Brill’s New Pauly

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Subject: Classical Studies

Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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R.

(70 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation for Romanus (SPQR), for Roma and in connection with publicus for res ( res publica ); rare abbreviation for the cognomen Rufus. On imperial coins R often stands for restitutor, the 'restorer' (of the empire, the unity of the empire etc.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974, 321-323  H. Cohen, J. C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978, 71-74.

Rabbath-Ammon

(318 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Hasmonaeans | Pompeius ( Rabbath bnē Ammōn, LXX Ῥαββά/ Rhabbá; Pol. Ῥαβατάμανα/ Rhabatámana, Assyrian bīt ammāna; Philadelphia since the mid 3rd cent. BC; modern Ammān). [German version] I. Through the Persian Period Capital city of the Ammonites (Ammon [2]); the oldest traces of settlement come from the Neolithic Age (7th-6th millennium BC). The earliest important remains with rich tombs on the citadel date from the Middle Bronze Age (1st half of the 2…

Rabbi

(641 words)

Author(s): Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)
[German version] (Hebrew 'my master'; Greek ῥαββί/ rhabbí, Latin rabbi). Prior to 70 BC, documented only as a personal form of address (cf. Jo 1:38); in ancient Judaism, the title used for most scholars in Palestine. 'Rabbi' is frequently used to refer to the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi, credited with the redaction of the Mishnah (Rabbinical literature). The Babylonian Amoraim were called rab for linguistic reasons. The plural 'rabbinim' ('rabbis') encompasses both groups in their capacity as authors of rabbinical literature. In ancient inscriptions, rab denotes honoured men who…

Rabbinical literature

(1,703 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] I. Definition Collective term for the literature of rabbinical Judaism (AD 70 to 1040), traditionally considered the 'oral Torah' ( tōrā šæ-be-al-pæ) revealed to Moses [1] on Mount Sinai (mAb 1,1). In terms of content, a distinction is made between Halakhah, i.e. the legal-judicial tradition, and Haggadah, which contains narrative elements. The essential literary works of this transmitted corpus are the Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmud, various Midrash works and the Targumim (Targum). RL is not the work of i…

Rabbit

(4 words)

see Hare

Rabbulā, Rabulas

(234 words)

Author(s): Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] Bishop of Edessa [2] (AD 412-435 or 436). Information on his life comes from a Syrian panegyric as well as occasional references found in other sources (e. g. the Edessa Chronicle). Born to wealthy parents in Qinnasrīn (Chalkis), R. was brought up according to Greek custom; he was introduced to Christianity by the bishops Eusebius of Qinnasrīn and Acacius [3] of Beroea (Aleppo). With the help of the latter's influence, he was elected bishop of Edessa in the year 412. He offered guidelines for the lives of clerics and monks in his Kanónes ('Rules'; preserved in Syrian). I…

Rabirius

(614 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Latin nomen gentile. [German version] [1] R., C. Took part in the murder of the tribune of the people Appuleius [I 11] in 100 BC, accused of this crime in 63 and defended by Cicero Wealthy Roman equestrian with estates in Apulia and Campania. In 100 BC, he took part in the murder of the tribune of the people L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, for which he was probably later rewarded with a seat in the Senate; in 89, he was on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILLRP 515). Attacked on numerous occasions by the populares as a supporter of the Senate, in 63 he was accused of the murder of A…

Rabocentus

(39 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Prince of the rebellious Bessi, who was assassinated in 57 BC by the Macedonian governor L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus at the command of king Cotys [I 5] of Thrace (Cic. Pis. 84). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)

Rabuleius

(234 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Roman gens of the early Republic, to which R. [1] - if historical - and R. [2] may be attributed; however, the tradition in Dion. Hal. (R. [1]: tr. pl., R. [2]: patrician) is contradictory. If one considers R. [1] unhistorical as does [1. 29] it becomes likely to view the gens Rabuleia as patrician, but a plebeian origin cannot be excluded. [German version] [1] People's tribune in 486 BC, sought to mediate in the dispute over the agrarian law According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,72,1 ff., R. attempted to mediate as tr. pl. in 486 BC in the dispute between Cassius [I 19] and his co-consul…

Rachgoun

(90 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A small island at the mouth of the Wādī Tafna (Latin Siga) in western Algeria, R. is the site of the extensive necropolis of the Mauretanian Punic city of Siga and, on the southern side, of a small Punic merchant settlement dating to the 7th-5th century BC; according to the finds, there were particularly close links with Phoenician factories on the southern coast of Spain. Syphax Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Lancel, É. Lipiński, s. v. R., DCPP, 369  G. Vuillemot, Reconnaissances aux échelles puniques d'Oranie, 1965.

Racilius

(85 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Italic nomen gentile. Known from L. R., aide of C. Verres in Sicily in 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,31). In 56 a people's tribune of the same name (his son?) acted in the interests of the  Senate against P. Clodius [I 4] (Cic. Fam. 1,7,2; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,1,2; Cic. Planc. 77 with scholia Bobiensia 165 f. Stangl); probably the same R. conspired against Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus in Spain in 48 and was executed (Bell. Alex. 53,3; 55,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Radagaisus

(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Ῥοδογάϊσος/ Rhodogáïsos). Goth king, crossed the Danube in AD 405 and invaded Italy (Zos. 5,26,3; Oros. 7,37,4-17; [1. 206-217; 2. vol. 3,1, 200 f.]). He divided his army into three groups (Chron. min. 1,652); one may have reached Gaul [2. vol. 3,2, 22 f.]. While besieging Florence he was repelled by Stilicho (Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, ch. 50), surrounded at Fiesole, taken prisoner and executed (23.8.406: Chron. min. 1,299). The survivors evidently defected to the Roman side [3. 213]. PLRE 2, 934. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 M. Cesa, Römisches Heer…

Radamistus

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ῥοδομίστος/ Rhodomístos). The son of the Iberian king Pharasmanes [1] I; in AD 51, with the collusion of his father and the acquiescence of the Romans, he toppled his uncle, brother-in-law and step-father Mithridates [20] from the Armenian throne. Despite governing cruelly, R. was unable to withstand the Parthian nominee Tiridates [5] I and had to retreat to Iberia [1] in 54. His pregnant wife Zenobia [1], whom R. initially dragged along on the escape and then wounded and threw in…

Radish

(213 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥαφανίς/ rhaphanís, ῥάφανος/ rháphanos, etymologically related to ῥάπυς/ rhápys, ῥάφυς/ rháphys, 'beet'; Lat. rhaphanus, radix), the species of crucifer probably bred in Asia Minor from the wild, jointed charlock ( Raphanus raphanistrum L., Rhaphanus sativus L., with the edible, thickened storage root; cultivated in Egypt from the 2nd millennium. The Greeks (from Aristoph. Plut. 544 and other comic writers, cited in Ath. 2,56d-57b) valued the salted root as an appetite-stimulating food and extracted oil from it. T…

Radius

(212 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
(literally 'rod'). [German version] [1] Weaving device (κερκίς/ kerkís). In weaving (Textiles, production of), the device with which the weft thread was introduced to the opened 'compartment', and hence by which the threads of the chain were separated, was probably originally an elongated rod around which the weft thread was wound. Later, the weaving shuttle, which adopted the name, was used for this. The coil located in the shuttle was called πηνίον/ pēníon, πήνη/ pḗnē, Lat. panus (cula), panuvellium [1. vol. 1, 151 ff.; 2. 192 ff.]. Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Blümn…

Raeda

(5 words)

see Wagon, Chariot

Raetic

(142 words)

Author(s): Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln)
[German version] is the name given to the language of a group of some 100 short inscriptions, almost all on small horn or bronze votive objects, written in variants of the northern Etruscan alphabet, and found on both sides of the Adige and Isarco rivers between Brenner and Verona  [1]. The list of personal names is augmented by names found in Latin inscriptions, in an area including the surroundings of Brescia and the Oglio valley. The theory that the language is closely related to Etruscan - as …

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Raga

(4 words)

see Rhagae

Ragonius

(190 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] L. R. Quintianus Consul ord. in AD 289 Cos. ord. in AD 289, presumably only for the first two months of the year [1. 275 ff.]. He was a descendant of L. Ragonius Venustus, cos. ord. in 240 and of R. [2] and R. [3]. PIR2 R 15. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Probleme der Konsularfasten, in: ZPE 118, 1997, 275-280. [German version] [2] L. R. Urinatius Larcius Quintianus Senator, probably proconsul of Sardinia under Marcus Aurelius Senator, probably from Opitergium, cf. [1. 265 ff., 293]. His career took him via the juridicate in Apulia to the…

Ragusa

(458 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Ragusium, Greek Ῥαούσιον/ Rhaoúsion, Slavic Dubrovnik; regarding the name cf. [1]), city on the Dalmatian coast. The beginnings of the trading city that was to become so famous a rival of Venice on the Adriatic Sea were hazy already for the historians of R. at the time of Humanism so that they arrived at different legends of its origin reminiscent of the type of ancient aetiology (cf. the depictions in [2; 3; 4]). The report by Constantinus [1] Porphyrogennetus (Const. de administ…

Rainbow cup

(181 words)

Author(s): Stumpf, Gerd (Munich)
[German version] Folk term for a Celtic gold coin shaped like a small cup. According to folk belief RCs could be found where a rainbow touched the earth. RCs, which could often be found in ploughed fields after heavy rainfall, were thought to bring luck and had many different effects ascribed to them. On the obverse RCs have an abstract head or a smooth bump, sometimes a star, a hand, writing, an ornament, a cross or a bird's head. The reverse is concave, often with a representation of a torque (Torques) with spheres in it. It is esp. the Celtic t…

Ramesses

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of eleven pharaohs, Egyptian R-msj-sw (“Re (the sun god) is the one who gave him birth”), vocalized Rīamašeša in Babylonian, rendered in Greek by Ῥαμέσσης and the like. [German version] [1] R. I Dynasty founder (Throne name Mn-pḥtj-R). The founder of the 19th dynasty ( c. 1292-1290 BC) came from a non-royal family (from the eastern Delta?) and was a high-ranking officer before he was named as vizier and heir to the throne by his predecessor Haremhab. His son Sethos I was probably immediately designated as his successor. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] R. II Egy…

Rammius

(49 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Q. R. Martialis. Equestrian of whose offices only the praefectura vigilum between AD 111 and 113 and the praefectura Aegypti between 117 und 119 are attested. In Egypt he had to deal with the aftermath of the Jewish rebellion. PIR2 R 20. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Ramnes

(275 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ramnes, Titi(ens)es and Luceres (as in Liv. 1,36,2, but in 1,13,8 and Cic. Rep. 2,20,36: R(h)amnenses) are the  Etruscan (Varro Ling. 5,55; see also [1. 218, 581]) names of the three tribus established by Romulus [1] (according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,14,2 and Gell. NA 15,27: organised by families) which were each divided into 10 curiae and thus formed the primary structuring of the Roman people and army (30×10 equestrians, 30×100 infantry: Varro Ling. 5,89; Liv. 1,13,8). Ennius's derivation of the term R. from Rom…

Ranius

(207 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. R. Castus Legate of the procos. of Asia, AD 126/7 Senator whose nomen gentile could also be Granius. Legate of the procos. of Asia in AD 126/7, PIR2 R 23. Perhaps identical with the cos. suff. Castus of the year 142 [1] whom fragment S of the Fasti Ostienses mentions [2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, Tusidius Campester, cos. suff. unter Antoninus Pius und die Fasti Ostienses zum J. 141/2, in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260. 2 FO2 52. [German version] [2] L. R. Optatus Senator, cons. suff. probably under Septimius Severus Senator; his career is known …

Ranunculus

(157 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (βατράχιον/ batráchion = σέλινον ἄγριον/ sélinon ágrion in Dioscorides), buttercup, crowfoot. The widespread family of the Ranunculaceae has more than 100 species in Greece and Italy. The Greek and Latin names for the plant seem to be derived from' frog' (βάτραχος/ bátrachos, Lat. rana), owing to its preference for damp locations. Dioscorides (2,175 Wellmann = 2,206 Berendes) and Pliny (HN 25,172 f.) describe the appearance of four species; it is impossible today to determine exactly which. The leaves and stems in poultice…

Rape

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Elke (Berlin)
[German version] I. Concept In modern usage, rape denotes violent, forcible sexual intercourse which is declined by the person forced. A corresponding ancient term does not exist. The Greek and Roman terminology for describing the offence of rape only partially indicates the violence associated with the act (e.g. βιάζεσθαι/ biázesthai, Latin violare: to use violence; ἁρπαγή/ harpagḗ, Latin rapina: robbery); it is not uncommon for the violent aspect to be obscured; sometimes the degradation associated with the rape of the victim is indicated (διαφθείρειν/ diaphtheírein: corrupt;…

Raphael

(177 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Literally 'God heals', Gr. Ραφαήλ/ Rhaphaḗl; cf. the personal name in 1 Chr 26:7). In Jewish angelology, one of the four (or seven) archangels who have a special role in the celestial hierarchy for their praise and glorification of God before His throne (1 Enoch 9,1; 20,3; 40,9). True to his name, R. is the angel of healing (cf. Hebr. rāfā, 'to heal'), ruling over "all illnesses and all torments of the children of men" (1 Enoch 40,9). He plays a significant role in the Book of Tobit, where, disguised as Tobias' travelling companion, he d…

Rapidum

(175 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes City in Mauretania (III. B.) Caesariensis, about 24 km to the west of Auzia on the Limes (Limes VIII.C., with map), modern Sour Djouab (It. Ant. 30,7: Rapidi; 38,9: Rapido castra). In AD 122 Hadrianus founded a castrum at R. (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20833). In 167 the veterani et pagani consistentes aput R. ('veterans and farmers at R.') built the walls of the city adjacent to the castrum  (CIL VIII suppl. 3, 20834 f.). After being destroyed more than once, R., then a municipium , was rebuilt by Diocletianus…

Rapina

(218 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] Robbery in Roman law, originally contained in furtum ('theft'), then an offence (prosecuted separately by the praetor) leading to actio vi bonorum raptorum ('action for the robbery of goods by violence') with the sanction of fourfold damages, simple damages after one year. The surviving edict text (Dig. 48,7,2 pr.) covers banditry ( dolo malo hominibus armatis coactisque damnum datum, 'injury done with evil intent by a body of armed men') and robbery ( bona rapta, lit. 'seized goods'). It is a matter of dispute whether the Edict of Licinius [I 27] Lucul…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Raptus

(143 words)

Author(s): Ebner, Constanze (Innsbruck)
[German version] In Roman law abduction (as a rule of a woman) for sexual purposes (also with the intent of marriage). In the Republican period an iniuria (tort in civil law), later probably prosecuted as a crimen vis (crime of violence). Reorganised by Constantine the Great (Cod. Theod. 9,24,1) with the death penalty for all participants, the consenting woman as accomplice; even a reluctant one would lose the right to succeed to her parents (beginning of the 4th cent.). In the 6th cent., Justinian (Cod. Iust. 9,…

Raqqa

(187 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin)
[German version] ( al-Raqqa/ ar-Raqqa). Modern Syrian provincial capital at the confluence of the Balīḫ and the Euphrates. For its history up to the 4th cent., see Nicephorium. Since 638/9, the town has been Arab. After al-Rāfiqa was built west of R. by the caliph al-Manṣūr (772) there was expansion on a grand scale by Hārūn al-Rašīd and a temporary (796-808) relocation of the Abbasid residence, which was only later named R. and further expanded. It was destroyed by Saladdin in 1182, and then came u…

Rarus

(56 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Otherwise unknown author of an aphoristic epigram (the Anthologia Planudea attributes it to Palladas): an unfaithful friend is more to be feared than an open enemy (Anth. Pal. 10,121). The motif is quite common (see, e.g., Anth. Pal. 10,36; 95; 11,390; as early even as Thgn. 91 f.). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)

Ras Šamra

(5 words)

see Ugarit

Rat

(364 words)

Author(s): Thüry, Günther E. (Salzburg)
[German version] Graeco-Roman Antiquity did not distinguish between the mouse and the rat. However, bone finds, excavations, etc. since 1975 , in particular, have shown the presence of rats in the ancient Mediterranean area and elsewhere in Europe outside the Mediterranean area. According to the current state of research, the following can be regarded as proven: a) The black rat ( Rattus rattus L.), originating in Asia, had arrived in the Mediterranean region by the Hellenistic or early Imperial Period ([1. 132; 2. 62-63]; on the considerably earlier incide…

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltauvi [2]. The forum and the basilica were built under Hadrian (AD 117-138), the baths in c. AD 150. Parts of the baths have survived as the Jewry Wall, as…

Ratiaria

(123 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman colony in Moesia superior, later the capital of Dacia Ripensis (Daci, with map), modern Arčar (oblast Vidin, Bulgaria). The settlement lay on the right bank of the Danube on the important road from Singidunum to Oescus and further eastwards. R. was the camp of the  Legio XIII Gemina and the port of a river fleet (Not. Dign. Or. 42,43). There is evidence of an arms factory there (Not. Dign. Or. 11,38). Archaeological finds, inscriptions and coins. Burian, Jan (P…

Ratiocinatio

(4 words)

see Status

Rationalis

(5 words)

see rationibus, a

Rationality

(2,612 words)

Author(s): Renaud, François (Moncton, NB)
[German version] A. Definition The ancient concept of rationality cannot be tied to a single Greek or Latin term. First of all it must be distinguished from modern notions. The modern mind - both in general and in the sciences - is moulded by technological, economic, and administrative structures, and tends to equate rationality with 'goal-oriented rationality' (a rationality which focuses on means to reach a purpose). Given M. Weber's sociological distinction between goal-oriented, value-oriented, …

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Rations

(515 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the Ancient Near Eastern oikos or palace economy, the majority or (large) parts of the population were integrated into the institutional households of temples and/or palaces as direct dependents (the extent varied according to region and period). They were provided with the rations of natural produce (grain, oil, wool) guaranteeing them the level of subsistence necessary for their reproduction. In Mesopotamia, these rations of produce were in part supplemented, and in certain periods replaced, by the allocation of areas of land ( c. 6 ha.) as…

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Rauraci, Raurici

(319 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] Celtic tribe, neighbours along with the Tulingi and Latobici of the Helvetii (Caes. B Gall. 1,5,4). The R. migrated westwards from their homeland in 58 BC with the Helvetii. As Munatius [I 4] Plancus founded the colony of Augusta [4] Raurica (modern Augst (CH)) in the territory of the R. in 44 BC, it must be assumed that they lived between the Upper Rhine and the southern foothills of the Jura. The remark in Caes. B Gall. 1,1,4, according to which the Germani and Helvetii shared a…

Raven

(590 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] The common raven, Corvus corax (κόραξ/ kórax, apparently derived from korós, 'black'; the juvenile, κορακῖνος/ korakînos, e.g., in Aristoph. Equ. 1053; Lat. corvus), originally distributed throughout Europe and Egypt (Ael. NA 2,48; smaller in Egypt, according to Aristot. Hist. an. 9(8),28, 606a 23 f.) and at least as large as a buzzard, is the largest of the European songbirds. Its characteristic call is 'kronk' or 'prrruk', but its vocalizations are otherwise highly varied (64 sounds, according to Ful…

Ravenna

(928 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt Harbour city in the territory of the Boii on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic). [German version] I. Foundation and Roman Period According to myth, R. was founded by Thessalians (Zos. 5,27); however, it was actually founded by Umbri in the 6th-5th cents. BC (Str. 5,1,2; 5,1,11; 5,2,1: Ῥάυεννα/ Rháuenna). The character of R.'s topography includes its proximity to the sea and protection by the natural geographic conditions - s…

Ravenna Annals

(297 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] ( Chronica Italica in [1], better Chronicon Constantinopolitanum (cf. [7; 8. 41-43]). Originally simply an informative chronicle in Latin, based on the calendar structure of the Consularia Constantinopolitana [1. 197-245], written or expanded in Constantinople in the 4th century AD for a ruling class, eager for knowledge, on the periphery of the court  (for the images contained cf. [2; 3; 4]). An early phase extending as far as AD 387 is transmitted in the Fasti Vindobonenses posteriores (Cod. Vindobonensis no. 3416, 15th century) and Fasti Vindobonenses priores

Ravenna Papyri

(115 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Collection, now dispersed but at the time comprising 61 items, of non-literary Latin texts on papyrus from the period AD 433 - c. 700, the predominant majority of which probably belonged to an archive in Ravenna. The RP are an important source for the social, economic and administrative history of Italy in the transition period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography J.-O. Tjäder, Die nicht-literarischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700, 2 vols., 1955, 1982  Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. FS zum 100j. Bestehen der Papyrus-Sa…
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