Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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M.

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Latin personal name Marcus and (already in antiquity with an apostrophe: M') Manius. As a numerical sign, M stands for the number 1,000, but it was not derived from mille (Latin word for thousand), rather it came about by reforming the Greek letter Φ ( phi), which was not adopted into the Latin alphabet (see D as a numerical sign). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Ma

(730 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster)
(Greek Μᾶ/ , Lat. Ma-Bellona). One of a number of powerful Anatolian deities, whose cult was concentrated on the great temples (cf. Anaitis in Zela, Cybele/ Mḗtēr in Pessinus, Men Pharnaku in Cabira). The basic meaning of the word [1], widespread as a feminine proper name, is ‘mother’. [German version] A. Temple and cult in Anatolia The original centre of the cult was Comana [1]/Hierapolis in Cappadocian Cataonia. The local temple was already significant at the time of Suppiluliuma I ( c. 1355-1320 BC) ( Ḫattusa B. 3). A second ‘temple state’ arose in Comana [2]/Hierocaesa…

Maat

(142 words)

Author(s): Kahl, Jochem (Münster)
[German version] (mʿ.t) is an intellectual concept that was a central component of religion and society in ancient Egypt. The basic principles of maat are order, justice, truth and communal action. Maat is given by the creator god to the king who makes maat rule on earth but also gives it back to the creator god. As a principle that creates order, maat contributes to the course of the world. Presented as a deity, Maat as the daughter of the sun god keeps the course of the sun in motion and thus also guarantees the order of the cosmos. In addition maat has a significant role in the judgem…

Mabartha

(38 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] (Aramaic maʿbartā, ‘ford, passage’; Greek Μαβάρθα/ Mabártha; Latin Mamortha). Name of a place or landscape in Palestine between Ebal and Garizim, near Neapolis (Talmud: jTaan 4,68c,74-d,1; Jos. BI 4,449; Plin. HN 5,69). Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] [1] People in eastern Arabia According to Ptol. 6,7,14, a people in eastern Arabia in the hinterland of the bays around modern Rāʾs Musandam on the road from Hormuz. Also mentioned in Str. 13,765f., Plin. HN 6,98.152 and Mela 3,79; according to them, the M. settled opposite the Carmanian foothills. According to Arr. Ind., Μακέτα/ Makéta (Rāʾs Musandam) was an important trading centre for the spice trade ( Spices) on the Persian Gulf. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Nomadic tribe or tribal league ( Macae). A large nomadic tribe o…

Macareae

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακαρέαι; Makaréai). Town west of Megale Polis, belonging to its region, in the plain to the left of the Alpheius, in ruins at the time of Pausanias (8,3,3; 27,4; 36,9); remains not known. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Macar(eus)

(348 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάκαρ/ Mákar, Μακαρεύς/ Makareús; Latin Macareus). Mythical king of Lesbos who resettled this island after it was depopulated through the Deucalian flood ( Deucalion) and thus gave it the name of Macaria; Lesbos is already called ‘seat of Macar’ by Homer (Hom. Il. 24,544; H. Hom. 1,37). In the last-mentioned reference, the information ‘son of Aeolus’ is added; this patronymicon was probably a reflection of the Aeolian settlement of Lesbos. The most detailed depiction of M. is provided by Diod. Sic. 5,81f.: according to this, M. was a grandson of Ze…

Macaria

(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…

Macarius

(751 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
(Μακάριος; Makários). I. Greek [German version] [1] Spartiate, in 426/5 BC in the council of war of Eurylochus Spartiate, in 426/5 BC he took part in the council of war of Eurylochus [2] in the campaign of the armed forces of Spartan allies against Naupactus and the Acarnanians and fell in battle at Olpae (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and his Use of Military Surprise, 1993, 27ff. [German version] [2] M. of Alexandria Monk, 4th cent. AD According to the Historia monachorum in Aegypto [1. § 23], a certain M. (4th …

Macaronic Poetry

(1,780 words)

Author(s): Sacré, Dirk
[English version] Macaronic poetry (MP) is sometimes used in a figurative sense when words, groups of words or sentences of another language are inserted unaltered into a poetic text, be it systematically or alternately, as e. g. in the Plautinian comedy Poenulus, in which sentences in the Punic language appear (Poen. 930-949), or in the medieval Carmina Burana. Nevertheless, the term MP ought to be used exclusively in its original sense, which is that of a poem, or part of a poem or drama ( e.g., the famous macaronic scene in Molière’s Le malade imaginaire), in which two languages are i…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Maccabean Revolt

(9 words)

see Judas [1]; Jewish Wars; Maccabees

Maccabees

(372 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακκαβαῖοι; Makkabaîoi). Jewish priestly family from Modeïn north-west of Jerusalem (named after its historically most important representative Judas [1] Maccabaeus); also called Hasmonaeans. From 167 BC onwards the M. led the Jewish uprising against the religious persecution of Antiochus [6] IV and his Hellenizing Jewish party liners (so-called Maccabean Revolt). After the recapture of Jerusalem and the rededication of the Temple (III.) for the traditional Jewish cult in 165 BC, …

Maccala

(79 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μάκκαλα; Mákkala). According to Ptol. 6,7,41, a city in Arabia Felix. We should probably reject the obvious identification with the modern harbour town of Mukallā/Yemen on the south coast, as it is inconsistent with the sequence of place names in Ptolemy. It corresponds rather with Manqal in the hinterland of Mélan óros (Μέλαν ὅρος, Arabic as-Saudāʾ). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 417 (map).

Maceda

(92 words)

Author(s): Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna)
[German version] (Hebrew Maqqēdā; LXX, Euseb. On. 126,22 Μακηδά/ Makēdá; Jos. Ant. Iud. 5,61 Μακχίδα/ Makchída; Egyptian mḳt). Town in the southern part of the western Judaean hill country, known because of a cave (Jos. Ant. Iud. 10,10ff.) and under Josiah belonging to the district of Laḫiš (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,41); according to Euseb. On., 8 milia passuum east of Eleutheropolis (= Bēt Ǧibrīn), therefore possibly to be identified with Bēt Maqdum 11 km south-east of Bēt Ǧibrīn. Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna) Bibliography K. Elliger, Josua in Juda, in: Palästina Jahrbuch 30, 1934, 55-58.

Macedo

(166 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Indebted Roman under Vespasian, 1st cent. AD According to the Digesta (14,6,1), under Vespasian a M. who was being pressured by his creditors is said to have killed his father so that he could settle his debts. A senatus consultum was therefore enacted stating that there was no option - even after the death of the father - for a creditor to bring a suit against sons who are under the authority of their father and have taken up a loan [1.; 2. 443f.]. Naming a senatus consultum after a person affected instead of after the magistrate putting in an application nevert…

Macedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μακεδών; Makedṓn). Tribal hero and eponym of the Macedonians. There are several genealogies: [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Thyia Son of Zeus and Thyia (the daughter of Deucalion), brother of Magnes [1] (Hes. fr. 7). His wife is Oreithyia, his sons are, among others, Europus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐρωπός), Pierus, Amathus: also eponyms for Macedonian cities (schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Aeolus Son of Aeolus, the son of Hellen and brother of Dorus and Xuthus; thus M. links his people with the Hellenic genealogies (S…

Macedonia, Macedones

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg) | Jung, Reinhard (Berlin) | von Mangoldt, Hans (Tübingen)
(Μακεδονία/ Makedonía, Μακεδόνες/ Makedónes, Lat. Macedonia, Macedones). [German version] I. Geography, economy, ethnogenesis The core territory of the ancient Macedonian state was in the plains immediately to the east and north of the Olympus mountain range. Beginning with the 7th cent. BC, the Macedones conquered from their capital Aegae [1] step by step Pieria (south of the lower Haliacmon), Bottiaea (between Haliacmon and Axius), Almopia, Mygdonia (located in lowlands of lake Bolbe), Crestonia (to the no…

Macedonian

(732 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] A reliable verdict on the character and origins of Macedonian is hardly possible (μακεδονίζειν/ makedonízein ‘to speak Macedonian’, μακεδονιστί/ makedonistí ‘in Macedonian’) as it only survives in small fragments. In spite of a few recently found inscriptions possibly composed in Macedonian (among them a defixio from Pella, 4th cent. BC), for now we depend entirely on the vocabulary left to us by Greek lexicographers and historians including around 140 glosses which were designated as Macedonian or used a…

Macedonian dynasty

(392 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty AD 867-1056, founded by Basilius [5] I, who hailed from the province ( théma) of Macedonia, after the murder of Michael III ( Amorian dynasty). Basilius was succeeded in 886 by his second son Leo [9] VI (until 912), who was in turn first succeeded by his brother Alexander [20] (until 913), then his son Constantinus [9] VII (913-959; b. 905). Initially, various regents reigned in place of the young Constantine, then, from 920 onwards, his father-in-law Romanus I; only from Janua…

Macedoniani

(296 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Initially the term for the Arian factions ( Arianism) gathered in the mid 4th cent. around bishop Macedonius of Constantinople († before AD 364). Later the name is applied to the pneumatomáchoi , i.e. all those, also non-Arians, who deny the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The eponymous Macedonius - initially in constant competition with the Nicene bishop Paulus who had been exiled on several occasions - became bishop of Constantinople in 342. After Paulus' final expulsion (in 351), sole bishop; …

Macedonian Renaissance

(695 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice)
[German version] A. Characteristics In Byzantine art history, Macedonian Renaissance (MR) usually refers to the classicist revival that took place mostly during the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056). It takes its name from its founder emperor Basilius [5] I (867-886), who was born in the thema of Macedonia. During that time Byzantium experienced its greatest expansion since Justinian. However, indications for a cultural Renaissance (including art) can be found as early as under Theophilus (829-842) (cf. the philosopher Leon [10]) and especially under Michael III (842-867; Kaîsar

Macedonian Wars

(1,491 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
The name given to the three wars between Rome and the Macedonian kings Philippus V (215-205 and 200-197 BC) and Perseus (171-168). [German version] A. The First Macedonian War The origin of the First Macedonian War lies in the competing interests of the two powers on the Adriatic-Illyrian coast. In 229/8, Rome conducted a successful war against the Illyrian kingdom of queen Teuta in order to suppress piracy, and established friendly relations with cities, tribes and dynasts in this region. In 219, a conflict developed betwe…

Macedonicus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 27] Metellus M. ( cos. 143 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Macedon/Macedonia

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Ilievski, Petar Hr. | Grozdanova, Vera Bitrakova | Mitevski, Vitomir
Ilievski, Petar Hr. [German version] I. Language (CT) The Balkan peninsula is an area with many different languages. Prior to the arrival of the Slavs, Greek culture exerted centuries of powerful influence throughout this region in various ways and in diverse forms. Traces of Classical Greek culture are evident everywhere in the Balkans: in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia (M.), four large ancient theatres have been found. The Slavs, who integrated peacefully into the half-Hellenized, half-Rom…

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Macellum

(652 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology, definition and typology The term macellum is first attested in Plautus; we can assume that it is probably the Latinized version of the Greek word μάκελλος/ mákellos (‘market’) which, however, was not used to refer to this institution before the Roman conquest of Greece and only rarely afterwards. A macellum was a public complex of buildings, which, like a courtyard, was enclosed by walls. Along to the walls, in most cases behind a portico, were little shops or allotments for vendors. The courtyard was frequently qu…

Macer

(171 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Licinius M., C. see Licinius [I 30] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Licinius M. Calvus, C. see Licinius [I 31] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Correspondent of the younger Pliny, end of the 1st cent. AD Correspondent of the younger Plinius (Plin. Ep. 6,24). Probably identical to P. Calpurnius [II 11]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] [- - -]cius Macer Cos. suff. in AD 100 Cos. suff. in AD 100 [1. 45, 94]; identification with other senators who bear the name M. during this period is not possible: M., curator viae Appiae in 95; M., Imperial…

Maceria, Maceries

(5 words)

see Masonry

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Machaereus

(4 words)

see Neoptolemus

Machaerion

(115 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαχαιρίων; Machairíōn). Name of the Spartan (or Mantinaean) who is said to have killed Epaminondas in the battle of Mantinaea (in 362 BC) (Paus. 8,11,5; the Athenian Gryllus [2], who is also mentioned there, is ruled out as the perpetrator as he had, according to Ephorus, already fallen in battle: FGrH 70 F 85). According to Diodorus (15,86), Epaminondas was killed ‘with a spear’ ( dórati) in the middle of the battle; Plutarch (Agesilaus 35), basing his views on the epigrammatist Dioscorides, however, mentions an Anticrates whose descendants call themselves Machairíon…

Machaerus

(270 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαχαιροῦς/ Machairoûs, Hebrew Mekawar, Mekabar). Fortress situated east of the Dead Sea in southern Peraea, on the border with the Nabataean kingdom ( Nabataei) which Alexander [16] Iannaeus (103-76 BC) had built (modern Ruǧm al-Mišnaqa). According to Plin. HN 5,16,72, M. was, apart from Jerusalem, the strongest fortress in Judea. M. was completely destroyed during the Roman campaign in 63 BC by Pompeius (Str. 16,763) and later by the proconsul of Syria Gabinius [I 2] (57-55 BC) (Jos…

Machairophoroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(μαχαιροφόροι; machairophóroi). [German version] [1] In the Ptolemaic period, part of the royal guard and especially used for rural policing purposes and for the protection of high civil officials (later also for the kōmárchēs or the práktōr laographías); the members of the guard did not necessarily have to be Egyptians (cf. e.g. OGIS 737). In the Imperial period the term is often simply used as a synonym for ‘soldier(s)’; there were machairophóroi in the service of the imperial household and as bodyguards for officials who had to handle taxes and other monies. To …

Machanidas

(131 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μαχανίδας/ Machanídas, cf. Syll.3 551). As the guardian of Pelops, dictator in Sparta from 211(?) to 207 BC (Liv. 27,29,9: tyrannus Lacedaemoniorum; [1. 408; 2. 65]); active opponent of the Achaeans who were allied with Philippus V in the First Macedonian War; conquered Tegea in 209 and attacked Argus as well as Elis in 208 during the Olympic Peace, but was defeated in the battle of Mantinaea (late summer 207; Pol. 11,11-18; Plut. Philopoemen 10; [2. 66]). M. was killed on the edge of the battlefield…

Machaon

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…

Machares

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαχάρης; Machárēs). Son of Mithridates VI; M. went over to the Roman side as early as 70 BC as amicus et socius (Plut. Lucullus 24). He sent Lucullus ( Licinius [I 26]) auxiliary troops and food at the siege of Sinope. In 65 he attempted to flee Mithridates from Panticapaeum to the Chersonesus [3], burnt the ships behind him in the harbour and committed suicide in view of the hopelessness of his situation (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 37f.; App. Mith. 102) or was murdered (Cass. Dio 36,50). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Rei…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Machimoi

(109 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] The term máchimoi (μάχιμοι, ‘the pugnacious’; troops fit for action) was used by Greek authors primarily for non-Greek armies. Herodotus differentiates the machimoi from the retinue of the Persian army (Hdt. 7,186,1) and refers with this word to the class of professional warriors in ancient Egypt (2,164f.). In the Ptolemaic army, machimoi were the native soldiers who performed the duties of auxiliary, guard and police units until c. the end of the 3rd cent. BC, afterwards however, at the latest from the battle of Raphia in 217 BC, also constitute…

Machlyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Libyan nomads who according to Herodotus (4,178; 180) lived west of the Lotophagoi and east of the Ausees (on the Little Syrte?) and according to Pliny (HN 5,28; 7,15) in the neighbouring area of the Nasamones on the Great Syrte. Pliny and his source Calliphanes - both incidentally see in the M. androgynoi (i.e. people of dual sexuality) - were probably wrong. Sources: Hdt. 4,178; 180 (Μάχλυες; Máchlyes); Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 103q (Ἰαλχλευεῖς/ Ialchleueîs the MSS tradition SMA; Μαχλυεῖς/ Machlyeîs corr. J. Vossius); Plin. HN 5,28 ( Machroae); 7,15 ( Machlyae); P…

Machon

(186 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάχων; Máchōn) from Sicyon or Corinth; lived at the time of Apollodorus [5] of Carystus (3rd cent. BC) [1. test. 1] and was active as a writer in Alexandria, also the place of his death. M. wrote Χρεῖαι ( Chreîai, ‘Anecdotes’) in iambic trimeter (of which a total of about 470 are extant in Ath. Deipnosophistaí XIII) about hetaerae, parasites and poets (Diphilus, Euripides, Philoxenus), as well as important political figures (Ptolemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes); the material, in which sex plays a certain role, comes from anecdotal prose w…

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Mackerel

(265 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σκόμβρος/ skómbros, σκομβρίς/ skombrís, Latin scomber, κολίας/ kolías with unexplained etymology according to [1], Latin colias), the predatory marine fish, Scomber scombrus L. of the sub-species of the Scombroidea, that is often confused with the tuna because of its kinship with it. The mackerel, which according to Plin. HN 9,49 has a sulphury yellow colour in the water ( sulpureus color), comes, according to Aristot. Hist. an. 7(8),13,599a 1-3, in large schools to spawn on the sea coasts. Its catch (details in Opp. Hal. 3,576-595) was p…

Macna

(26 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάκνα/ Mákna, Ptol. 6,7,27) was situated at the site of the modern oasis of Maqnā on the Gulf of ʿAqaba. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)

Macoraba

(76 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μακοράβα; Makorába). According to Ptol. 6,7,32, city in north-western Arabia Felix, already at an early time equated with Mecca. Based on the southern Semitic root mkrb (‘temple’, ‘sanctuary’ but also ‘altar’). In pre-Islamic Mecca there was a temple to the moon god Hubal, who was worshipped by the tribes in the neighbourhood. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 185, n. 380.

Macra

(109 words)

Author(s): Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa)
[German version] River in the region of the Liguri Apuani near Luna [3], border between the Augustan regions of Liguria and Etruria, modern Magra. Its upper reach was possibly called Audena. A river port lay towards the mouth (Ptol. 3,1,3; Liv. 39,32,2; 40,41,3; 41,19,1; Luc. 2,426f.; Plin. HN 3,48-50). Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) Bibliography G. Forni (ed.), Fontes Ligurum et Liguriae antiquae, 1976, s.v. M. S. Pesavento Mattioli, Gli scali portuali di Luni nel contesto della rotta da Roma ad Arles, in: Centro Studi Lunensi, Quaderni 10-12, 1985-1987, 626-628 R. Ricci, M.-Audena, i…

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …

Macri campi

(105 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Area in the Apennines 7 km west of Mutina in the Val di Montirone near modern Magreta (cf. the ancient place name!). A cattle market as early as pre-Roman times. The Roman garrison (from 176: Liv. 41,18,5ff.) developed into an important trading centre (Varro, Rust. 2, pr. 6; Columella 7,2,3; Str. 5,1,11: Μακροὶ Κάμποι/ Makroì Kámpoi) that was abandoned in the mid 1st cent. AD [1]. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Gabba, Mercati e fiere nell'Italia romana in: Studi Classici e Orientali 25, 1975, 141-163. Nissen 2, 265 A. Sabatini, I Campi Macri, in: Rivista st…

Macrina

(101 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born around AD 327, sister of Basilius [1] the Great, Petrus of Sebaste and Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Daughter of the rhetor Basilius and Emmelia, granddaughter of M. the Elder ( c. 270- c. 340). After the death of her bridegroom, M. lived an ascetic life on a family estate on the Iris in Pontus; died around 380. Her brother Gregorius wrote a biography of M. ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. Opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) and had her answer his theological questions as a teacher in his work De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Macrinius

(384 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] M. M. Avitus Catonius Vindex Cos. suff. c. AD 175 Son of M. [4]. Began his career as an equestrian with the quattuor militiae, receiving the dona militaria from Marcus [2] Aurelius in AD 169. Procurator of Dacia Malvensis. Entered the Senate, legate of Moesia superior, perhaps as praetorian; suffect consul probably in 175; consular governor of Moesia inferior before the year 177. Died at the age of 42, probably during his governorship of Moesia inferior (CIL VI 1449 = ILS 1107). PIR2 M 22. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. M. Decianus Governor of Numidia…

Macrinum

(60 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Way station on the Adriatic coastal road in Picenum between Castrum Novum and Ostia Aterni (Tab. Peut. 6,1). The place name is probably corrupt, in connection with the mouth of the river called Matrínos by Str. 5,4,2 and Ptol. 3,1,17. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 431 N. Alfieri, I fiumi adriatici, in: Athenaeum 37, 1949, 137f.

Macrinus

(520 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar M. Opellius Severus M. Augustus. Roman Emperor AD 217-218. Born in 164 (Cass. Dio 78,40,3) or 166 (Chron. pasch. I p. 498 D.) in Caesarea Mauretania, of humble origins (Cass. Dio 78,11,1; SHA Opilius Macrinus (= Macr.) 2,1). M. initially worked as a lawyer, then as procurator of the praef. praet. Fulvius [II 10] Plautianus, whose deposal he survived unharmed thanks to the intervention of L. Fabius [II 6] Cilo (Cass. Dio 78,11,2). Septimius Severus appointed him praefectus vehiculorum per Flaminiam (Cass. Dio 78,11,3), and in c. 208 keeper of the impe…

Macris

(53 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάκρις; Mákris). Daughter of Aristaeus [1], wet-nurse of Dionysus on Euboea. After she was banished by Hera she lived on Corcyra, which was named M. after her, in a grotto which was later the place where Iason and Medea got married (Apoll. Rhod. 4,540; 990; 1130ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Macro

(5 words)

see Sutorius Macro

Macrobii

(277 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Μακρόβιοι; Makróbioi, Lat. Macrobii). [German version] [1] According to Herodotus 'the long-lived Ethiopians' According to Herodotus, Cambyses had also the intention of campaigning against the ‘long-living Ethiopians’ (μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, Hdt. 3,17,1), who lived on the ‘southern sea’ (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ, Hdt. l.c.; cf. also Hdt. 3,21-23). Since this notíēi thalássēi (νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ) of Herodotus' is lost in mythical darkness, it is useless to speculate on the locales of the ‘long-living Ethiopians’, who are occasionally incorrectly separated from…

Macrobius

(1,341 words)

Author(s): Flamant, Jaques (Venelles) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[1] M., Theodosius Writer of the Saturnalia, c. 400 [German version] A. Identification There are three Latin works extant under the name Ambrosius Theodosius M., vir clarissimus and illustris (sometimes listed in reverse order): 7 bks. of Saturnalia( Sat.), 2 bks. of Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis ( Somn.) and excerpts from De differentiis et societatibus Graeci Latinique verbi. Otherwise the author is unknown. However, the persons that appear in Sat. (Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, Q. Aurelius Symmachus and several Albini) are well-known Roman aristocrats from …

Macrocephali

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μακροκέφαλοι; Makroképhaloi, ‘the large-headed’). Apparently a tribe west of Colchis (Hes. fr. 153). But the name probably comes from the mythical or fictitious reports on the peoples on the Pontos Euxeinos (cf. Str. 7,3,6 as an example of his mythical criticism), even though geographers continued to use it (Mela 1,19; Plin. HN 6,2). According to Scyl. 37 they are identical with the Macrones. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Macron

(394 words)

Author(s): Lezzi-Hafter, Adrienne (Kilchberg)
[German version] (Μάκρων; Mákrōn). Attic red-figure vase painter, active around 490-470 BC. With the probably slightly older potter Hieron he founded one of the four great potteries of the 5th cent. ( Codrus Painter). The overwhelming proportion of the at least 600 extant vases are ky…

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Mactaris

(339 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Neo-Punic Mktrm). City in the Roman province of Africa Byzacena ( Africa [3]), about 150 km south-west of Carthage, modern Maktar. M. was the centre of the Carthaginian district ( rṣt Tškt (‘territories of Tuschkat’)) seized by Massinissa at the end of the 50s of the 2nd cent. BC [1. 432]. Testimonials to Punic culture - for example over 200 neo-Punic inscrip…

Mactorium

(134 words)

Author(s): Salsano, Deborah (Catania)
[German version] (Μακτώριον; Maktṓrion). Sicilian city north of Gela to which citizens of Gela fled when driven out at an uncertain time in a civil war against large estate owners. An ancestor of Gelon, Telines, succeeded in persuading them to return (Hdt. 7,153; cf. also Philistus, FGrH 556 F 3)…

Macynia

(144 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μακυνία, Μακύνεια; Makynía, Makýneia, ethnicon Μακυνιεύς; Makynieús). Coastal town in west Locris north-west of Antirrhium in the region of Mamakou, possibly on the Paleokastro, at a short distance from Taphiassus (modern Klokova; Str. 10,2,4; 6; 21; Plin. HN 4,6; Steph. Byz.…

Madaba mosaic

(5 words)

see Medaba

Madates

(125 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαδάτης, Μαδέτης; Madátēs, Madétēs). Sheik of the Uxians ( Uxii) who roamed the mountain range between Susiane and Persis and controlled the road to Persepolis that leads over a pass. They were not subjects of the Persians, and supposedly even used to collect a road toll from them. Nevertheless, M. held a kind of office (in Curtius: praefectus) in the name of the Achaemenid imperial government. When M. refused in 330 BC to allow Alexander [4] to march through, he was defeated by him but allowed to continue in his official post. M. had …

Madaurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Punic Wars Numidian city of the later province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), situated c. 25 km south of Tagaste near modern Mdaourouch: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Μάδουρος; Mádouros); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia B 44 ( Madauros). According to Apul. Apol. 24, M. initially belonged to the kingdom of Syphax, then to that of Massinissa. In the Flavian period (AD 69-96), M. was the place of residence (

Maduateni

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ethnicon for the place name Madytus, often erroneously regarded as a small Thracian tribe, mentioned only in Liv. 38,40,7 in connection with the attack by Thracian tribes on Cn. Manlius Vulso in 188 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Madura

(4 words)

see Mathura

Madytus

(138 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάδυτος; Mádytos). City on the Thracian Chersonesus between Elaeus and Sestus, founded by Lesbos (6th cent. BC; Scyl. 67, Ps.-Scymn. 709; Str. 7, fr. 55). North of M., Xerxes had the pontoon bridge built over the Hellespontus (Hdt. 7,33; 9,120). In 465 BC, M. was a member of the Delian League (Plut. Cimon 4); a few tributes are recorded for 443/440 BC (ATL 1,336f.). In the Peloponnesian War, M. was used as a harbour by the Athenian fleet (Xen. Hell. 1,1,3). Conquered in 200 …

Maeander

(201 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Μαίανδρος; Maíandros). [German version] [1] God of the homonymous river God of the homonymous river M. [2] that flows into the sea in the Bay of Miletus; son of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 339); furthermore, father of Samia and Cyane, who bears Miletus the twins Byblis and Caunus [1] (Ov. Met. 9,450ff.). The sons of M. are, among others, Calamus [1] (Nonnus, Dion. 11,464ff.) and Marsyas [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] River in south-western Asia Minor Longest river in south-western Asia Minor (modern Menderes), has its origin near Celaenae and after …

Maeatae

(119 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Μαιάται; Maiátai, Lat. Meatae). Tribal group in southern Scotland, late 2nd or early 3rd cent. AD, south of the Caledonii, north of the Antonine Wall. The place names Dumyat and Myot Hill in the vicinity of Stirling could be derived from the M. M. may mean ‘larger people’ or ‘inhabitants of the larger part’. The M. broke their treaty…

Maecenas

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Μαικήνας; Maikḗnas). Etruscan family name (cf. mehnate, mehnati and similar); the family is recorded in inscriptions for Perusia (modern Perugia) and was probably originally settled there. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Friend and counsellor of Octavian (Augustus)…

Maecianus

(65 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Avidius M., son of the usurper Avidius [1] Cassius, was iuridicus Alexandriae in AD 175; killed towards the end of the revolt by the soldiers; his mother was a Maecia ( Maecius). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21987, 192 PIR2 A 1406 R. Syme, Avidius Cassius - His Rank, Age and Quality, in: Bo…

Maecilius

(151 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Roman-Italian family name, etymologically presumably from the praenomen Maius [1. 185]; light defacement of the name in the MSS handed down, in Livy (2,58,2): L. Mecilius as member of the first people's tribune council in 471 BC (presumably subsequently added to the list). [German version] [1] M., Sp. People's tribune in 416 BC According to Livy (4,48), M. proposed an agricultural law as tr. pl. IV in 416 BC, which made provisions for distributing the land conquered by Rome and occupied by the nobility ‘man for man’ ( viritim), but it failed by a veto of six people's tribunes, won over by the patricians to their side. The account shows itself to be a reverse projection of the problems of the Gracchian period by the force of law implicitly accorded to the plebiscita ( Hortensius [4]), which was, however, first actually granted beginning in 287. Müller, Christian (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze.

Maecius

(755 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Italian family name [1. 185; 469], with an uncertain connection to the Roman tribus Maecia. M. is encountered first among Rome's Latin neighbours (Liv. 10,41,5), from the 2nd cent. BC on, also in inscriptions from Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) and Lucania (ILS 5665).…

Maedi

(270 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι; Maîdoi, Maídoi, M(a)edi). Thracian tribal league on the middle reaches of the Strymon, between Kresna and Rupel (modern Macedonia). According to the earliest witness (Thuc. 2,98), neighbours of the Sinti and Paeoni. In 429 BC, Sitalces moved through thei…

Maelius

(344 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Rare Roman family name, attested in historical traditions only in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. [German version] [1] M., Q. People's tribune 320 BC, gave up his office Jointly responsible for the Caudine treaty, M. gave up his office as tr. pl. 320 BC and was turned over to the Samnites (Liv. 9,8,13-10,2; Cic. Off. 3,109). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Aspired to the kingly rule of Rome 440/39 BC According to Liv. 4,12,6-16,1 and Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12,1-4 M., a rich plebeian, gained a broad following in a famine 440/39 BC by buying grain and selling…

Maelo

(98 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μέλωνος/ Mélōnos; Μαίλος/ Maílos). King of the Sugambri with a Celtic name [1. 374], who is supposed to have started the war against the Romans according to Str. 7,1,4; this probably refers to the defeat of M. Lollius [II 1] in 17/6 BC. After the forced relocation of the Sugambri to the left side of the Rhine (8 BC) he appears to have sought refuge with Augustus (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32). The son of his brother Baetorix, Deidorix, was carried along in the triumphal parade of Germanicus [2]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 2.

M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē, Lat. Menace), city in southern Spain. The name is probably derived from μαίνη/ maínē or Lat. maena, a salted fish (Avien. 426-431 confused M. with Malaca [1. 80]; Scymn. 147; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ., where M. is called Celtic). According to Str. 3,4,2 M. was a colony of Phocaea, which no longer existed at that time. Schulten [2. 35-38] assumed it was located west of the mouth of the Vélez on the hill Cerro del Peñón. This hypothes…

Maenads

(945 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μαινάς/ Mainás, pl. Μαινάδες/ Mainádes; Lat. Maenas, pl. Maenades). In modern research both the mythical companions (and antagonists) of Dionysus and their historical admirers are mostly called Maenads. But in Greek cult terminology the women who honour the god with a dance ritual every three years are especially called Bákchai (singular Bákchē, Lat. Bacchae), while the substantivized adjective

Maenalum

(242 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαίναλον, Μαίναλος, Μαινάλιον; Maínalon, Maínalos, Mainálion). Limestone mountain range about 30 km long between the eastern Arcadian plain and the Helisson valley, up to 1981 m high, with extended fir woods; in modern times without a standardized name; modern Tripolis is at its southern foot. Sacred to Pan, who was called ‘Maenalian’ after it; in poets often in the genitive, hence it also means ‘Arcadian’. The mountains also appear as the hunting grounds of Atalante and Artemis. M. i…

Maenianum

(99 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] Gallery above the tabernae at the Forum Romanum in Rome, named after the Roman censor M. Maenius [I 3], from where spectators could follow the gladiatorial fights. The principle, attested here for the first time, of building the edge construction of a forum in two stories and constructing it as a bleacher, resp. viewing area on the upper floor, became widespread in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC in Roman architecture ( Forum); thereafter, the tiers in the amphitheatre were known as maeniana ( Theatre). Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography W.-H. Gross, s.v. M., KlP 3, 864.

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Maeon

(237 words)

Author(s): Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg)
(Μαίων; Maíōn, Latin Maeon). [German version] [1] Son of a man named Haemon Son of a man named Haemon, leader of the 50 Thebans lying in wait for Tydeus as he returns from a legation. Only M. is spared by the latter, who kills all the others. In gratitude, M. later buries him when he falls outside of Thebes (Hom. Il. 4,390-398; 14,114; Apollod. 3,67; Paus. 9,18,2; Stat. Theb. 2,690-703; 3,40-113). In Statius, M., who is sent back by Tydeus as a witness to the catastrophe, blames Eteocles [1] for the disaster and takes his own life. Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Child of Creon's s…

Maeonia

(372 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία; Maionía, Latin Maeonia). [German version] [1] Area in Lydia Area in Lydia around the Gygaia Limne, at the foot of Tmolus (Hom. Il. 3,401, cf. 2,864ff.; 10,431); primarily understood as the oldest country or tribal name (Μηίονες/ Mēíones, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. Sic. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. HN 5,110). Originally, M. comprised the Catacecaumene [1] (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) with the border region of Phrygia (Plin. HN 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), the valley of the Cogamus river (modern Alaşehir Çayı), the area around Sardes (Pl…

Maeonius

(44 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Murdered the Palmyrene prince Odaenathus and his eldest son Herod in Emesa in AD 266/7 (SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,5; 17,1; SHA Gall. 13,1; different in Sync. I p. 717; Zon. 12,24 D.; Zos. 1,39,2). PIR2 M 71. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Maeotis

(144 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶτις; Maiôtis, Latin lacus or palus Maeotis). The Asov Sea north-east of the Krim with an area of c. 38,000 km2, with an outlet to the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos in the south through the Cimmerian Bosporus [2], in the north-east confluence of the Tanais in the M. The M. is exceptionally shallow (average depth 9 m) so that it easily freezes over. In spring, south-west winds drive the water of the Pontos Euxeinos into the M. Many rivers flow into the M., which has an abundance of fish (Str. 7,4,6).…

Maepha

(161 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,41 (Μαίφα μητρόπολις; Maípha mētrópolis), city in the interior of Arabia Felix. Probably corresponds, with regard to the phonetic form, to epigraphically attested MYFT, once the capital of Ḥaḍramaut, the ruins of which are now called Naqab al-Ḥaǧar. M. owed its importance - the city had solid fortifications - to its strategic position on the trading route from the harbour of Cane to Inner Arabia. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, M. Höfner, Beitr. zur histor. Geogr. des vorislam. Südarabien (AAWM, Geiste…

Maephath

(52 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,10 (Μαιφάθ κώμη; Maipháth kṓmē), town in the region of the Ἀδραμίται/ Adramítai (coastal dwellers of Ḥaḍramaut) near the coast north-east of the harbour of Cane. Was probably situated in Wādı̄ Maifa and should not be confused with Maipha situated in Wādı̄ Maifaa. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)

Maera

(282 words)

Author(s): Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Μαῖρα; Maîra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus According to the Nóstoi (EpGF fr. 5), M. is the daughter of Proetus, the son of Thersander (the son of Sisyphus), and dies a virgin. In Hom. Od. 11,326 only her name is mentioned, together with Clymene and Eriphyle. In Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 170 with Jacoby ad loc.), who names Antea as her mother (according to Hom. Il. 6,160, wife of Proetus of Argos), she is a companion of Artemis. She is shot dead by her when she gives birth to Locrus [2] by Zeus. Waldner, Katharina (Berlin) [German version] [2] Arcadian heroine Arcadian heroine, daughter …

Maesades

(58 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαισάδης; Maisádēs). Odrysian prince who at the end of the 4th cent. BC, under the supreme rule of Seuthes I, reigned over the regions of the Melandites, Thynians and Tranipsians, the so-called Thracian delta. After his death his son Seuthes II was brought up by Medocus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,5,1). Odrysae Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)

Maesaimanes

(133 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαισαιμανεῖς/ Maisaimaneîs, var. Μναισαιμανεῖς/ Mnaisaimaneîs, Ptol. 6,7,21). A people settling in north-western Arabia directly west of the Zamēs mountain range in the neighbouring area of the Thamydenians; definitely identifiable with the Batmizomaneis (var. Banizomeneis, Diod. Sic. 3,44,2) mentioned in Agatharchides (De mari Erythraeo 92) in the same region and with the Marsimani - named in the annals of Sargon II of Assyria from 715 BC after the Tamudi - who lived in the desert, owed tribute to no king and b…

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Maesis

(47 words)

Author(s): Banholzer, Iris (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαῖσις; Maîsis). Son of Hyraeus, grandson of Aegeus. With his brothers Laeas [1] and Europas, he establishes in Sparta heroes' sanctuaries for his ancestors Aegeus (who is said to have been born there), Oeolycus, Cadmus and Amphilochus (Paus. 3,15,8). Aegeidae Banholzer, Iris (Tübingen)

Maesius

(158 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. M. Aquillius Fabius Titianus Consul, unknown date Consul in an unknown year; possibly identical with M. [3]. PIR2 M 73. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. M. Picatianus Cos. suff. in AD 165 or 166 Senator; perhaps from Brixia where he was honoured as a patron (CIL V 4338 = InscrIt X 5, 126). Praetorian legate of the legio III Augusta in AD 163-165 [1. 155f.]; suffect consul in 165 or 166. PIR2 M 78. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Thomasson, Fasti Africani, 1996. [German version] [3] C. M. Titianus Cos. ord. in AD 245 Cos. ord. in AD 245 together with Cae…

Maesolia

(73 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισωλία; Maisōlía, Ptol. 7,1,15; Masalia, Peripl. m.r. 62); the land of the Maesolians (Ptol. 7,1,79; 93) on the east coast of India. For the name and the position see Maesolus. From an unnamed harbour there, the ships departed, according to Ptolemy, for Chryse Chersonesus (Malacca). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 B. Chatterjee, The Point of Departure for Ships Bound for ‘Suvarnabhumi’, in: Journ. of Ancient Indian History 11, 1977-1978, 49-52.

Maesolus

(94 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισῶλος; Maisôlos). Indian river, has its source in the Orudia mountain range (unclear according to [1]) and flows south to the Gulf of the Ganges (Ptol. 7,1,15; 37). Either modern Godavari or rather Kistna (Krishna) at whose delta the city of Masulipatam still lies today. Dey [2] also equates the name of the river M. with Old Indian Mahāósāla, a place of pilgrimage on the Godavari. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 O. Stein, s.v. Ὀρούδια, RE 18, 1526f. 2 N. L. Dey, The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, 1927.

Maeson

(233 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (Μαίσων; Maísōn). In the catalogue of masks of Iulius [IV 17] Pollux (4,148; 150), M. is listed among the slave characters of the New Comedy as a man with a red fringe of hair around his bald head [1]. Athenaeus (14,659a) specifies the mask type as a local cook (in contrast to Tettix who comes from a foreign country) and names as his source Aristophanes of Byzantium (fr. 363 Slater). The latter derives M. from an actor of the same name from Megara (it has been debated since antiqui…
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