομάντις; Plut. Mor. 812d). By interpreting an omen (σημείον /sēmeíon: one-horned ram) in…

Lamponius, M.

(131 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the Lucanians in the Social Wars [3] 90 BC, and one of the twelve praetors of the league (App. B Civ. 1,181). Under the command of Pontius Telesinus, L. fought successfully against P. Licinius [I 15] Crassus (App. B Civ. 1,184; cf. Frontin. Str. 2,4,16). L. continued the fight until 87 in Bruttium, and then allied himself with the Marians. In 82, he and others vainly attempted to free C. Marius (cos. 82), who had been surrounded in Praeneste by L. Cornelius [I 90] Sull…

Lampridius

(102 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Historia Augusta see Historia Augusta Gruber, Joachim (Munich) [German version] [2] Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala, 5th cent. AD Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala (Bordeaux), a friend of Sidonius Apollinaris who is the only source of information about him: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8,9 is addressed to L. Around AD 460 he was invited to Arles by the emperor Maiorianus (ibid. 9,13,4); he was murdered soon after 475 (8,11,3). Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Bibliography: O. Seeck, s.v. L. (2), RE 12, 586 C. E. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris and h…
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