Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.


(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Cretan mercenary leader, 2nd cent. BC Cretan mercenary leader, from 147 BC onwards influential adviser at the court of Demetrius [8] II ( syngenḗs, patḗr; Court titles B.3.); possibly stratēgós of Coele Syria (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,86; 126f.; 1 M…


(376 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Λάσος; Lásos). [German version] [1] L. of Hermione Poet, c. 500 BC in the Argolis (incorrectly in the Suda: Achaia). The Suda places his date of birth in the 58th Oympiad. (548-544 BC). Like Anacreon and Simonides, this Greek poet was under the patronage of Hipparchus in Athens. According to Hdt. 7,6, Onomacritus was expelled by Hipparchus when L. caught him forging oracles of Musaeus. The Schol. Aristoph. Av. 1403 quotes authorities who consider L. the first organizer of dithyrambic choruses positione…


(38 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] According to Ael. NA 16,10, an Indian town in the land of the Prasii, where the Greek Megasthenes was ambassador to the king. Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L. (2), RE 12, 892.

Late Antiquity

(3,268 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
[German version] I. The historical period In modern historical research, Late Antiquity (LA) is the period following the crisis of the Roman Empire in the 3rd cent. AD from the reigns of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine [1] (307-337) to the end of the Empire in the West (deposition of Romulus [2] Augustulus 476) or the dissolution of the Western Empire into several Germanic successor states during the 5th cent. or even to Justinian's [1] (527-565) standardization of Roman law and failed attempt t…

Late Antiquity

(9 words)

see Epochs, concept of; Historiography

Late Hittite art

(10 words)

see Asia Minor III C 2

L'Atelier des Petites Estampilles

(8 words)

see Stamped ware

La Tène Culture

(575 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Named after the archaeological site La Tène (field name) at Thielle on Lake Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel Canton, Switzerland. Soon after the discovery in the mid 19th cent., the La Tène Culture (LTC)/La Tène Period was recognized as typical of the later Iron Age in much of Central Europe and neighbouring areas. The site itself is, however, not particularly typical of the LTC, firstly because it offers a cross-section of finds (above all weapons and iron implements, wooden parts, etc.) tha…


(4 words)

see Bricks


(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (originally ‘the one <from the residence> on the hill’); in the Republican period occurring in L. Sextius L. ( cos. in 366 BC), in the imperial period also in the families of the Claudii, Magii, Plautii and Sextii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 309.


(253 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Attested in the general sense of ‘list’ from Tertullianus (Ad nat. 1,13), common as a technical term for the list of all civil and military office bearers from the 4th cent. AD. In the notitia dignitatum , among the insignia of the primicerius notariorum a codex-like object (probably a container for loose sheets) with the supplement laterculum maius (Not. Dign. Or. 18,2; Not. Dign. Occ. 16,3) is to be found. It was the list of the high imperial offices, presumably kept by the most senior notary from the time of Constantinus [1] I, as it…

Laterculus Veronensis

(76 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] List - named after a badly corrupted MS from Verona of the 7th cent. AD - of the Roman provinces classified according to dioceses directly in accordance with the new order of Diocletianus (with map; c. AD 313) as well as (§ 13) of the ‘barbarian’ peoples on the northern border of the Roman empire. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, 1982, 202f. (ed.).


(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Iuventii, Iuventius [I 3 and I 4]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 309.


(33 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Villa in the region of Arpinum west of the Liris near Cereatae (Cic. Att. 4,7,3; 10,1,1; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,4; 3,1,4; 3,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 674.


(157 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] There is indirect evidence through rotary tracks of the lathe in the early Celtic period (6th/5th cents. BC), in the Hallstatt Culture, in bronze knobs, amber beads, rings made of sapropelite, etc. On the Heuneburg works waste from a turner's workshop is preserved. In the 6th cent. BC, turned wooden vessels are also known (lathe works). The lathe itself can only be inferred from ancient or medieval representations and sources; it probably came over the Alps from the Greek-Etrus…

Latifundia/Large estates

(2,459 words)

Author(s): Rathbone, Dominic (London)
[German version] I. Overview Only limited reliable information exists regarding the extent of large estates (LE) in antiquity. Most statements about estates of rich Greeks and Romans are of anecdotal or rhetorical nature and therefore hardly credible. Very few documents give information about the size or the value of the majority of estates in a specific region. Archaeology can verify farm buildings, but seldom estate borders. Still, with a few exceptions a long-term tendency towards latifundia expa…


(1,423 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A. History Latin is an Indo-European language: like Greek or the Germanic languages, it derived from Proto-Indo-European (PIE; 4th/3rd millennia BC), which can be accessed by means of linguistic reconstruction, via specific changes. In the 3rd millennium BC, the mostly reconstructable proto-Italic separated from the west-PIE dialect continuum (in the Danube region?). The specific traits of Latin formed at that time include the syncretism of ablative and instrumentals, the stem gro…

Latin America

(13,854 words)

Author(s): Tobia, Ana Maria Gonzales De
Tobia, Ana Maria Gonzales De [German version] A. Concept and Political Divisions (CT) The geographical boundaries of the region that is called Latin America are the Río Bravo (Río Grande), which forms the border between the United States and Mexico in the north, the Atlantic Ocean in the east, Cape Horn in the south and the Pacific Ocean in the west. The necessity of defining this historically augmented area goes hand-in-hand with the attempt to find names which best identify it: in 1824, Simón Bolivar spoke of repúblicas americanas ('American republics'); in 1884, José Martí chose…

Latin comedy

(7,023 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) [German version] A. Imperial Era to Late Antiquity (CT) [13; 43] After Roman comedy ( comoedia palliata) had flourished for about a century, the creation of new comedies ceased around the middle of the 2nd cent. BC. For a few decades its place was taken by the bawdier Atellan farces, and then the still more down-to-earth mime, which, after a short literary phase in the time of Caesar, filled the theatres and improvised venues as a sub-literary form of entertainment until Late Antiquity. P…


(6 words)

see Cornelius [II 21-22]

Latini Iuniani

(411 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman freedmen, whose manumission ( Manumissio ) was deficient. For this reason the freedman did not receive citizenship and in general had an inferior legal status compared to other freedmen. The term Latini Iuniani ( LI) is derived from a lex Iunia ( Norbana?), probably of AD 19. It legally equated certain groups of freedmen with Latini coloniarii (holders of citizenship in a Latin colony). Therefore, they had no political rights (especially no voting rights) but were able to take part in legal transactions with Roman citizens because they had the commercium

Latini, Latium

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Poma, Gabriella (Forli)
[German version] A. Definition Latini is the name of the inhabitants of the region between the Tiber in the north, montes Corniculani, Praenestini, Lepini in the east, Garigliano and the southern sector of the Sacco and Liris valleys in the south, and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the west (Plin. HN 3,56ff.), Latium that of the region. Poma, Gabriella (Forli) [German version] B. Etymology and geography If the name Latium (Enn. Ann. 466), from which Latini originates, is derived from latus, ‘wide’, it could be taken as a reference to the plain at the foot of the Alban Hills, the ce…

Latin inscriptions

(7,273 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht I. History of Finds (CT) [German version] A. Historical Overview (CT) The fate of Latin inscriptions (LI) is quite basically determined by their respective inscriptional supports. They run the gamut from major buildings, which never completely perished owing to their sheer bulk, and whose inscriptions were omnipresent from Antiquity down to modern times (for instance the Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome, documented by Suet. Aug. 101, 4, the Mirabilia urbis Romae in the 12th cent., and Baldassare Peruzzi's sketches from the 16th cent. [10; 9. 67]), to the instrume…


(5 words)

see Virtutes dicendi


(306 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Etruscan Latini), a derivation from the ethnicon Latinus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., T. According to the legend, Jupiter told L. during the Latin War to instruct the consuls to have the Ludi Romani repeated According to Livy (2,36,2-8), who sets the legend that was originally probably not fixed in time in 491 BC, Jupiter told L. in a dream during the Latin War that he should instruct the consuls to have the ludi Romani ( ludi ) repeated; L. finally obeyed these instructions after initially ignoring them twice and…


(645 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Latinization is understood as the influencing of other languages by Latin as a result of language contact. Since the historical circumstances varied for each language contact, Latinization occurred in a number of different ways. The most drastic result of language contact is the complete eradication of languages and dialects; thus, Latin replaced related Italic dialects and languages at an early time ( Italy, languages), the most prominent victim being Etruscan. However, the Rom…

Latin law

(922 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
( ius Latii). [German version] I. Before the dissolution of the Latin league Because of their common language and culture, Romans and Latins possessed largely identical legal systems. This fact was given precision in the foedus Cassianum . It included commercium and conubium , the right to the spoils in joint wars as well as the right to settle in other states of the Latin federation and to become citizens (basis of the exilium ). This legal status was also granted to newly founded Latin coloniae . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) II. As a legal status in the Imperium Romanum [German version] A. To th…

Latin League

(159 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A federation of towns ( populi) in Latium Vetus that was organized around the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris on mons Albanus , but in part also around that of Diana of Aricia. The rights of members were regulated in the foedus Cassianum . The federation came increasingly under Roman control, first during the time of the Tarquinian kings and then in the 4th cent. BC. In 338 the majority of its members was annexed and the remainder became the prisci Latini. Latini, Latium (with map) Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, 1995, 293ff. H. Gals…

Latin philology

(6 words)

see Philology

Latin pronounciation

(6 words)

see Pronunciation

Latin school

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) The term 'Latin school' (LS) is not unambiguously clarified by its term of reference. On the one hand, it can be used to designate the schools that arose in the 12th and 13th cents. at the initiative of the towns, which, unlike the ecclesiastically-focused institutions of the cathedral and monastery schools, cultivated the transmission of the Latin language primarily for the sake of economic and political communication. On the other hand, how…

Latin tragedy

(3,387 words)

Author(s): Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) [German version] A. Imperial Period (CT) [1; 15. 1; 16; 22] Tragedies were written for the stage in Rome until the beginning of the 1st cent. BC, but the old tragedies of Pacuvius, Ennius and Accius continued to be performed regularly into the Early Empire, and their staging grew increasingly opulent. The last documented performance of a new tragedy, Thyestes by P. Varius Rufus (29 BC), was already an isolated event. It is uncertain whether there was a staging of Ovid's Medea, the most famous Roman tragedy after Quintilian and Tacitus. There is no evi…


(795 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Mythical ancestor of the Latin people (Greek Λατῖνος; Latînos). Mythical eponymous ancestor of the Latini. According to the Greek version, L. and his brother Agrius are the sons of Odysseus and Circe and kings of the Tyrrheni on the Island of the Blessed (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.). Servius (Aen. 12,164), who refers to a no longer identifiable Greek author, takes up this origin of L., but identifies him as the founder of the city of Rome, which was named for Rhome, the sister of L. Accor…

Latin Wars

(582 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is the term for the military conflicts between Rome and the Latin League ( Latini D.) - of which Rome was not a member - and between Rome and individual Latin towns that sporadically occurred from the beginning of the Republic (about 510 BC) to the dissolution of the League by Rome in 338 BC. The first Latin War can be considered as an attempt of the Latins to end Rome's dominant position. Rome had become the dominant power among the Latins under its kings Servius Tullius [I 4] and Tarquinius [12] Superbus (cf. Liv. 1,52) and made it …


(4 words)

see Latini


(442 words)

Author(s): Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin)
(Λάτμος; Látmos). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Caria A gneiss and granite mountain range in Caria on the northern and eastern banks of former Latmikos Kolpos (modern Bafa Gölü), modern Beşparmak Dağları. First mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 239. Archaeologically the earliest traces of human settlement go back to prehistory. The L. was one of the sacred mountains of Asia Minor. On the Tekerlekdağ (1,375 m high), the Carian-Anatolian weather and rain god was worshipped in the pre-Greek period, who …


(372 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Crete (Λατώ; Latṓ). City in the east of Crete, situated in an isolated mountain area at a height of c. 400 m, with a good view of the coast, 15 km away from modern Agios Nikolaos. Already settled in the Minoan period but then deserted by the inhabitants. In the 8th cent. BC, Doric re-establishment and then in the ancient and classical period one of the most prominent towns on the island. Numerous inscriptions document the engagement of L. in international politic…


(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λατόβικοι; Latóbikoi, Ptol. 2,14,2; Latovici, Plin. HN 3,148; Latobici, inscription). A probably Celtic tribe in Pannonia superior near Noricum. In the Augustan period a city-like settlement ( municipium Latobicorum, tribus Quirina, CIL III, 3925) arose as a centre of the tribal area that was given the ius Latii ( Latin law) and was called Neviodunum from the time of Vespanian (AD 69-79). A duovir iure dicundo, a patronus municipii and a praeceptor Graecus (CIL III, 3925; 10804; 10805) are attested. There are votive inscriptions to Jupiter Optimus Ma…


(124 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] In 58 BC the Helvetii persuaded three smaller Celtic neighbouring tribes to participate in their tribal emigration: Rauraci, Tulingi and L. (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4); only with regard to the first do we know (cf. the future Colonia Augusta [4] Raurica) the original dwelling site east of the bend of the Rhine at Basle. After the battle of Bibracte the L., like the others, were sent back by Caesar to their old homeland that is not described in greater detail. [1] considers the Helvetia…


(366 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λατομίαι/ Latomíai, Λιθοτομίαι; Lithotomíai, Latin Lautumiae). The quarries on the southern slope of the limestone terrace of Epipolae north of Syracusae that were obviously already in operation from the early period of Syracusae and that were later used as a prison. Xenophanes (123 A 33 DK) mentions the fish fossils found in them. The three largest latomiae (from which a total of 2.4 million m3 of rocks were quarried), with walls 25-35 m high, a length of up to 250 m and a width of 40-170 m (in Ael. VH 12,44: 1 stadium long, 2 plethra wide),…


(206 words)

Author(s): Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching)
[German version] (or Lato; ‘woman (?)’). Latin rendition of the Doric form of the name of Leto (Etruscan letun, Lycian lada), with uncertain etymology, goddess of the night (?) of Asia Minor. Daughter of Coeus and Phoebe, mother of Apollo and Diana (Varro, Ling. 7,16). L. with her children was promised a temple in 433 BC and in Rome it was built in 431 BC (CIL I2 p. 252), the triad itself is Greek. A lectisternium (‘feast for the gods’), prescribed in 399 BC by the Sibylline Books (Liv. 5,13,6), was held jointly for L. and Apollo (for the last time i…


(4 words)

see Esna


(182 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] The first toilet facilities connected with sewers in the Graeco-Roman cultural area are to be found in Minoan Crete (sit-down latrines in the palace of Knosos), then not again until the Hellenistic period; in archaic and classical Greece, latrines that consisted of a seat over a transportable vessel were predominant. This comparably primitive principle is also further encountered in Roman culture (for instance in the multi-storey tenement blocks in the large cities), whilst from…


(226 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] In Roman law, armed street robbery, frequently on a level with bellum (‘war’, Pomp. Dig. 50,16,118). The legal sources equate incursus latronum and hostium (‘robber and enemy raid’) as cases of vis maior (‘force majeure’) (Dig. 17,1,26,6; 17,2,52,3; Cod. Iust. 4,65,12; 6,46,6). For private prosecution before the 1st cent. BC, the application of lawsuits based on furtum and/or iniuria is controversial in modern literature. The edict of Lucullus (76 BC) contained a special lawsuit for robbery and theft committed by a gang ( rapina ). The lex Cornelia de sicariis et v…

Latrunculorum ludus

(249 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The game in which it was a matter of defeating all the stones of the opponent by clever placement of one's own, takes its name from Latin latro (‘mercenary’, later also ‘bandit’); the winner was given the title Imperator (cf. SHA Proculus 13,2). The course of the game has not been fully clarified, but from the literary sources (Varro, Ling. 10,22; Ov. Ars am. 3,357f., cf. 2,207; Sen. De tranquillitate animi 14,7; Laus Pisonis 190-208) we have an approximate picture: the latrunculorum ludus was played by two partners on a chess-board-like playing board that norm…


(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)


(1,745 words)

Author(s): Cirule, Brigita | Feldhuns, Abrams
Cirule, Brigita [German version] I. Classical Education from the 13th Century to the Present (CT) The beginnings of Classical education in Latvia (L.) are to be found in the 13th cent. At the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th cent., L. was conquered by the Livonian Order. German nobility ruled in L. until the 16th cent. As a result of the Livonian War (1558-1583), L. fell, in part, to Poland. The city of Riga was founded in 1201, and the Riga cathedral school, the first and for a long time the only edu…


(136 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] [1] Rhetorical term The eulogy, attributed to the epideixis in Latin rhetorical systematics; panegyrics; laudatio funebris. Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck) [German version] [2] History of law History of law: 1. In the criminal procedure the oral or written statement regarding the character and merits of the accused, likewise in political processes (Cic. Cael. 2,5; Cic. Balb. 18). Augustus already intervened against the misused practice of acquiring for oneself laudationes ‘as a precaution’ (Cass. Dio 56,25). A SC of AD 62 (Tac. Ann. 15,20.21) made t…

Laudatio funebris

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] A. General According to Roman linguistic usage, laudatio funebris (LF; Quint. Inst. 3,7,2; Gell. NA 13,20,17; mostly just laudatio: Cic. Mil. 33; Liv. 27,27,13; Tac. Ann. 13,3,1; explanatory laudatio pro rostris: Tac. Ann. 3,76,2 et passim) means the eulogy for the deceased, held in connection with the burial ( funus). At upper class funerals, the funeral procession stopped (probably from the end of the 4th cent. BC) at the forum, where a son or other close relative gave the speech from the rostrum ( pro rostris: Sen. Dial. 6,15,3; Tac. Ann. 3,5,1 et passim), which along …
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