Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Lactodurum

(65 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Present-day Towcester, Northamptonshire; It. Ant. 2; 6. Late Iron Age settlement; from the mid 1st cent. AD a Roman army station. The town was protected in the 2nd cent. by the construction of a rampart and ditch; stone fortifications were added in the 3rd cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Lactora

(183 words)

Author(s): Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück)
[German version] Suburb of a civitas in Aquitania, modern Lectoure (Département Gers), south of Aginnum (modern Agen). Other name evidence: Lacturatis, Notae Tironianae 87,77; Lactura, It. Ant. 462,5; Lactora, Tab. Peut. 2,2; Lacura, Geogr. Rav. 4,41; in provincia Novempopulana ... civitas Lactoratium, Notitia Galliarum 14; ordo Lactor( atium), CIL XIII 511. Oldest historical evidence is a honorary inscription of AD 105, mentioning a procurat( or) provinciarum Lugduniensis et Aquitanicae item Lactorae (CIL V 875 = ILS 1374). 22 altars testify to a taurobolium

Lactuca

(307 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Lettuce plant Lettuce (θρίδαξ/ thrídax, also θρύ-, θρόδαξ/ thrý-, thródax, θριδακίνη/ thridakínē, Lactuca sativa L.), the lettuce plant known in several varieties (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,4,5 et passim), whose cultivation and protection against pests, as well as culinary and medical uses, are described by Theophrastus. Thus, according to Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,6,2, its juice is said to help against dropsy and eye sores. Lettuce has been cultivated in Europe, North Africa and Asia for a long time …

Lacunar

(269 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Passed down in Vitruvius [1. s.v. l.], an architectural technical term, on many occasions there also designated as lacunaria (pl.), for the sunken panels that decorated the ceiling between wooden beams crossing one another ( Roofing), the Greek equivalent being phátnōma, gastḗr, kaláthōsis [2. 45-52 with additional terms for details of the lacunar]. Lacunaria were as a rule three-dimensionally recessed and decorated with paintings or reliefs (mostly ornamental). In the temple or columned building, the place where they were first app…

Lacus

(5 words)

see Wells; Cistern

Lacus Albanus

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in the largest of the volcanic craters of the mons Albanus , where Alba Longa and various villas were located, e.g. those of Pompey and Domitian, as well as the Castra Albana of Septimius Severus. In 398 BC the water level was regulated through a drainage channel (Liv. 5,15; Cic. Div. 1,100). Famous wines grew on the slopes (Plin. HN 14,64; 23,33). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography P. Chiarucci, Albano Laziale, 1988.

Lacus Alsietinus

(96 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in southern Etruria in a small volcanic crater, modern Lago di Martignano. Augustus had an aqueduct built from here, the aqua Augusta Alsietina, which provided water for the naumachia in Rome and the nemus Caesarum (Frontin. Aq. 1,11; 2,71) in Trastevere. At Careiae (modern Santa Maria di Galeria) it reached the Aro, an outlet for the lacus Sabatinus (modern Lago Bracchiano), which added more water; an overflow channel was intended for irrigation. The aqueduct continued south at the foot of the Ianiculum; the water was not potable. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Lacus Avernus

(206 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] (Greek Ἄορνος, Áornos). Volcanic lake connected to the sea near Baiae ( Campi Phlegraei ), especially deep (Lycoph. 704; Diod. Sic. 4,22; Aristot. Mir. 102), sulphurous vapours (Verg. Aen. 6,242; Lucr. 6,744; Plin. HN 31,21; Serv. Aen. 3,442). The lacus Avernus (LA) owed its reputation above all to its connection with the Underworld. The Cimmerii were alleged to have lived here in deep holes (Str. 5,4,5); here Odysseus (Str. 5,4,5f.) and Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 3,442; 6,126; Ov. Met. 14,101ff.) entered the world of the dead, for which reason the LA was the Ianua Ditis ( Dis Pa…

Lacus Benacus

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Lago di Garda. Largest Alpine lake in the area of Verona (Plin. HN 9,75), with a length of 500 stadia (along the eastern shore road; cf. Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131); the river Mincius flows through it. It was navigable despite severe storms (Verg. G. 2,160). The Benacenses (TIR L 32,33) lived on the western shore. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,80 A. Mosca, Caratteri della navigazione nell'area benacense in età romana, in: Latomus 50, 1991, 269-284.

Lacus Brigantinus

(178 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Lake formed by the river Rhenus at the northern foot of the Alps (538.5 km2, greatest depth 252 m), named after the Brigantii ( Brigantium) who lived there, modern Lake Constance. Mentioned by Str. 4,3,3 without a name of its own (cf. also Str. 4,4,9; 7,1,5; 5,1; Mela 3,24; Cass. Dio 54,22,4; first by Plin. HN 9,63: lacus Raetiae Brigantinus). Inhabitants of the region were the Vindelici, Helvetii and Raeti. Mela 3,24 differentiates between the upper lake ( lacus Venetus) and the lower lake ( lacus Acronus). Plin. HN 9,63 mentions a type of fish, mustela, in the lacus Briganti…

Lacus Curtius

(156 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Monument on the Forum Romanum in Rome, which already in antiquity was associated with various myths of Rome's early history ( Curtius [1]). Probably built in the Augustan period, the lacus Curtius (LC) was among the monuments on the Roman Forum that served as vivid, palpable manifestations of early Roman history and, as such, provided a means by which mythology could be given a role to play in the depiction of historical reality, which so far had been recorded primarily in the form of chronicles. The LC consist…

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Lacus Larius

(156 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Modern Lago Lario or Lago di Como. Formed by the Addua, which flows out again from the eastern arm (Plin. HN 2,224; Str. 4,6,12), it bisects the central foothills of the Alps. In antiquity, it stretched further towards the north (Cato fr. 38). The via Regina [1] runs parallel along the western shore from Comum to the Alpine passes (Splügen/Cuneus Aureus, Maloja, Julier) [2. 14]. In the pre-Roman period ( Golasecca culture) [3. 159] it was an important connection from the Po Plain to central Europe, in the Roman period a com…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Lacus Lucrinus

(140 words)

Author(s): de Vido, Stefania (Venice)
[German version] Brackish lagoon on the Campi Phlegraei, separated from the sea by a sandbar, on which Hercules is supposed to have built the via Herculanea (Str. 5,4,5f.). The lake was known for its wealth of fish. The later Augustus and Agrippa had the lacus Lucrinus (LL), together with lacus Avernus, converted into the portus Iulius (Plin. HN 36,125; Serv. Aen. 2,161). There were many famous villas on the LL (Cic. Att. 14,16), of which there are no remains due to volcanic eruptions and shifting shorelines (bradyseism); the lake, too, is now largely buried. de Vido, Stefania (Venice) Bibli…

Lacus Nemorensis

(332 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake in Latium near Aricia in the Alban Hills (Plin. HN 19,141), modern Lago di Nemi. An underground drainage adit (Str. 5,3,13) was cut around the 4th cent. BC [1]. The forested slopes on its banks formed the nemus Dianae (grove of Diana, with temple and high priest, rex Nemorensis, who - always a runaway slave - had to kill his predecessor in single combat [2; 3; 4]). The nemus Dianae led to the lake being called lacus Nemorensis (Prop. 3,22), but also speculum Dianae (‘Mirror of Diana’) (Serv. Aen. 7,516). There was a community of villas (Cic. Att. 6,1,4…

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…

Lacus Prelius

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Coastal lake in Etruria (Cic. Mil. 74; Prile, Plin. HN 3,51) between Vetulonia and Rusellae (the remnants of which can still be seen in the Padule di Raspollino), with a station ad lacum Aprilem of the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 229; 500; Tab. Peut. 4,3). It was fed by the Bruna, which emptied into the mare Tyrrhenum at Castiglione della Pescaia (province of Grosseto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Lacus Regillus

(90 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake (now dry) in agro Tusculano (Liv. 2,19ff.) near Frascati; modern Pantano Secco. In 499 or 496 BC, a battle between Romans and Latini took place there (Liv. l.c.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,3,3, with the rumour that the Dioscuri had caused the Roman victory). The foedus Cassianum , which was agreed afterwards, regulated the return of Rome into the Latin League. Bianchetti, Serena (Florence) Bibliography A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1965, 111-116 M. Pallottino, Origini e storia primitiva di Roma, 1993, 322-323.

Lacus Trasumenus

(126 words)

Author(s): Bianchetti, Serena (Florence)
[German version] Lake between Cortona [1] and Perusia, modern Lago Trasimeno. It was here in 217 BC that Hannibal [4] defeated the Romans under C. Flaminius [1] (Pol. 3,80-85; App. Hann. 38-41; Liv. 22,4,1) in the Second Punic War. The site of the battle is uncertain: between Montigeto and Montecolognola [1], between Borghetto and Montigeto [2. 105-115] or between Borghetto and Tuoro [3. fig. 15]. Bianchetti, Serena (Florence) Bibliography 1 J. Kromayer, Die Schlacht am Trasimenischen See und die Methode der Schlachtfeldforsch., in: Neue Jbb. für das klass. Alt. 25, 1910, 185-200 2 G. D…
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