Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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R.

(70 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation for Romanus (SPQR), for Roma and in connection with publicus for res ( res publica ); rare abbreviation for the cognomen Rufus. On imperial coins R often stands for restitutor, the 'restorer' (of the empire, the unity of the empire etc.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974, 321-323  H. Cohen, J. C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978, 71-74.

Rabbath-Ammon

(318 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Hasmonaeans | Pompeius ( Rabbath bnē Ammōn, LXX Ῥαββά/ Rhabbá; Pol. Ῥαβατάμανα/ Rhabatámana, Assyrian bīt ammāna; Philadelphia since the mid 3rd cent. BC; modern Ammān). [German version] I. Through the Persian Period Capital city of the Ammonites (Ammon [2]); the oldest traces of settlement come from the Neolithic Age (7th-6th millennium BC). The earliest important remains with rich tombs on the citadel date from the Middle Bronze Age (1st half of the 2…

Rabbi

(641 words)

Rabbinical literature

(1,703 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] I. Definition Collective term for the literature of rabbinical Judaism (AD 70 to 1040), t

Rabbit

(4 words)

see Hare

Rabbulā, Rabulas

(234 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Bishop of Edessa [2] (AD 412-435 or 436). Information on his life comes from a Syrian panegyric as well as occasional references found in other sources (e. g. the Edessa Chronicle). Born to wealthy parents in Qinnasrīn (Chalkis), R. was brought up according to Greek custom; he was introduced to Christianity by the bishops Eusebius of Qinnasrīn and Acacius [3] of Beroea (Aleppo). With the help of the latter's influence, he was elected bishop of Edessa in the year 412. He offered guidelines for the lives of clerics and monks in his Kanónes ('Rules'; preserved in Syrian). I…

Rabirius

(614 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Latin nomen gentile. [German version] [1] R., C. Took part in the murder of the tribune of the people Appuleius [I 11] in 100 BC, accused of this crime in 63 and defended by Cicero Wealthy Roman equestrian with estates in Apulia and Campania. In 100 BC, he took part in the murder of the tribune of the people L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, for which he was probably later rewarded with a seat in the Senate; in 89, he was on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILLRP 515). Attacked on numerous occasions by the populares as a supporter of the Senate, in 63 he was accused of the murder of A…

Rabocentus

(39 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Prince of the rebellious Bessi, who was assassinated in 57 BC by the Macedonian governor L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus at the command of king Cotys [I 5] of Thrace (Cic. Pis. 84). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)

Rabuleius

(234 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Roman gens of the early Republic, to which R. [1] - if historical - and R. [2] may be attributed; however, the tradition in Dion. Hal. (R. [1]: tr. pl., R. [2]: patrician) is contradictory. If one considers R. [1] unhistorical as does [1. 29] it becomes likely to view the gens Rabuleia as patrician, but a plebeian origin cannot be excluded. [German version] [1] People's tribune in 486 BC, sought to mediate in the dispute over the agrarian law According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8…

Rachgoun

(90 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A small island at the mouth of the Wādī Tafna (Latin Siga) in western Algeria, R. is the site of the extensive necropolis of the Mauretanian Punic city of Siga and, on the southern side, of a small Punic merchant settlement dating to the 7th-5th century BC; according to the finds, there were particularly close links with Phoenician factories on the southern coast of Spain. …

Racilius

(85 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Radagaisus

(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Ῥοδογάϊσος/ Rhodogáïsos). Goth king, crossed the Danube in AD 405 and invaded Italy (Zos. 5,26,3; Oros. 7,37,4-17; [1. 206-217; 2. vol. 3,1, 200 f.]). He divided his army into three groups (Chron. min. 1,652); one may have reached Gaul [2. vol. 3,2, 22 f.]. While besieging Florence he was repelled by Stilicho (Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, ch. 50), surrounded at Fiesole, taken prisoner and…

Radamistus

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ῥοδομίστος/ Rhodomístos). The son of the Iberian king Pharasmanes [1] I; in AD 51, with the collusion of his father and the acquiescence of the Romans, he toppled his uncle, brother-in-law and step-father Mithridates [20] from the Armenian throne. Despite governing cruelly, R. was unable to withs…

Radish

(213 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥαφανίς/ rhaphanís, ῥάφανος/ rháphanos, etymologically related to ῥάπυς/ rhápys, ῥάφυς/ rháphys, 'beet'; Lat. rhaphanus, radix), the species of crucifer probably bred in Asia Minor from the wild, jointed charlock ( Raphanus raphanistrum L., Rhaphanus sativus L., with the edible, thickened storage root; cultivated in Egypt from the 2nd millennium. The Greeks (from Aristoph. Plut. 544 and other comic writers, cited i…

Radius

(212 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
(literally 'rod'). [German version] [1] Weaving device (κερκίς/ kerkís). In weaving (Textiles, production of), the device with which the weft thread was introduced to the opened 'compartment', and hence by which the threads of the chain were separated, was probably originally an elongated rod around which the w…

Raeda

(5 words)

see Wagon, Chariot

Raetic

(142 words)

Author(s): Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln)
[German version] is the name given to the language of a group of some 100 short inscriptions, almost all on small horn or bronze votive objects, written in variants of the northern Etruscan alphabet, and found on both sides of the Adige and Isarco rivers between Brenner and Verona  [1]. The list of personal names is augmented by names found in Latin inscriptions, in an area including the surroundings of Brescia and the Oglio valley. The theory that the language is closely related to Etruscan - as …

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Raga

(4 words)

see Rhagae

Ragonius

(190 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. R. Quintianus Consul ord. in AD 289 Cos. ord. in AD 289, presumably only for the first two months of the year [1. 275 ff.]. He was a descendant of L. Ragonius Venustus, cos. ord. in 240 and of R. [2] and R. [3]. PIR2 R 15. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Probleme der Konsularfasten, in: ZPE 118, 1997, 275-280. [German version] [2] L. R. Urinatius Larcius Quintianus Senator, probably proconsul of Sardinia under Marcus Aurelius Senator, probably from Opitergium, cf. [1. 265 ff., 293]. His career took him via the juridicate in Apulia to the…

Ragusa

(458 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Ragusium, Greek Ῥαούσιον/ Rhaoúsion, Slavic Dubrovnik; regarding the name cf. [1]), city on the Dalmatian coast. The beginnings of the trading city that was to become so famous a rival of Venice on the Adriatic Sea were hazy already for the historians of R. at the time of Humanism so that they arrived at different legends of its origin reminiscent of the type of ancient ae…

Rainbow cup

(181 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)

Ramesses

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of eleven pharaohs, Egyptian R-msj-sw (“Re (the sun god) is the one who gave him birth”), vocalized Rīamašeša in Babylonian, rendered in Greek by Ῥαμέσσης and the like. [German version] [1] R. I Dynasty founder (Throne name Mn-pḥtj-R). The founder of the 19th dynasty ( c. 1292-1290 BC) came from a non-royal family (from the eastern Delta?) and was a high-ranking officer before he was named as vizier and heir to the throne by his predecessor Haremhab. His son Sethos I was probably immediately designated as his successor. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] R. II Egy…

Rammius

(49 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. R. Martialis. Equestrian of whose offices only the praefectura vigilum between AD 111 and 113 and the praefectura Aegypti between 117 und 119 are attested. In Egypt he had to deal with the aftermath of the Jewish rebellion. PIR2 R 20. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Ramnes

(275 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ramnes, Titi(ens)es and Luceres (as in Liv. 1,36,2, but in 1,13,8 and Cic. Rep. 2,20,36: R(h)amnenses) are the  Etruscan (Varro Ling. 5,55; see also [1. 218, 581]) names of the three tribus established by Romulus [1] (according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,14,2 and Gell. NA 15,27: organised by families) which were each divided into 10 curiae and thus formed the primary structuring of the Roman people and army (30×10 equestrians, 30×100 infantry: Varro Ling. 5,89; Liv. 1,13,8). Ennius's derivation of the term R. from Romulus (and Tities/Titienses from Titus Tatius, his Sabine co-king) (in Varro Ling. 5,55,  cf. Liv. 1,13,8) is a fiction. Equally speculative is the identification of the R. with the Latin, the Tities with the Sabine and the Luceres with the Etruscan populations of Rome (cf. [2. 39-45]). After the term tribus came to be used for local districts of Rome (Liv. 1,43,13;  Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,14 f.) and of the a…

Ranius

(207 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Ranunculus

(157 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (βατράχιον/ batráchion = σέλινον ἄγριον/ sélinon ágrion in Dioscorides), buttercup, crowfoot. The widespread family of the Ranunculaceae has more than 100 species in Greece and Italy. The Greek and Latin names for the plant seem to be derived from' frog' (βάτραχος/ bátrachos, Lat. rana), owing to its preference for damp locations. Dioscorides (2,175 Wellmann = 2,206 Berendes) and Pliny (HN 25,172 f.) describe the appearance of four species; it is impossible today to determine exactly which. The leaves and stems in poultice…

Rape

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Elke (Berlin)
[German version] I. Concept In modern usage, rape denotes violent, forcible sexual intercourse which is declined by the person forced. A corresponding ancient term does not exist. The Greek and Roman terminology for describing the offence of rape only partially indicat…

Raphael

(177 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Literally 'God heals', Gr. Ραφαήλ/ Rhaphaḗl; cf. the personal name in 1 Chr 26:7). In Jewish angelology, one of the four (or seven) archangels who have a special role in the celestial hierarchy for their praise and glorification of God before His throne (1 Enoch 9,1; 20,3; 40,9). True to his name, R. is the angel of healing (cf. Hebr. rāfā, 'to …

Rapidum

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)

Rapina

(218 words)

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Raptus

(143 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] In Roman law abduction (as a rule of a woman) for sexual purposes (also with the intent of marriage). In the Republican period an iniuria (tort in civil law), later probably prosecuted as a crimen vis (crime of violence). Reorganised by Constantine the Great (Cod. Theod. 9,24,1) with the death penalty for all participants, the c…

Raqqa

(187 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin)
[German version] ( al-Raqqa/ ar-Raqqa). Modern Syrian provincial capital at the confluence of the Balīḫ and the Euphrates. For its history up to the 4th cent., see Nicephorium. Since 638/9, the town has been Arab. After al-Rāfiqa was built west of R. by the caliph al-Manṣūr (772) there was expansion on a grand scale by Hārūn al-Rašīd and a temporary (796-808) reloc…

Rarus

(56 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Otherwise unknown author of an aphoristic epigram (the Anthologia Planudea attributes it to Palladas): an unfaithful friend is more to be feared than an open enemy (Anth. Pal. 10,121). The motif is quite common (see, e.g., Anth. Pal. 10,36; 95; 11,390; as early even as Thgn. 91 f.). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)

Ras Šamra

(5 words)

Rat

(364 words)

Author(s): Thüry, Günther E. (Salzburg)
[German version] Graeco-Roman Antiquity did not distinguish between the mouse and the rat. However, bone finds, excavations, etc. since 1975 , in particular, have shown the presence of rats in the ancient Mediterranean area and elsewhere in Europe outside the Mediterranean area. According to the current state of research, the following can be regarded as proven: a) The black rat ( Rattus rattus L.

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltau…

Ratiaria

(123 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman colony in Moesia superior, later the capital of Dacia Ripensis (Daci, with map), modern Arčar (oblast Vidin, Bulgaria). The settlement lay on the right bank of the Danube on the important road from Singidunum to Oescus and further eastwards. R. was the camp of the 

Ratiocinatio

(4 words)

see Status

Rationalis

(5 words)

see rationibus, a

Rationality

(2,612 words)

Author(s): Renaud, François (Moncton, NB)
[German version] A. Definition The ancient concept of rationality cannot be tied to a single Greek or Latin term. First of all it must be distinguished from modern notions. The modern mind - both in general and in the sciences - is moulded by technological, economic, and administrative structures, and tends to equate rationality with 'goal-oriented rationality' (a rationality which focuses on means to reach a purpose). Given M. Weber's sociological distinction between goal-oriented, value-oriented, …

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Rations

(515 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the Ancient Near Eastern oikos or palace economy, the majority or (large) parts of the population were integrated into the institutional households of temples and/or palaces as direct dependents (the extent varied according to region and period). They were provided with the rations of natural produce (grain, oil, wool) guaranteeing them the level of subsistence necessary for their reproduction. In Mesopotamia, these rations of produce were in part supplemented, and in certain periods replaced, by the allocation of areas of land ( c. 6 ha.) as…

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Rauraci, Raurici

(319 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic tribe, neighbours along with the Tulingi and Latobici of the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4). The R. migrated westwards from their homeland in 58 BC with the Helvetii. As Munatius [I 4] Plancus founded the colony of Augusta [4] Raurica (modern Augst (CH)) in the territory of the R. in 44 BC, it must be assumed that they lived between the Upper Rhine and the southern foothills of the Jura. The remark in Caes. B Gall. 1,1,4, according to which the Germani and Helvetii shared a…

Raven

(590 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The common raven, Corvus corax (κόραξ/ kórax, apparently derived from korós, 'black'; the juvenile, κορακῖνος/ korakînos, e.g., in Aristoph. Equ. 1053; Lat. corvus), originally distributed throughout Europe and Egypt (Ael. NA 2,48; smaller in Egypt, according to Aristot. Hist. an. 9(8),28, 606a 23 f.) and at least as large as a buzzard, is the largest of the European songbirds. Its characteristic call is 'kronk' or 'prrruk', but its vocalizations are otherwise highly varied (64 sounds, according to Ful…

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…

Ravenna Annals

(297 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] ( Chronica Italica in [1], better Chronicon Constantinopolitanum (cf. [7; 8. 41-43]). Originally simply an informative chronicle in Latin, based on the calendar structure of the Consularia Constantinopolitana [1. 197-245], written or expanded in Constantinople in the 4th century AD for a ruling class, eager for knowledge, on the periphery of the court  (for the images contained cf. [2; 3; 4]). An early phase extending as far as AD 387 is transmitted in the Fasti Vindobonenses posteriores (Cod. Vindobonensis no. 3416, 15th century) and Fasti Vindobonenses priores

Ravenna Papyri

(115 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Collection, now dispersed but at the time comprising 61 items, of non-literary Latin texts on papyrus from the period AD 433 - c. 700, the predominant majority of which probably belonged to an archive in Ravenna. The RP are an important source for the social, economic and administrative history of Italy in the transition period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography J.-O. Tjäder, Die nicht-literarischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700, 2 vols., 1955, 1982  Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. FS zum 100j. Bestehen der Papyrus-Sa…

Ravilla

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('grey-eyed'), byname of L. Cassius [I 17] Longinus R. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 228.

Ray

(5 words)

see Electric ray

Razor

(222 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ξυρόν/ xyrón; Lat. novacula, cultellus, culter tonsorius). Razors were used from the early Greek period on for shaving the  beard and cutting hair from the head when in mourning, for example; numerous examples survive. They could easily exceed 20 cm in length; materials used for blades were iron and bronze; for handles bronze, ivory and wood. Razors are instanced in various forms: they could be shaped like a spatula or a crescent, long and slender with a straight or curved blade, broad…

Re

(650 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] ( R), the most important god in the Egyptian pantheon. Essentially merely the word for 'sun' and as appellative still used as such in Coptic, translated into Greek as Helios. Re is the god who originated in himself, yet the primeval ocean Nun is considered to be his father. In Heliopolis he is linked with the god Atum, and his children are Shu and Tefnut (Tefnut, legend of). Often the epithet 'Horus of the horizon' (Harachte), is bestowed on him. The phases of the sun during the day are classified by the Egyptians as Chepre (morning), Re (midday) and Atum (e…

Realschule

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Keck, Rudolf W.
Keck, Rudolf W. [German version] A. Concept (CT) Since the Hamburg Agreement of 1964 the term Realschule in Germany is understood to be an intermediate type of school devoted to general education at Secondary Stage I (formerly also called Mittelschule or considered an extended stage of the Volksschule or Grundschule); as a rule, it is a selective school between the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, taking students up to the tenth year of instruction and the Fachoberschulreife (also called m ittlere Reife: the school leaving certificate). Exceptions are the so-called Mittelschulen in t…

Reaping machines

(454 words)

Author(s): Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] RM ( vallus, carpentum) are known from the descriptions of Pliny (Plin. HN 18,296) and Palladius (Pall. Agric. 7,2,2-4); there are some pictorial depictions on reliefs from the Gallic and Germanic provinces, while the literary sources indicate only Gaul as the area of distribution. The RM consisted of a box fitted with wheels on both shorter sides; the front was open and fitted with a row of gripping teeth. The rear side had two bars, between which a harnessed ass or ox would push th…

Rea Silvia

(6 words)

see Rhea Silvia

Reason

(6 words)

see Intellect; Logos [1]

Reate

(238 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | | Italy, languages | Natural catastrophes With Amiternum, main town of the Sabini on the via Salaria (Itin. Anton. 306; Tab. Peut. 5,5), present-day Rieti. From the 3rd cent. BC to at least 27 BC, praefectura (CIL IX 4677), afterwards municipium, tribus Quirina, regio IV (Strab. 5,3,1: Ῥεᾶτε; Plin. HN 3,107; 109; Cic. Sest. 80; Cic. Att. 4,8; Suet. Vesp. 2,1). R. was protected by a town wall ( opus polygonale; 3rd cent. BC). There is a viaduct dating back to the same period (restored in the first cent. AD)…

Rebilus

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen occurring in the Caninii family (Caninius [3-5]) until the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 265.

Reccared

(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.

Reception, Modes of

(4,675 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert (Tübingen) | Mohr, Hubert
Cancik, Hubert (Tübingen) [German version] A. The Conceptual Field (CT) The relationship of the Mediterranean (Ancient Oriental, Hellenistic, Roman, Etruscan, etc.) cultures to one another and of Post-Antiquity to Antiquity is described with a broad lexical field which expresses the various types of relationship, their intensity and the assessment of these influences more or less clearly. More organological (biomorphic) metaphors are ranged alongside more technical or economic ones: assimilation, heritage…

Receptio nominis

(160 words)

Author(s): Végh, Zoltán (Salzburg)
[German version] In Roman criminal proceedings ( quaestio procedure), the final acceptance of a complaint ( delatio nominis ) by the presiding member of the responsible quaestio , i.e. its 'entry' in the list of the proceedings pending with the court. If the accused confessed during the initial questioning by the responsible magistrate, the magistrate could immediately pronounce the punishment, the RN was thus superfluous. Only if the accused contested the charge did the RN occur and thus the preparatio…

Receptum

(498 words)

Author(s): Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna)
[German version] (past participle of recipere , 'receive/take on', used as a noun) stands for 'commitment, promise, guarantee' in Roman law and is used for three different types of obligation business which have in common that they, as so-called pacta praetoria (praetorially recognized agreements; pactum D.) - like the promise to repay debt ( constitutum debiti, see below) - can be enforced under praetorial law. 1. Receptum arbitri ( receptum of the arbitrator): The commitment taken on here involves to make a decision in a dispute. If the arbiter refuses to honour his commitment, t…

Rechiarius

(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in Spain, AD 448-455, Catholic [2. 21-23], married a daughter of the Visigothic king Theodericus I, plundered northern Spain 448/9 (Chron. min. 2,25) and concluded temporary treaties with the Romans in 453 and 454 (Chron. min. 2,27). R.' expansionistic policies at the beginning of the reign of Theodericus II (453-466) brought him into conflict with the Visigoths. During this conflict, R. was killed in 455 (Chron. min. 2,29). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 935 2 R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain, 1983.

Rechimundus

(4 words)

see Remismundus

Reciperatio

(4 words)

see Recuperatores

Recipere

(4 words)

see Receptum

Reciprocity

(283 words)

Author(s): von Reden, Sitta (Bristol)
[German version] Reciprocity denotes a mechanism for exchange and social integration of particular importance in pre-market civilizations and based upon the normative obligation for an equalization of the given and received. The term had initially been used by ethnologists to describe exchange processes in primitive societies, and was later introduced by Karl Polanyi (1886-1964) into the debate about pre-industrial economies. Polanyi uses the term to describe the exchange principle between symmetr…

Recoining

(7 words)

see Small coins, shortage of

Reconstruction/Construction

(2,670 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG)
Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG) [German version] A. Archaeology and Reconstruction (CT) The constructional aspect of scholarly reconstruction was already being emphasized by Classical research theorists around 1900 [43; 44], but it was only with the advent of post-structural or postmodern theory that it became the focus of a historical discussion of the fundamentals [32] (Historiographical methods). Of the subject areas involved in the study of ancient history, it is especially in archaeology that reconstr…

Recreation

(3,120 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm (Wuppertal)
[German version] A. The concept of leisure σχολή ( scholḗ; Lat. schola, scola) and otium express the state of being free from work and professional-societal duties. The etymology of the terms is unclear. They are neutral, non-judgmental terms without negative connotation in the sense of ‘laziness’ or ‘idleness’. Traditional translations, as the German Muße (leisure, ease), one-sidedly take up the vivid philosophical-ethical discussion of antiquity about the meaningful content of scholḗ or otium. According to Aristotle, work is associated with feelings of listlessness, scholḗ,

Recruits, training of

(845 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast)
[German version] I. Greece See Ephebeia. Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) [German version] II. Rome "Look at the training of legions ( exercitatio legionum)  ... From this comes that courage in battle that makes them ready to face wounds". Cicero here expresses the traditional pride of Romans in their military training (Cic. Tusc. 2,37). In the early Republic rudimentary military training was probably carried on in the Campus Martius. Later, when citizens living further away from Rome were recruited, the Romans recognize…

Recta

(107 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The first time the Roman boy donned the toga virilis, he wore the ( tunica) recta as an undergarment; for the sons of equestrians and senators, it was furnished with the insignia of rank ( latus clavus). The long, white tunica with tight upper sleeves which the Roman bride donned on the eve of her wedding, which she slept in and wore on her wedding day was called recta or regilla (Plin. HN 8,194). Clothing; Toga Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography Blümner, PrAlt., 336, 350 f.  C. M. Wilson, The Clothing of the Ancient Romans, 1938, 138-145  D. Balsdon, Die Frau in der röm…

Recto/Verso

(218 words)

Author(s): Eleuteri, Paolo (Venice)
[German version] In papyrology the definition of recto ( r.) and verso ( v.) has not always been straightforward and uncontroversial. R. normally refers to the side of the papyrus on which the fibres run horizontally, in other words the inner side of the papyrus scroll which is thought to have been inscribed first; it is also the side on which the glued overlap ( kóllēsis) is visible. V. describes the outer side on which the fibres run vertically and which was not intended for writing. More recent papyrus editions indicate the fibre direction with {{rarr}} for …

Recuperatores

(277 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] From re-capere, literally 'to obtain back', for which purpose the recuperatores were originally appointed in support of Roman citizens within the framework of international legal relationships (Fest. 342 L.: reciperatio): they were meant to help the citizens get back what they had lost (probably above all in war) or had had illegally taken away from them. They then also came to a decision in the repetundae process ( repetundarum crimen ), in which it was a matter of the return of goods which the Roman magistrates had extorted in o…

Recusatio

(154 words)

Author(s): Schmitzer, Ulrich (Berlin)
[German version] (literally 'refusal'). With the 'rejection' of epic poetry on aesthetic grounds, first formulated in the Hellenistic era, its affirmative-panegyric function also became obsolete [1]. In Rome, the recusatio was first found in neoteric poetry (Neoteric poets; Catull. 68: [2. 87 f.]). Under the Principate of Augustus, the Hellenistic tradition [3] of recusatio, justified with artistic arguments and the modesty topos, obtained special significance (e.g. Verg. Ecl. 6; Hor. Sat. 2,1, [4]; Hor. Carm. 1,6 [2. 294]; Prop. 3,3). The attempt by Aug…

Redemptor

(114 words)

Author(s): Meissel, Franz-Stefan (Vienna)
[German version] (from redimere, 'repurchase') describes in Roman law: 1) a purchaser or acquirer, particularly a person, who buys claims and has the actions transferred to him ( cessio ) in order to collect when they are due and thus earn a profit (cf. Anastasius, Cod. Iust. 4,35,22,2); 2) one who purchases another's freedom (from slavery, captivity or punishment; cf. the Christian term redemptor for Jesus Christ as 'Redeemer'); 3) someone who gains something through bribery; 4) a tenant or lessee, especially a public lessee, who contracts with the state as the custodian ( manceps , condu…

Red-figured vase painting

(1,033 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
[German version] Red-figured vase painting was invented most likely by the Andocides Painter around 530 BC in Athens, where it continued to be used until near the end of the fourth century. The technique involved primarily drawing figures in outline on the orange-red Attic clay, then filling in the background with black gloss. Relief lines were employed for the more important contours, diluted gloss for the lesser ones and the drawing of the interior, with red and white used sparingly for other details. During the fifth century BC Attic red-figure was the most important fine-w…

Redistribution

(231 words)

Author(s): von Reden, Sitta (Bristol)
[German version] Redistribution is an asymmetrical exchange or distribution mechanism based on the importation of goods to a centre and their distribution. As an economic principle of supply and political principle of integration, it was important in pre-market economy societies. Although K. Polanyi (1886-1964), who used the term in his works on economic theory, appreciated that redistribution can function as an integrative principle in smaller groups such as institutionalized households or estate…

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Red Sea

(6 words)

see Erythra thalatta

Red slip ware

(171 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
[German version] Modern technical term for ceramic genres with a red finish, particularly from the Phoenician and Cypriot Iron Age. RSW is characterized chiefly by the use of illite clays (illite is a mineral constituent) and slips, which even at lower firing temperatures (800-1000 °C) lead to sintering. Iron oxides are the colouring components. The surface is often given a lustrous decoration by means of an additional polish. In Spain beginning in the 7th cent. BC, Iberian potters adopted this te…

Red Swan Group

(7 words)

see Xenon group

Reed

(86 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κάλαμος/ kálamos (Calamus [2]), Lat. (h)arundo). Phragmites communis and other species of grass are often mentioned in Theophrastus and Plinius (cf. the indexes of the Naturalis Historia s.v. harundo) as plants by and in lakes and rivers. The various applications of this 'extremely useful water plant' (Plin. HN 16,173: qua nulla aquatilium utilior) and related species - e.g., for thatched roofs and as arrows (see also Pen; Musical instruments [V B]) - are compiled in Plin. HN 16,156-173. Graminea Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)

Refinements

(5 words)

see Optical Refinements

Refuse

(632 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm (Wuppertal)
[German version] The urgency of the problem of large volumes of refuse is, historically speaking, a very recent phenomenon. In antiquity, much less refuse was created, because what was in any case a far lower density of population accumulated neither non-degradable materials nor significant quantities of packaging materials. For most, rather, the household was restricted to a limited number of possessions, and the natural recycling quota in the form of the reuse of expendable objects by new users …

Refutatio

(4 words)

see Argumentatio

Regae, Regisvilla

(106 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥηγισουίλλα/ Rhēgisouílla). Small landing site ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 499,3 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Graviscae and Cosa(e), the residence of Maleus [3], king of Pelasgian colonists, who later returned to Athens (Str. 5,2,8). In the Hellenistic-Roman Period, R. was a port of the Volci/Vulci (near modern Montalto di Castro). The place has been located at Le Murelle di Montalto di Castro; there is a Roman villa of the period from the 1st to the 5th cents. AD there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Tortorici, Regisvillae, in: Quaderni Ist. To…

Regalianus

(157 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Governor in Illyricum, probably of Dacian descent. In AD 260, after the overthrow of Ingenuus [1] by Aureolus at Mursa, he was proclaimed anti-emperor to Gallienus by the Danube troops (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. Chronica minora 1,521,45). He fought the Sarmatae, who had already been threatening the lower Danube provinces for some time (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,2). A sho…

Regendarius

(138 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Late ancient official in the officium [6] of the praetorian prefect, who was responsible for issuing licences ( evectiones) for the use of the cursus publicus (Lydus. Mag. 3,4 and 21; Cassiod. Var. 11,29). It is not certain whether this office is identical with that of a regerendarius, which the Notitia dignitatum records in the offices of all praetorian prefects, the city prefect of Rome, magistri militum and a number of comites and duces of the West (Not. Dign. Or. 2,68; 3,29; Not. Dign. Occ. 2,52; 3,47; 4,28; 5,280; 25,44; 30,27 et passim). The latt…

Reggio style

(7 words)

see South Italian minuscule

Regia

(288 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A two-part building complex on the via sacra on the edge of the Forum Romanum (Forum [III 8]) in Rome, which, according to the ancient Roman mythologizing historiography, was supposed to have been built as his residence and place of office by the legendary king Numa Pompilius (Ov. Fast. 6,263 f.; Tac. Ann. 15,41; Cass. Dio fr. 1,6,2; Plut. Numa 14; Fest. 346-348; 439; cf. also [1. 328]). The excavated building of striking structure, with a three-roomed core facing the via sacra and a court annexe ([2] with illustration; presumably this court is what was meant by regium atr…

Regifugium

(250 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Roman civic festival, recorded in several Fasti, held on 24 February (InscrIt 13,2 p. 65, 73, 165, 241, 265), consisting of a sacrifice by the rex sacrorum on the comitium and his subsequent flight (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 63; [3. 197]). Ovid (Fast. 2,685-852) and Ausonius (Eclogae 23,13 f. p. 102 Green) interpret the festival as a commemoration of the flight of the Tarquins from Rome [1. 198 f.; 2]. However, it was probably rather a lustration ritual [5. 98 f.], which was connected with the course of the Roman ye…

Regillensis

(47 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Postumii (Postumius [I 13-15]); tradition has it that it was granted to the first Postumius to bear it for his victory in the battle at Lacus Regillus in 496 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 183.

Regillus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (diminutive of rex, 'king'); in the Republican era, a byname of the family of the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 35-36]); in the Imperial era, also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316.

Regina

(5 words)

see Iuno; Isis

Regina Castra

(446 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Legionary fortress on the Danube opposite the mouth of the river Regen, modern Regensburg (Tab. Peut. 4,4; It. Ant. 250,1: Regino; Not. Dign. Occ. 35,17; It. Ant. 259,3; 6: ad castra; milestones [1; 2]: a legione; CIL V 32909: D( omo) Regino; name for the appendant civilian settlement, only passed down in the Medieval period, but possibly going back to a Celtic root: Radaspona). Built in the 70s of the 2nd cent. AD as the garrison quarters of the legio III Italica (CIL III…

Regina sacrorum

(6 words)

see Rex sacrorum

Regio, regiones

(427 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Originally a theoretical principle of classification of astronomical and augural ( A ugures ) practice (Cic. Div. 1,17; 1,30; 2,3; 2,9; Ov. Ib. 38; Cic. Nat. D. 2,19; 2,50), elements of the division of Rome into four parts by Servius Tullius (Varro, Ling. 5,45; 49; 51; 53; Liv. 1,43,13; Plin. HN 18,13; Paul. Fest. 506,5), which was transferred to the tribus : I. Suburana, II. Esquilina, III. Collina, IV. Palatina (Rome III with map 3). Augustus partitioned the city, which had grown prodigiously in the meantime, into 14 regiones (10-4 BC; Suet. Aug. 30,1; [2]), still …
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