Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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M.

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Latin personal name Marcus and (already in antiquity with an apostrophe: M') Manius. As a numerical sign, M stands for the number 1,000, but it was not derived from mille (Latin word for thousand), rather it came about by reforming the Greek letter Φ ( phi), which was not adopted into the Latin alphabet (see D as a numerical sign). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Ma

(730 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster)
(Greek Μᾶ/ , Lat. Ma-Bellona). One of a number of powerful Anatolian deities, whose cult was concentrated on the great temples (cf. Anaitis in Zela, Cybele/ Mḗtēr in Pessinus, Men Pharnaku in Cabira). The basic meaning of the word [1], widespread as a feminine proper name, is ‘mother’. [German version] A. Temple and cult in Anatolia The original centre of the cult was Comana [1]/Hierapolis in Cappadocian Cataonia. The local temple was already significant at the time of Suppiluliuma I ( c. 1355-1320 BC) ( Ḫattusa B. 3). A second ‘temple state’ arose in Comana [2]/Hierocaesa…

Maat

(142 words)

Author(s): Kahl, Jochem (Münster)

Mabartha

(38 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)

Macae

(297 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Μάκαι; Mákai). [German version] …

Macareae

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακαρέαι; Makaréai). Town west of Megale Polis, belonging to its region, in the plain to the left of the Alpheius, in ruins at the time of Pausanias (8,3,3; 27,4; 36,9); remains not known. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Macar(eus)

(348 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάκαρ/ Mákar, Μακαρεύς/ Makareús; Latin Macareus). Mythical king of Lesbos who resettled this island after it was depopulated through the Deucalian flood ( Deucalion) and thus gave it the name of Macaria; Lesbos is already called ‘seat of Macar’ by Homer (Hom. Il. 24,544; H. Hom. 1,37). In the last-mentioned reference, the information ‘son of Aeolus’ is added; this patronymicon was probably a reflection of the Aeolian settlement of Lesbos. The most d…

Macaria

(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…

Macarius

(751 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
(Μακάριος; Makários). I. Greek [German version] [1] Spartiate, in 426/5 BC in the council of war of Eurylochus Spartiate, in 426/5 BC he took part in the council of war of Eurylochus [2] in the campaign of the armed forces of Spartan allies against Naupactus and the Acarnanians and fell in battle at Olpae (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and his Use of Military Surprise, 1993, 27ff. [German version] [2] M. of Alexandria Monk, 4th cent. AD According to the Historia monachorum in Aegypto [1. § 23], a certain M. (4th …

Macaronic Poetry

(1,780 words)

Author(s): Sacré, Dirk
[English version] Macaronic poetry (MP) is sometimes used in a figurative sense when words, groups of words or sentences of another language are inserted unaltered into a poetic text, be it systematically or alternately, as e. g. in the Plautinian comedy Poenulus, in which sentences in the Punic language appear (Poen. 930-949), or in the medieval Carmina Burana. Nevertheless, the term MP ought to be used …

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele…

Maccabean Revolt

(9 words)

see Judas [1]; Jewish Wars; Maccabees

Maccabees

(372 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακκαβαῖοι; Makkabaîoi). Jewish priestly family from Modeïn north-west of Jerusalem (named after its historically most important representative Judas [1] Maccabaeus); also called Hasmonaeans. From 167 BC onwards the M. led the Jewish uprising against the religious persecution of Antiochus [6] IV and his Hellenizing Jewish party liners (so-called Maccabean Revolt). After the recapture of Jerusalem and the rededication of the Temple (III.) for the traditional Jewish cult in 165 BC, …

Maceda

(92 words)

Author(s): Kutsch, Ernst (Vienna)
[German version] (Hebrew Maqqēdā; LXX, Euseb. On. 126,22 Μακηδά/ Makēdá; Jos. Ant. Iud. 5,61 Μακχίδα/ Makchída; Egyptian mḳt). Town in the southern part of the western Judaean hill country, known because of a cave (Jos. Ant. Iud. 10,10ff.) and under Josiah belonging to the district of Laḫiš (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,41); according to Euseb. On., 8 milia passuum east of Eleutheropolis (= Bēt Ǧibrīn), therefore possibly to be identified…

Macedo

(166 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Indebted Roman under Vespasian, 1st cent. AD According to the Digesta (14,6,1), under Vespasian a M. who was being pressured by his creditors is said to have killed his father so that he could settle his debts. A

Macedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μακεδών; Makedṓn). Tribal hero and eponym of the Macedonians. There are several genealogies: [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Thyia Son of Zeus and Thyia (the daughter of Deucalion), brother of Magnes [1] (Hes. fr. 7). His wife is Oreithyia, his sons are, among others, Europus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐρωπός), Pierus, Amathus: also eponyms for Macedonian cities (schol. Hom. Il. 14,226).…

Macedonia, Macedones

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg) | Jung, Reinhard (Berlin) | von Mangoldt, Hans (Tübingen)
(Μακεδονία/ Makedonía, Μακεδόνες/ Makedónes, Lat. Macedonia, Macedones). [German version] I. Geography, economy, ethnogenesis The core territory of the ancient Macedonian state was in the plains immediately to the east and north of the Olympus mountain range. Beginning with the 7th cent. BC, the Macedones conquered from their capital Aegae [1] step by step Pieria (south of the lower Haliacmon), Bottiaea (between Haliacmon and Axius), Almopia, Mygdonia (located in lowlands of lake Bolbe), Crestonia (to the no…

Macedonian

(732 words)

Author(s): Haebler, Claus (Münster)
[German version] A reliable verdict on the character and origins of Macedonian is hardly possible (μακεδονίζειν/ makedonízein ‘to speak Macedonian’, μακεδονιστί/ makedonistí ‘in Macedonian’) as it only survives in small fragments. In spite of a few recently found inscriptions possibly composed in Macedonian (among them a defixio from Pella, 4th cent. BC), for now we depend entirely on the vocabulary left to us by Greek lexicographers and historians including around 140 glosses which were designated as Macedonian or used a…

Macedonian dynasty

(392 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine dynasty AD 867-1056, founded by Basilius [5] I, who hailed from the province ( théma) of Macedonia, after the murder of Michael III ( Amorian dynasty). Basilius was succeeded in 886 by his second son Leo [9] VI (until 912), who was in turn first succeeded by his brother Alexander [20] (until 913), then his son Constantinus [9] VII (913-959; b. 905). Initially, various regents reigned in place of the young Constantine, then, from 920 onwards, his father-in-law Romanus I; only from Janua…

Macedoniani

(296 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)

Macedonian Renaissance

(695 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice)
[German version] A. Characteristics In Byzantine art history, Macedonian Renaissance (MR) usually refers to the classicist revival that took place mostly during the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056). It takes its name from its founder emperor Basilius [5] I (867-886), who was born in the thema of Macedonia. During that time Byzantium experienced its greatest expansion since Justinian. However, indications for a cultural Renaissance (including art) can be found as early as under Theophilus (829-842) (cf. the philosopher Leon [10]) and especially under Michael III (842-867; Kaîsar

Macedonian Wars

(1,491 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
The name given to the three wars between Rome and the Macedonian kings Philippus V (215-205 and 200-197 BC) and Perseus (171-168). [German version] A. The First Macedonian War The origin of the First Macedonian War lies in the competing interests of the two powers on the Adriatic-Illyrian coast. In 229/8, Rome conducted a successful war against the Illyrian kingdom of queen Teuta in order to suppress piracy, and established friendly relations with cities, tribes and dynasts in this region. In 219, a conflict …

Macedonicus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 27] Metellus M. ( cos. 143 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. …

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Macellum

(652 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
[German version] A. Terminology, definition and typology The term macellum is first attested in Plautus; we can assume that it is probably the Latinized version of the Greek word μάκελλος/ mákellos (‘market’) which, however, was not used to refer to this institution before the Roman conquest of Greece and only rarely afterwards. A macellum was a public complex of buildings, which, like a courtyard, was enclosed by walls. Along…

Macer

(171 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Licinius M., C. see Licinius [I 30] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Licinius M. Calvus, C. see Licinius [I 31] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Correspondent of the younger Pliny, end of the 1st cent. AD Correspondent of the younger Plinius (Plin. Ep. 6,24). Probably identical to P. Calpurnius [II 11]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] [- - -]cius Macer Cos. suff. in AD 100 Cos. suff. in AD 100 [1. 45, 94]; identification with other senators who bear the name M. during this period is not possible: M., curator viae Appiae in 95; M., Imperial…

Maceria, Maceries

(5 words)

see Masonry

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Machaereus

(4 words)

see Neoptolemus

Machaerion

(115 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαχαιρίων; Machairíōn). Name of the Spartan (or Mantinaean) who is said to have killed Epaminondas in the battle of Mantinaea (in 362 BC) (Paus. 8,11,5; the Athenian Gryllus [2], who is also mentioned there, is ruled out as the perpetrator as he had, according to Ephorus, already fallen in battle: FGrH 70 F 85). According to Diodorus (15,86), Epaminondas was killed ‘with a spear’ ( dórati) in the middle of the battle; Plutarch (Agesilaus 35), basing his views on the epigrammatist Dioscorides, however, mentions an Anticrates whose descendants call themselves Machairíon…

Machaerus

(270 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαχαιροῦς/ Machairoûs, Hebrew Mekawar, Mekabar). Fortress situated east of the Dead Sea in southern Peraea, on the border with the Nabataean kingdom ( Nabataei) which Alexander [16] Iannaeus (103-76 BC) had built (modern Ruǧm al-Mišnaqa). According to Plin. HN 5,16,72, M. was, apart from Jerusalem, the strongest fortress in Judea. M. was completely destroyed during the Roman campaign in 63 BC by Pompeius (Str. 16,763) and later by the proconsul of Syria Gabinius [I 2] (57-55 BC) (Jos…

Machairophoroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(μαχαιροφόροι; machairophóroi). [German version] [1] In the Ptolemaic period, part of the royal guard and especially used for rural policing purposes and for the protection of high civil officials (later also for the kōmárchēs or the práktōr laographías); the members of the guard did not necessarily have to be Egyptians (cf. e.g. OGIS 737). In the Imperial period the term is often simply used as a synonym for ‘soldier(s)’; there were machairophóroi in the service of the imperial household and as bodyguards for officials who had to handle taxes and other monies. To …

Machanidas

(131 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μαχανίδας/ Machanídas, cf. Syll.3 551). As the guardian of Pelops, dictator in Sparta from 211(?) to 207 BC (Liv. 27,29,9: tyrannus Lacedaemoniorum; [1. 408; 2. 65]); active opponent of the Achaeans who were allied with Philippus V in the First Macedonian War; conquered Tegea in 209 and attacked Argus as well as Elis in 208 during the Olympic Peace, but was defeated in the battle of Mantinaea (late summer 207; Pol. 11,11-18; Plut. Philopoemen 10; [2. 66]). M. was killed on the edge of the battlefield…

Machaon

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…

Machares

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαχάρης; Machárēs). Son of Mithridates VI; M. went over to the Roman side as early as 70 BC as amicus et socius (Plut. Lucullus 24). He sent Lucullus ( Licinius [I 26]) auxiliary troops and food at the siege of Sinope. In 65 he attempted to flee Mithridates from Panticapaeum to the Chersonesus [3], burnt the ships behind him in the harbour and committed suicide in view of the hopelessness of his situation (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 37f.; App. Mith. 102) or was murdered (Cass. Dio 36,50). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Rei…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Machimoi

(109 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle)
[German version] The term máchimoi (μάχιμοι, ‘the pugnacious’; troops fit for action) was used by Greek authors primarily for non-Greek armies. Herodotus differentiates the machimoi from the retinue of the Persian army (Hdt. 7,186,1) and refers with this word to the class of professional warriors in ancient Egypt (2,164f.). In the Ptolemaic army, machimoi were the native soldiers who performed the duties of auxiliary, guard and police units until c. the end of the 3rd cent. BC, afterwards however, at the latest from the battle of Raphia in 217 BC, also constitute…

Machlyes

(128 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Libyan nomads who according to Herodotus (4,178; 180) lived west of the Lotophagoi and east of the Ausees (on the Little Syrte?) and according to Pliny (HN 5,28; 7,15) in the neighbouring area of the Nasamones on the Great Syrte. Pliny and his source Calliphanes - both incidentally see in the M. androgynoi (i.e. people of dual sexuality) - were probably wrong. Sources: Hdt. 4,178; 180 (Μάχλυες; Máchlyes); Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 103q (Ἰαλχλευεῖς/ Ialchleueîs the MSS tradition SMA; Μαχλυεῖς/ Machlyeîs corr. J. Vossius); Plin. HN 5,28 ( Machroae); 7,15 ( Machlyae); P…

Machon

(186 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάχων; Máchōn) from Sicyon or Corinth; lived at the time of Apollodorus [5] of Carystus (3rd cent. BC) [1. test. 1] and was active as a writer in Alexandria, also the place of his death. M. wrote Χρεῖαι ( Chreîai, ‘Anecdotes’) in iambic trimeter (of which a total of about 470 are extant in Ath. Deipnosophistaí XIII) about hetaerae, parasites and poets (Diphilus, Euripides, Philoxenus), as well as important political figures (Ptolemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes); the material, in which sex plays a certain role, comes from anecdotal prose w…

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Mackerel

(265 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (σκόμβρος/ skómbros, σκομβρίς/ skombrís, Latin scomber, κολίας/ kolías with unexplained etymology according to [1], Latin colias), the predatory marine fish, Scomber scombrus L. of the sub-species of the Scombroidea, that is often confused with the tuna because of its kinship with it. The mackerel, which according to Plin. HN 9,49 has a sulphury yellow colour in the water ( sulpureus color), comes, according to Aristot. Hist. an. 7(8),13,599a 1-3, in large schools to spawn on the sea coasts. Its catch (details in Opp. Hal. 3,576-595) was p…

Macna

(26 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάκνα/ Mákna, Ptol. 6,7,27) was situated at the site of the modern oasis of Maqnā on the Gulf of ʿAqaba. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)

Macoraba

(76 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μακοράβα; Makorába). According to Ptol. 6,7,32, city in north-western Arabia Felix, already at an early time equated with Mecca. Based on the southern Semitic root mkrb (‘temple’, ‘sanctuary’ but also ‘altar’). In pre-Islamic Mecca there was a temple to the moon god Hubal, who was worshipped by the tribes in the neighbourhood. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 185, n. 380.

Macra

(109 words)

Author(s): Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa)
[German version] River in the region of the Liguri Apuani near Luna [3], border between the Augustan regions of Liguria and Etruria, modern Magra. Its upper reach was possibly called Audena. A river port lay towards the mouth (Ptol. 3,1,3; Liv. 39,32,2; 40,41,3; 41,19,1; Luc. 2,426f.; Plin. HN 3,48-50). Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) Bibliography G. Forni (ed.), Fontes Ligurum et Liguriae antiquae, 1976, s.v. M. S. Pesavento Mattioli, Gli scali portuali di Luni nel contesto della rotta da Roma ad Arles, in: Centro Studi Lunensi, Quaderni 10-12, 1985-1987, 626-628 R. Ricci, M.-Audena, i…

Macrianus

(455 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, 4th cent. AD Rex of the Alamanni in the Main-Neckar region, where he surrendered to lulianus [11] in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15-18). In 370, Valentinianus [1] mobilized a Burgundian army (Amm. Marc. 28,5,8-13) against M., who had by then become more powerful. However, M. avoided capture in 372 by fleeing. Rex Fraomarius, appointed by the emperor to replace M., could not sustain his position for long (Amm. Marc. 29,4,2-7; 30,7,11). In 374, the emperor entered into a foedus (Amm. Marc. 30,3,3-7) …

Macri campi

(105 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Area in the Apennines 7 km west of Mutina in the Val di Montirone near modern Magreta (cf. the ancient place name!). A cattle market as early as pre-Roman times. The Roman garrison (from 176: Liv. 41,18,5ff.) developed into an important trading centre (Varro, Rust. 2, pr. 6; Columella 7,2,3; Str. 5,1,11: Μακροὶ Κάμποι/ Makroì Kámpoi) that was abandoned in the mid 1st cent. AD [1]. Sartori, Antonio (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Gabba, Mercati e fiere nell'Italia romana in: Studi Classici e Orientali 25, 1975, 141-163. Nissen 2, 265 A. Sabatini, I Campi Macri, in: Rivista st…

Macrina

(101 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born around AD 327, sister of Basilius [1] the Great, Petrus of Sebaste and Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Daughter of the rhetor Basilius and Emmelia, granddaughter of M. the Elder ( c. 270- c. 340). After the death of her bridegroom, M. lived an ascetic life on a family estate on the Iris in Pontus; died around 380. Her brother Gregorius wrote a biography of M. ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. Opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) and had her answer his theological questions as a teacher in his work De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
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