Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Regio Zeugitana

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The name of the northern part of the province Africa proconsularis (Africa 3., with map) before Diocletianus and, later, of Diocletianus' province Africa proconsularis (Diocletianus, with map); it derives from a native name (cf. mons Ziguensis, pagus Zeugius; Plin. HN 5,23; Mart. Cap. 6,669; Isid. Orig. 14,5,8; cf. Solin. 26,2; 27,1). The border ran from Tacatua (Takouch on Tunisia's north coast) southwards to the area south of Theveste and from there north-eastwards via Ammaedara, Althiburus and Abthugni to the region near Pupput (on Tunisia's east coast). Huß, We…

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Regium atrium

(5 words)

see Regia

Regium Lepidum

(199 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Natural catastrophes Celtic city halfway between Mutina and Parma [1] (Str. 5,1,6: Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion; Cic. Fam. 12,5,3: R. Lepidi; Tac. Hist. 2,50: R. Lepidum; Plin. HN 3,15; 115; Ptol. 3,1,46: Ῥήγιον Λεπίδιον/ Rhḗgion Lepídion; It. Ant. 99,3; 283,5; 287,7; Tab. Peut. 4,4), modern Reggio nell'Emilia. The Etrusci conquered RL in the early 6th cent. BC, occupying it thenceforward (inscription finds from Rubiera in the southeast of RL). In the 4th cent. BC, RL developed in…

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chichester was the estate of Fishbourne, probably a governor's residence from the Flavian Period (columns, mosaics, wall paintings) [2]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Regnum Tolosanum

(5 words)

see Tolosa

Regula

(110 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (Lat. 'slat', 'bar', or 'guideline'). Architectural technical term used in Vitr. De arch. 4,3,4 et alibi to refer to a slat with guttae on the epistylion (architrave) of a building of Doric structure. In width, the regula corresponds to the triglyphos and forms its lower end which structurally belongs to the architrave (and not to the frieze). Furthermore, the regula corresponds to the blocks of the geison that are resting on the frieze. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography D. Mertens, Der Tempel von Segesta und die dorische Tempelbaukunst des griechisc…

Regula Magistri

(235 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] ('Rule of the Master'). Latin monastic rule from the early 6th cent. by an unknown author, referred to as 'Master'. It probably originated in Italy, although it is also claimed that the RM comes from southern Gaul; the oldest MS is from Italy (Paris, Latinus 12205, about 600). As the most comprehensive monastic rule, it is a very important source of information on the spirituality and lifestyle of monasticism in late antiquity. In the mid-20th cent. it became a central focus of sc…

Regulus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cogn. (diminutive of rex, 'king'), found in the families of the Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) and Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]) in the Republican Period; in the Imperial Period in other families as well. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Reiectio

(63 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] Reiectio civitatis refers to the relinquishment of civil rights, reiectio iudicis to the right of the parties in a civil or criminal suit to reject a certain number of judges who would be considered for deciding the case according to the list of judges, . Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 195, 198.

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Reindeer

(228 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( Rangifer tarandus, ὁ τάρανδος/ ho tárandos, Lat. tarand(r)us; parandrus: Solin. 30,25, there [?] shifted to Ethiopia!). The deer-like animal, dispersed as far as northern Italy and southern France during the Ice Age, was known to the Greeks only from the land of the Scythians on the basis of plausible reports in Theophr. fr. 172,2-3; Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 30,832b 7-16 and Aristot. fr. 317 (Antigonus Carystius 25), as well as Plin. HN 8,123-124. A fantastic motif recurring in these sources, such as in Solin. 30,25 (whose report on the pirander was adopted in the Middle …

Rei vindicatio

(691 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] ('laying claim to a thing', still ' Vindikation' in modern German legal usage). Originally the (ritual) laying of a staff on an object or a slave; in Roman law of the Principate, the claim of a Quiritarian owner (i.e. one in possession of Roman citizenship), not in possession, against the possessor for establishment of ownership, relinquishment and, where called for, pecuniary compensation. The RV superseded the ancient sacramental action in rem ( legis actio sacramento in rem) with its solemn rituals before the president of the court (king, consul, praet…

Relegatio

(191 words)

Author(s): Végh, Zoltán (Salzburg)
[German version] In Roman law, banishment, a milder form of exilium ; imposed in the Roman Republic, by the pater familias (head of the family) against members of his house, by the Senate and the magistrates; in the imperial era, also a status punishment without loss of honour for honestiores (members of the upper class). There was a variety of degrees: relegatio from 1/2 - 10 years and relegatio perpetua (permanent relegatio) on the mainland and relegatio in insulam (on an island). In addition, stay in a specific place could be forbidden. Violation of the banishment was …

Relics

(675 words)

Author(s): Warland, Rainer (Freiburg)
[German version] (Latin reliquiae, literally 'material remains' of mythical or holy objects or persons, particularly bones) gained increasing importance in pre-Christian as well as Christian antiquity, as material conveyors of supernatural power. The ancient cult of the dead (Dead, cult of the) and its beliefs saw contact with the deceased as linked to the tomb (Hero cult). Hellenistic cities revered their founding heroes in the midst of the city, hoping for protection and prosperity in return. In …

Relief

(3,221 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
I. Egypt and Ancient Near East [German version] A. Egypt Egypt had a long tradition of the two-dimensional portrayal of individual scenes and substantial compositions, initially as paintings on pottery, later as wall paintings and reliefs ( e.g. Narmer Palette, Proto-dynastic Period, c. 3100 BC). At the latest from the time of the Old Kingdom onwards, stone steles could be added to these, erected in association with the cult of the dead (dead, cult of), while the deeds of rulers were depicted in longer scenes on the walls of major build…

Relief ware

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
The plasticity of its raw material makes ceramics well suited to relief decorations, either as moulded shaping of the side of the pot itself or in the form of applied parts. RW is therefore represented in the pottery repertories of all periods. In the narrower sense, however, classical archaeology uses RW to denote luxury crockery of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods made in moulds. These wares represent early examples of ceramic mass production. [German version] I. Archaic relief ware In addition to Bronze Age antecedents, there is also a rough-sided RW, particularly of t…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Religion and Literature

(4,163 words)

Author(s): Bierl, Anton
Bierl, Anton [German version] A. Terms and Subject Matter (CT) The method of using religious materials for the comprehensive interpretation of literary texts is called 'religion and literature'. It emphasizes the productive interdependence of religious studies and literature, and addresses the question of how the subjects of religious studies can serve as a set of heuristic tools for understanding the structure and meaning of literary works in a historically appropriate way. Bierl, Anton [German version] B. Preconditions and Delimitations (CT) In contrast to the modern era,…

Religion, Critique of

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] The transition from pagan Antiquity to the Christian era is generally regarded as a process mostly characterized by continuity, typified by the persistence and conscious adoption of cultural traditions (chrêsis) and philosophical theories (especially of Platonism). This view, which in extra-scholarly contexts has become condensed into the shibboleth of the 'Christian West', does not do justice to the reception of Antiquity as a whole [15]. For, since the Early Modern period, this…

Religion, History of

(9,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) Neither Greek nor Latin had a word that precisely corresponds to the modern term 'religion' in its academic sense, whether to designate a specific cultural subsystem ('the religion of the Aztecs') or to refer to the anthropological constant of religion. This modern concept was a result of the Enlightenment and ethnological discoveries, and dates only to the Early Modern era. Ancient concepts focused on individual areas: the Greek thrēskeía, 'worship', and the Greek eusébeia refer only to ritual in the collective…

Religion, Sociology of

(9 words)

see Religion, History of

Remancipatio

(163 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, the actus contrarius ('reversion') of the mancipatio (formal alienation). It served, for instance, for the return of objects given for fiduciary safekeeping ( fiducia ). The remancipatio was also a constituent act in the complex ceremonies of the emancipatio (release from the family group). Above all, however, it was an important element in divorce proceedings in the old manus marriage (cf. also Marriage III): if such a marriage was to be dissolved, the wife had to be released from the special authority of the husband. This remancipatio consisted of a ce…

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Remismundus

(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.

Remmius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Commander of the guard for the detained Parthian king Vonones I, whom he killed in AD 19 Commander of the guard for the Parthian king Vonones I, who was detained in Pompeiopolis, Cilicia; in AD 19, he killed the king at the river Pyramus during an escape (Tac. Ann. 2,68; cf. Suet. Tib. 49,2). He is probably identical to the C. R. Rufus mentioned in CIL V 2837 (= ILS 2022). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] R. Palaemon, Q. Roman teacher of grammar, 1st cent. Famous Roman teacher of grammar (cf. Juv. 6,451 ff.; 7,215 ff.) of the 1st cent. AD from V…

Remus

(5 words)

see Romulus [1]

Renaissance

(4,510 words)

Author(s): Tönnesmann, Andreas
Tönnesmann, Andreas [German version] A. Concept (CT) A Rinascita, a 'rebirth of the arts', was the term used by Giorgio Vasari in his biographies of Italian artists first published in 1550 [16]. He observed that the 'new' and 'good' art produced by his age had overcome a period of decline and - for the first time since Antiquity - had taken nature as its model. In a similar sense, Albrecht Dürer had earlier, in 1523, used the term Wiedererwachsung ( 'regrowth') in a similar sense [8]. Both terms embrace of necessity the exemplary nature of ancient art in contrast to other …

Renting

(5 words)

see Housing conditions

Renting and hiring

(1,070 words)

Author(s): Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] I. General Renting and hiring today are contracts concerning transfer of the use of a property or an object in return for payment and hence an enduring relationship of continuing obligation. The objects of the contract can be physical, non-consumable objects as well as rights. Such contracts are equally suited to the transfer for payment of movable and unmovable objects. Forgó, Nikolaus (Vienna) [German version] II. Ancient Orient and Egypt There is evidence of hiring, i.e. temporary use of persons and of movable objects (primarily ship and animal h…

Renuntiatio

(208 words)

Author(s): Meissel, Franz-Stefan (Vienna)
[German version] (literally 'announcement', 'revocation'). In Roman civil law, renuntiatio mostly indicates a unilateral declaration requiring acknowledgement, by which a right (e.g. a legacy) was waived or a legal relationship was ended. This includes the unilateral termination of an engagement or marriage, but especially the cancellation of a commission ( mandatum ) by the contractor (Paulus Dig. 17,1,22,11) and the dissolution of a society ( societas , cf. Paulus Dig. 17,2,65). The legitimacy of a renuntiatio depended on the type of contract and the precise agreemen…

Reparatus

(172 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Late-Roman senator, c. AD 527, praefectus urbis Romae Late-Roman senator, brother of Pope Vigilius, c. AD 527 praefectus urbis Romae under the Gothic king Athalaric. In 536, he was interned by the Goths in Ravenna. He fled to Liguria, and in 538, Belisarius appointed him praefectus praetorio (Italiae) in Mediolan(i)um [1] (Milan), where he was assassinated in 539 by the victorious Goths (Cassiod. Var. 9,7; Procop. Goth 1,26,1 f.; 2,12,34 f.; 21,40). Ostrogoths Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 939 f., 1323  Rubin 2, 109, 126 f.  Ch. Schäfer, Der wes…

Repetundarum crimen

(349 words)

Author(s): Simon, Dietrich (Jena)
[German version] literally 'the crime (of the appropriation) of (things and monies) to be restored', was the crime of extortion from subordinates and allies by Roman officials, and derived its name from the money and goods which had been extorted and had to be returned (cf. lex de pecuniis repetundis, Cic. Brut. 106). The earliest reference (Liv. 43.2) is a civil repetundae action before recuperatores , which the Senate permitted in 171 BC in favour of Spanish socii against several former governors. The repetundae action received legal foundation by the lex Calpurnia (149 BC) and a later le…

Replicatio

(119 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] As a counter-exception, the replicatio was the means in the Roman civil formula procedure for the claimant to rebut an exception ( exceptio ) of the respondent. The latter then had recourse to a duplicatio, the former then to a triplicatio, etc. All these objections were incorporated into the trial formula ( formula ) and thus constituted the dispute presentation debated and substantiated before the iudex . An example of the replicatio is shown in Dig. 44,2,9,1, where the claimant is enabled to reply to the objection of legal force to the effect that …

Reposianus

(221 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
[German version] Author of an hexameter poem transmitted in the Codex Salmasianus (Anth. Lat. 253 = 247 Shackleton Bailey), which contains a collection of poems put together at the beginning of the 6th cent. AD in Vandal northern Africa. The poem's theme is the love between Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus) (related in Hom. Od. 8), but the episode is given a moralizing turn. In the end, Venus plans to take revenge on the sun, who has tricked her: she inflames Helios with love (a motif from Ov. Met…

Repositorium

(144 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally a Roman tray, then a stand or centrepiece used to arrange and serve food for a course (Petron. Sat. 33; 40; 49), introduced probably at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC as luxury tableware. The repositorium could have simple, round or rectangular form, but it could also have several levels and be of considerable height; it was also decorated with figures (Petron. Sat. 36), veneered with valuable woods and fitted with silver on the corners and edges (Plin. HN 33,146). Carrying away the repositorium while a guest was still drinking was considered a bad o…

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Republic

(12,321 words)

Author(s): Maissen, Thomas
Maissen, Thomas [German version] A. Concept (CT) [86; 92; 104] Respublica, with its different forms in the various national languages, is a markedly ambiguous word. In 1807, the American Founding Father John Adams recorded that he had never understood what a republic was: “and I believe no other man ever did or ever will ”[1. 353]. The polysemy is also present in the Greek expression πολιτεία, understood by Aristotle as a) any constitution, b) unalloyed, good rule by the many, c) a mixed constitution comp…

Repudium

(187 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, initially the unilateral repudiation of a wife by her husband. From the literal sense (from pudor, 'shame', 'chastity'), repudium would have had serious misconduct (especially adultery, adulterium ) by the wife as a prerequisite. According to the Twelve Tables, as reported by Gai. Dig. 24,2,2,1, for repudium, the man had to call upon the woman to leave ( baete foras) and to take her things with her ( tuas res tibi habeto). As early as the 3rd cent. BC, repudium was possible without any fault committed by the woman (cf. Gell. NA 4,3,1 f.); no late…

Resafa

(4 words)

see Rusafa

Rescript procedure

(222 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] This type of Roman trial developed from the reign of Hadrian (2nd cent. AD) as a special form of the civil inquiry of cognizance ( cognitio ). Its peculiarity consisted in the fact that the decisive legal issue (i.e. not also the correctness of the facts) was clarified in advance for the specific case by the princeps, by means of a written response ( rescriptum ) to the written enquiry of the party who would henceforth be the plaintiff, with the consequence that henceforth all that required examination was the correctness of …

Rescriptum

(223 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (the 'reply letter') is one of the most important sources for Roman imperial law. In Gai. Inst. 1,5, the rescriptum is simply called epistula ('letter'), but classed as belonging to the constitutiones ('imperial laws'). Already in the Principate, the emperor received queries and proposals from officials and private persons on every matter imaginable. The emperor replied commensurate with the preparation in the chancellery ab epistulis with a rescriptum, a draft of which was archived. Starting with Hadrian (beginning of the 2nd cent. AD), the rescripta more and mo…

Rešep

(227 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Syrian (western Semitic) god, attested in the area between Ebla, Mari, Byblus and Ugarit from the 3rd millennium BC. In the Phoenician world of the Mediterranean, R. merged syncretistically with Melqart (cf. the votive inscription KAI II 88 f. of Ibiza, 5th/4th cent. [1]). As Smiting God adopted from Egypt in the well known pattern of 'the king striking dead his enemies', he inspired the iconography of fighting deities in the Mediterranean high and 'fringe' cultures [2], and was imitated in regions influenced by the Phoenicia…

Reshef

(4 words)

see Rešep

Res mancipi

(133 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] In Roman law, RM were objects which (Gai. Inst. 2,22) were transferred by mancipatio to another person. RM could be slaves, cattle, horses, mules, donkeys (the latter according to the Sabinian school from birth, according to the Proculian school only from being tamed: Gai. Inst. 2,15); also Italian land (Gai. Inst. 1,120), servitutes rusticae such as via, iter, actus, aquae ductus (rights of way, right to drive cattle, water rights; Ulp. 19,1) and provincial land of the ius Italicum (Gai. Inst. 2,14a). With the disappearance of the mancipatio, the importance of the …

Responsa

(841 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Term and form Responsa (lit.: 'responses', sing. responsum) were originally rulings or opinions of sacred law made by the Roman colleges of priests (the augures, fetiales, haruspices and pontifices) [1. 19-21; 2. 313 f., 560-563]. According to Dig. 1,2,2,6, the pontifical college ( pontifex ; hence: responsa pontificum) issued preventative or cautelary responsa for the formulation and interpretation of legal transactions ( cautio in the sense of a precaution) or suits ( actio), and responsa for the organs of judicial administration in respect of past…

Responsa (rabbinical)

(201 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew šeēlōt u-tešūḇōt, literally 'questions and answers'; plural 'responses'). Rabbinical genre name; correspondence, in which one party consults the other on a difficult question of Halakha. While the Talmudic literature (Rabbinical literature) already indicates the existence of this genre (cf. bYebamot 105a), a scope more significant to responsa literature only developed in the Gaonic period (Gaon, 6th-11th cents. AD), when Jews from the widespread diaspora turned to the halak…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

Restitutio

(499 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In a general legal sense, restitutio means 'restoration'. In the area of Roman criminal law, it refers to the full or partial revocation of a legally binding conviction, as a result of which the condemned is restored to his former status (cf. Cod. Iust 9,51). In Roman civil and civil action law, a distinction must be made between a material and a formal restitutio. In certain actions, the material restitutio is the desired outcome, thus above all in actions in rem such as the rei vindicatio (action for the restitution of goods by the owner): in …

Retentio

(179 words)

Author(s): Gamauf, Richard (Vienna)
[German version] The retentio (literally 'withholding') of one's own service in order to put pressure on an opponent to perform the service he owes is encountered frequently in Roman law. In strict law actions ( ius strictum, ius C.2.), the retentio was effected with a plea of bad faith ( exceptio doli ) in bonae fidei iudicia ('actions in good faith', fides II.) through informal objection. For example, the bona fide foreman has a retentio against the owner (Cels. Dig. 6,1,38) for his expenses, as do the custodian (Mod., Collatio legum 10,2,6) and the borrower (Iulian…

Retiarius

(6 words)

see  Munus, Munera III.E.

Reticulatum opus

(4 words)

seeMasonry

Reudigni

(56 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe in the cult community of the Nerthus tribes to the north of the Langobardi (Tac. Germ. 40,2) in the area of modern Holstein and West-Mecklenburg. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography B. Rappaport, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 700 f.  A. Genrich, Der Siedlungsraum der Nerthusstämme, in: Die Kunde 26/7, 1975/6, 103-146.

Revenge

(900 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
(τιμωρία/ timōría, τίσις/ tísis; Latin ultio, vindicta , poena). [German version] A. Social conditions Revenge, a regular central element of relationships in human social structure, is encountered in Graeco-Roman history in specific forms which are very similar in the two cultures. Revenge belongs in the general framework of an ethic of reciprocation, which shapes, both positively and negatively, mutual exchange between individuals and groups (exchange of gifts; Euergetism). Under these premises, in Greece it…

Revocatio

(161 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Revocation') occurs in two special senses in Roman law: (1) as revocatio in servitutem (' revocatio into slavery'), the revocation of manumission, probably only current in Late Antiquity (cf. Cod. Iust. 6,7,2 pr.); (2) in civil actions. There, the convicted party, having already paid, could demand retrial ( restitutio ) only with the risk of being compelled to pay the claimant for the litigation a second time by revocatio in duplum (' revocatio for double the value') if the restitution failed. This applied for the formula procedure ( formula ) and…

Revolution

(7,227 words)

Author(s): Papenheim, Martin | Hafner, Jochen
Papenheim, Martin I. The English and American Revolutions (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Reference to Greek and Roman Antiquity in philosophy, art and rhetoric during the revolutionary upheavals of the 17th and 18th cents. is unmistakable and more influential than any link to other ancient cultures. The Germanic tradition was nevertheless able to play an important role in the constitutional history of England and indirectly that of America in the course of those centuries. In France, too, that t…

Reworking

(5 words)

see Adaptation

Rex

(661 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] King Rex (pl. reges; Indo-Germanic * rḗg̑-s, Old Indo-Aryan rā́j-, Celtic -rīx) in Latin denotes a king; in the Greek world, the Indo-Germanic term probably gave way in the Mycenaean period to the ruler designations anax ( wanax ) and basileús . The Imperial and Byzantine word ῥῆξ ( rhêx) was originally a mere Greek transliteration of the Latin rex and generally refers to tribal kings of foreign peoples. According to the root of the word * h3reg̑- ('to straighten', 'to stretch out'), the job of the rex was to 'rule', i.e. to keep the world 'upright' and perpendic…

Rex sacrorum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] In literature also rex sacrificulus (e.g. Liv. 2,2,1), 'king of the sacrifice', or simply rex (e.g. Varro Ling. 6,12 f.). The great age of this Roman priesthood is evident from the requirement that the rex sacrorum belong to a patrician gens (Cic. Dom. 38; Liv. 6,41,9; exception: MRR 1,284 n. 8), be born of a marriage concluded by confarreatio , and he himself be married by that ritual (Gai. Inst. 1,112). The rex sacrorum was nominated by the pontifical college, and, after being elected, inaugurated into the comitia calata (Antistius Labeo fr. 22 Huschke in Gell. NA …
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