Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Laudatio funebris

(7 words)

see Funeral oration

Laudatio Murdiae

(6 words)

see Laudatio funebris

Laudatio Turiae

(306 words)

Author(s): Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] is the term (since [1]) given to the extensive remains (CIL VI 1527; VI 37053; AE 1951, 2) of a municipal Roman epitaph from the Augustan period (at the latest 9 BC: [2. 42]); it presents the text of the funerary oration for a woman of the Roman upper class who - because of similarities to Val. Max. 6,7,2 - was hypothetically identified with Turia, the wife of Q. Lucretius Vespillo (cos. in 19 BC). The eulogizer, who masters at least the basics of rhetoric [2. 124; 3], praises (c…

La(u)gona

(52 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Name of the River Lahn, first attested in the 6th cent. AD in Venantius Fortunatus c. 7,7,58 (also Logona in manuscript). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s.v. L., RE 12, 999 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterung zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Laura

(112 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (λαύρα/ Laúra, ‘lane’). Originally a Christian monastic settlement of hermits under the leadership of a common superior. Around AD 330, Chariton (Χαρίτων) founded near Pharan, Douka and Souka in Palestine the first laúrai with cells (κελλία; kellía) and caves that were connected by a lane. In the centre of the facilities were the church, the bakery, storerooms as well as the home of the superior. The hermits only gathered for the service with the Eucharist. This type of monastery became definitive for Byzantine Chri…

Laureas

(126 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λαυρέας; Lauréas). Epigrammatist, probably identifiable with Cicero's freedman M. Tullius L., author of five elegant distichs in Latin about a Cymaean mineral spring (FPL 80). The Anthologia Palatina ascribes three poems to him: the funerary epigrams 7,17 (fictitiously to Sappho) and 7,294 (to a fisherman, in the style of Leonidas) which are preceded by the gentilicium Týllios, and the paederastic epigram 12,24, whose authenticity, however, is doubtful (cf. Anth. Pal. 12,25-27 of Statilius Flaccus [1] whose gentilicium Statýllios may have caused attributi…

Laurel

(888 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (δάφνη/ dáphnē, Lat. laurus, from which ‘laurel’), Laurus nobilis L., from the mostly tropical family of the Lauraceae. Through cultivation, the bush (demonstrated by fossils since the Tertiary) developed into an evergreen forest tree in the Mediterranean region. In Homer (Od. 9,183), laurel formed a roof over the cave of the Cyclops. Theophrastus (Hist. pl. 1,9,3) distinguishes the cultivated laurel (ἥμερος/ hḗmeros) in many varieties (1,14,4; cf. the types distinguished by name in Plin. HN 15,127-130) from the wild (ἀγρία/ agría) species, erroneously assume…

Lauriacum

(594 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Legio | Pannonia Settlement and legionary camp in Noricum, modern Enns-Lorch in Upper Austria. The region at the confluence of the rivers Enns and Danube was touched by all of the important communication routes in Noricum. Iron from Noricum was traded through the Enns valley, and salt along the river Traun; the Aist valley led to the Bohemian Moldau region. The existence of an oppidum, postulated (with little justification) from the supposedly Celtic name, could not be verified. The assumption …

Laurium

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Λαύρειον, Λαύριον; Laúreion, Laúrion). [German version] A. General L. refers to the Attic mining district in south-east Attica as a whole as well as to a specific mining complex within that district. As L. can be etymologically linked with λαύρα/ laúra (Hom. Od. 22,128; 22,137) from the Mycenaean ra-u-ra-ta, it seems that from very early on the region owed its name to the mine. The most important mining district of Greek antiquity, L. with its mines, ore-washeries, furnaces, settlements, graves and sanctuaries is a cultural monument of global importance. Se…

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Laurus

(4 words)

see Laurel

Laus

(174 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] [1] Colony (Λᾶος; Lâos). The colony, localized on the hill of San Bartolo di Marcellina, along the river Lao in the bay of Scalea, was founded by survivors from Sybaris after the destruction of the city in 510 BC. Nearby was the heroon of Dracon, a companion of Odysseus (Str. 6,1,1). At the end of the 5th cent. BC L. was conquered by the Lucani. Here the bloody battle between the Italiot League and the Lucani took place in 389 BC. A city with remains of buildings and graves surrounded by a wall is from the 4th cent. BC. No traces of the archaic period. Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography P…

Laus Pisonis

(168 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Panegyricus ( Panegyrics) by an unknown author probably around AD 39/40 [3], to C. Calpurnius [II 13] Piso (Caesoninus) who then in 65 became a figurehead in the conspiracy against the emperor Nero. Therefore an attribution to Calpurnius [III 3] Siculus (last [2. 71-76]) or Lucanus (most recently [1. 139ff.]) cannot be taken into consideration. In 261 carefully constructed hexameters the author engagingly expresses his intention to be received into the circle of the addressee. …

Laus Pompeia

(100 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Transpadanian city south-east of Mediolanum (Milan), between the Lambrus and Addua rivers, modern Lodi Vecchio [1]. Probably of Gallic origin ( Boii, Plin. HN 3,124), named after Cn. Pompeius Strabo ( cos. in 89 BC). Municipium, tribus Pupinia (Ascon. in Cic. Pis. 1). Few archaeological remains; aerial photographs clarify the ancient urban structure and location as an important road junction. Nearby probably a sanctuary of Hercules. Ambrosius installed Bassianus as the first bishop of L.P. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 M. Harari, P. Tozzi, s.v. Lodi Ve…

Lausus

(108 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Helen (Basle)
[German version] Son of the Etruscan king Mezentius on whose side he fought against the Trojans (Verg. Aen. 7,649-654); unlike his father, he is represented in a very positive manner. He is an extremely good-looking, strong young man who risks his life to save his father in the battle against Aeneas ( Aeneas [1]) and loses it in the process. His premature death causes great sorrow among his relatives and with Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 10,789-856). In the tradition of the annals, L. died in battle against the Trojans and Latins (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,65,3-5). Kaufmann, Helen (Basle) Bibliography A. …

Lautulae

(89 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Strategically important narrow pass ( saltus) above Tarracina (in Latium) between the mountain range and a steep headland above the sea (Liv. 7,39,7; 22,15,11). The Romans were defeated there in 315 BC by the Samnites (Liv. 9,23,4; Diod. Sic. 19,72). From 312 onwards the steep via Appia led over it. Trajan had 128 feet of the height - measured from the base of the cliff - chopped off and the road built in the plain along the sea; modern Piscomontano. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 642.

Laverna

(146 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] Roman goddess. An inscription (CIL XI 6708,7) on a clay bowl from the 3rd cent. BC represents the first evidence of her name known today. In literature, L. is considered on the one hand as the protector of thieves, the laverniones (Plaut. Aul. 445; Hor. Epist. 1,16,60) who found a hiding-place in her grove (Paul. Fest. 104 L.), and on the other hand as a goddess of the Underworld (Septimius Serenus fr. 6 Blänsdorf). An altar was dedicated to her on the Aventine near the Porta Lavernalis that was named after her (Varro, …

Lavinia

(300 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Greek Λαῦνα/ Laûna). Name of two female characters who are linked with the Aeneas myth ( Aeneas). [German version] [1] Daughter of Anius Daughter of Anius - the priest king of Delos at the time of the Trojan War (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,59,3) - who marries Aeneas (Ps.-Orig. 9,2,5) and later as a seer accompanies him on his wanderings. L. dies on the site where Lavinium is built (Isid. Orig. 15,1,52). Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Daughter of Latinus and Amata Daughter of Latinus and of Amata who after the death of her brother is the sole heir to the throne (Ve…

Lavinium

(455 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium | Oracles City in Latium ( Latini) on the Numicus, 4 km from the coast, modern Pratica di Mare. In order to create a new home for the Penates of Troy [1], L. was founded by Aeneas [1] according to the Augustan form of the myth and named after his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. L. is mentioned in the first treaty between Rome and Carthage (Pol. 3,22), was the place of exile of Tarquinius Collatinus [2] and the location of the sanctuary of the Latin League of which L. was a member. L. was a municipium and always p…

Lavinius

(30 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] Roman grammarian, probably of the 2nd cent. AD, whose De verbis sordidis (‘On Vulgar Expressions’) is cited appreciatively by Gell. NA 20,11. Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)

Law [1]

(397 words)

Author(s): Neschke, Ada (Lausanne)
[German version] In contrast to its modern meaning, which also includes natural law (Greek ἀνάγκη/ anánkē), ‘law’ (νόμος/ nómos, θεσμός/ thesmós; Latin lex) was the Greek term for the rules of the polis (Heraclitus and the Stoics are exceptions; the special meaning of nómos in music is also omitted here). In political philosophy the term only becomes tangible with the antithesis of law ( nómos: merely human law or belief; without obligation) and nature (φύσις/ phýsis: the normative order of nature) [1]. By contrast, Plato transferred the normative character of nature t…

Law [2]

(4,230 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General The most important foundations of later European conceptions of law were laid in OT Judaic law, in Greek law as practical counterpart to the beginnings of philosophical reflection on justice ( Pre-Socratics; Justice), and above all in Roman law as the defining authority for the development of secular European jurisprudence since the late Middle Ages ( Reception). Law always comprises regulation on the part of a sizeable community for the settlement of conflicts between…

Lawagetas

(138 words)

Author(s): Deger-Jalkotzy, Sigrid (Salzburg)
[German version] In the Linear B texts, the second highest dignitary after the king in the Mycenaean palace state. He had a share in the royal lands ( témenos), was involved in state campaigns, had his own staff ( ra-wa-ke-si-jo) and commanded his own team ( ra-wa-ke-ja). The interpretation of Linear B ra-wa-ke-ta as a combination of laós (‘people’) and ágein (‘to lead’) or laós and hēgeîsthai (‘to lead’) is supported by Doric lagétas (Pind. Ol. 1,89; Pind. Pyth. 4,107) and the Old Phrygian dative lavagtaei so that the role of the lawegetas is mostly interpreted as that of an army commander. Deg…

Law, codification of

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Hengstl, Joachim (Marburg/Lahn) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Codification of law, in the sense of the comprehensive and conclusive regulation of a major and more or less finite subject area, must be discounted for pre- and extra-Roman cultures, regardless of all ancient pronouncements (Egypt: Diod. Sic. 1,95,4f.; Greece: Aristot. Ath. Pol. 2,1273a 35 - 1274b 25) and modern discussions (‘Law of Ḫammurapi’: [11; 13]; Achaemenid empire: [4; 14; 16]) (see the articles in [5]; also [6; 13]). The collection, systematization or uni…

Lawcourt

(459 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] The institution of the law court (LC) has existed from the beginning of state control in antiquity. It is no longer possible to deduce whether and where a phase of arbitration preceded it. In the documents of the Ancient Orient LCs are attested on many occasions [1; 2; 3]. The respective city prince or king was probably also the master of the court although in Mesopotamia there was also local jurisdiction (i.e. within certain groups) [2]. The scribes were suited for work as judg…

Law schools

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Principal considerations Schools of law, in the two senses of the training of future legal practitioners and the adherence to particular legal trains of thought can only exist in cultures that have given rise to a legal profession. In antiquity, this is true only of the Roman world. Only for Rome, therefore, as in the post-antique period for the Byzantine empire and the culture of Islam, can the phenomenon of law schools (LS) be discussed sensibly. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] II. Roman Republic and Principate A properly institutionalized syste…

Layout

(793 words)

Author(s): Maniaci, Marilena (Rome)
[German version] An English term (French mise en page, without satisfactory parallels in other languages) that describes the following in MSS studies: 1. The sequence of activities with which the pages of a book are designed and prepared for inscription through ruling (including holes for marking); 2. The manner in which the text is subsequently distributed by the copyist on the page and provided with all required reading aids ( Punctuation). The following main elements are distinguished in layout (analogously mise en colonnes for rolls) and usually made visible by lining: th…

Lazi

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Λᾶζαι, Λάζοι; Lâzai, Lázoi). People of the Caucasus mountains who migrated into Colchis about 100-75 BC, initially settled on the river Phasis (modern Rioni; Plin. HN 6,12; Ptol. 5,10,5) and later spread widely. About AD 300, they founded the Lazic state in the belief they were the true descendants of the Colchi. Colchis then became known as the Lazica (Λαζική/ Lazikḗ; in Old Georgian sources also Egrisi). In the Byzantine period the Lazi were the cause of battles between imperial and Persian troops because of the important trade routes across the Caucasus. von Bredow, …

Lazica, Lazice

(281 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Pers. 1,1,28 i.a., Agathias 2,18,4, i.a.: Λαζική; Lazikḗ). Term for Colchis in early Byzantine sources after the Kartvelian tribe of the Lazae, who were located in the interior south of the river Phasis in the 1st cent. AD and in the 4th cent. acquired the hegemony over Colchis and the tribes of the Abasci, Apsilae, Misimiani, Scymni and Svani. The capital was Archaeopolis (Procop. Pers. 2,29,18), which is identified with the ruined town near modern Nokalakevi on the Techuri (Glaucus?) in wes…

Lead

(759 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] Metal of low hardness, high specific weight (11.34) and low melting point (327°C); the most important lead-ore to be found in nature is galena (galenite; PbS), due to its silver content of up to 1% of greater economic significance in antiquity, mainly for the extraction of silver. The silver of Laurium, for instance, was extracted by mining and smelting galena. Important deposits outside of Attica were located mainly in Spain, Sardinia and Britain. In antiquity, lead and tin were considered two types of one metal; in Latin, lead was called plumbum nigrum, tin plumbum cand…

Lead poisoning

(406 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Even though the analysis of skeletons has shown that lead played a larger role in the classical period than in prehistoric times, the measured values are lower than expected in view of the considerable rise in lead production between 600 BC and AD 500 and its use in the manufacture of household goods and water pipes [1; 2; 3]. As the symptoms of lead poisoning (LP) are very similar to other diseases, there are hardly any descriptions which can be taken as referring to it unambiguo…

Lead seals

(5 words)

see Toll

Lead tablets

(5 words)

see Defixio

Leaena

(162 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λέαινα; Léaina). [German version] [1] Hetaera of Aristogiton [1], 6th cent. BC Legendary hetaera of Aristogeiton [1]. After the murder of Hipparchus [1], Hippias [1] allegedly raped and killed her (Paus. 1,23,1f.; Plut. Mor. 505E; Ath. 596f; Cic. fr. 8,12 Merguet). In another version, she bit off her tongue while being tortured by Hippias so she would not betray her lover (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,45). A bronze lioness was supposedly erected to commemorate her. The name of the heroine (‘Lioness’) and the mor…

Leagrus

(262 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Λέαγρος; Léagros). [German version] [1] Companion of Odysseus Together with Ergiaeus, a descendent of Diomedes, who robbed the Trojan Palladion together with Odysseus, L. steals the Argivean palladion (Paus. 2,23,5). He later took the statue to Lacedaemon (Sparta), where he places it under Odysseus' protection near the sanctuary of the Leucippides and erects a heroon. (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 48). According to Callimachus, Eumedes, a descendent of Diomedes, brings the Argive palladion into the mountains to keep it safe (Callim. H. 5,37ff.). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] …

Leagrus group

(288 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart)
[German version] Last significant group of Attic black-figured vases, around 520-500 BC, titled after the name of a favourite ( Kalos-inscriptions) on five hydriae ( Hydria). The painters of the Leagrus group (LG) preferred large vessels, the vast surfaces allowing a concise view of their dramatic compositions. Approximately half of the over 400 allocated vases are hydriae or neck amphoras, further types include belly amphoras, kraters, and lekythoi ( Vessel forms). The group originated in close w…

League of cities

(19 words)

see Amphiktyonia; Koinon; States, confederacies of; International treaties; Symmachia; Twelve cities, league of; Federation (CT)

Leandr(i)us

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Λεάνδρ(ι)ος; Leándr(i)os). L. of Miletus, author of Milesiaká in at least 2 books that were repeatedly used by Callimachus [3]. Often, the name Leandr(i)us is considered a corruption and equated to Maeandrius of Miletus (also attested in inscriptions: Syll.3 599 and IPriene 37ff.), the author of the Historíai. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Editions: FGrH 491 and 492 with commentary

Leanitae

(114 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λεανῖται; Leanîtai, Ptol. 6,7,18). People on the north-east coast of Arabia between Gerrha and the Šhaṭṭ al-ʿArab, after whom the Leanitian Bay (Λεανίτης κόλπος) is named. The territory of the L. included the town Malláda (variant Mallába; perhaps Rās at-Tanāqīb or Rās Munīfa), the Chersónēsos promontory (probably Rās al-Arḍ), the port Itamós (probably the modern city of Kuwait) and the Adárou pólis (probably opposite the island of Qurain). The L. (Plin. HN 6,156) on the Leanitian or Aelanitian Gulf are the Liḥyān in north-west Arabia on the Gulf of Eilat. Müller, Wal…

Learchus

(81 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Callimachus, Athenian. L. was at the court of Sitalces in 430 BC when Peloponnesian envoys arrived who were meant to persuade the Thracian king to break with Athens. Through Prince Sadocus, who had been given Attic citizenship shortly before this, L. managed to have them arrested, and they were deported to Athens and executed (Thuc. 2,67). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1778 Traill, PAA, 602725 S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, 1, 1991, 350f.

Leasehold

(919 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia, Egypt Leasehold in the sense of the limited taking over of the use of land used for agricultural or gardening purposes against payment of a rent, was attested in Mesopotamia from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Both institutional households ( Palace; Temple) as well as private individuals could function as lessors. The rent was set either at an absolute value in kind or silver, or as a part of the harvest. The one third leasehold, which meant that the lessor received 1/3 of the harvest and the leaseholder received 2/3, was typical above all for the ea…

Lease, indenture of

(809 words)

Author(s): Osborne, Robin (Oxford)
[German version] The contractually regulated leasing of land used in the agricultural economy was probably widespread in the Greek poleis; the designation ἑκτήμοροι ( hektḗmoroi ) indicates that even in archaic times, farmers were working land which did not belong to them. Leasing was forbidden to the klēroûchoi on Salamis by a people's decree of 510/500 BC (IG I3 1 = Syll.3 13; cf. for Lesbos Thuc. 3,50) - an indication that the leasing of land was entirely commonplace at this time. As well as agriculture, indenture of lease existed in connection with m…

Leather

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Habermann, Wolfgang (Heidelberg)
(βύρσα, δέρμα; býrsa, dérma; Lat. corium, pellis). [German version] A. Overview From earliest times, flayed animal rawhide represented one of the most versatile materials. The actual leather must be distinguished from the rawhide, which was used in antiquity in certain areas due to its particular characteristics, and despite its inconsistency under the effects of permanent humidity, as well as from parchment, dried under tension and processed to achieve the right thickness, since both remain untanned. Pelt…

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Lebanon

(4 words)

see Libanus

Lebedus

(176 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Λέβεδος; Lébedos). A harbour town founded by Ionians in the area settled by Carians (Paus. 7,3,2; formerly Ἄρτις/ Ártis, Str. 14,1,3 Hecat. FGrH 1 F 219; Hdt. 1,142), member of the Delian League, surrendered by Lysimachus in favour of Ephesus (Paus. 1,9,7), refounded in 266 BC by Ptolemy II as Ptolemaïs; but the name L. was soon revived again. In the 2nd cent. BC, seat of the Artists of Dionysus ( technítai ), who were originally located in Teos. If - on the basis of Hor.…

Lebena

(231 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine (Λεβήνα; Lebḗna). City on the southern coast of Crete (Str. 10,4,12; Plin. HN 4,59) near the modern village of Lendas. Older form of the name: Λεβήν/ Lebḗn. There is evidence that it was already settled in the Minoan period. Initially important as the harbour for Gortyn, L. became a religious centre from the 4th cent. BC onwards because of its sanctuary of Asclepius founded at a healing spring (the visible remains of the temple as well as the stoa and nympha…

Lebes

(280 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
(ὁ λέβης; ho lébēs). [German version] [1] Large cauldron Large cauldron, a bronze vessel used from the Mycenaean period to heat water and cook meals, in Homer aside from the phiale and trivet a popular prize ( Prizes (games)) (Hom. Il. 9,122; 23,267; 613; 762), also made of precious metal. The addition ápyros (ἄπυρος) describes either new lébētes or those used as kraters. Bronze kettles decorated with protomes from the 7th-6th cents. BC that can be removed from the stand go back to Oriental models (Griffin cauldron). Aside from these splendid cauldro…

Lebinthos

(60 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Λέβινθος; Lébinthos). Island of the Sporades east of Amorgos, modern Lévitha, length 7 km, 15 km2 in size, several bays, surrounded by a series of small islands, uninhabited today. Evidence: Str. 10,5,12; Plin. HN 4,70; Mela 2,111; Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21; Ov. Met. 8,222, Ars am. 2,81. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 4, 155f.
▲   Back to top   ▲