Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

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Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Red Sea

(6 words)

see Erythra thalatta

Red slip ware

(171 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
[German version] Modern technical term for ceramic genres with a red finish, particularly from the Phoenician and Cypriot Iron Age. RSW is characterized chiefly by the use of illite clays (illite is a mineral constituent) and slips, which even at lower firing temperatures (800-1000 °C) lead to sintering. Iron oxides are the colouring components. The surface is often given a lustrous decoration by means of an additional polish. In Spain beginning in the 7th cent. BC, Iberian potters adopted this te…

Red Swan Group

(7 words)

see Xenon group

Reed

(86 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek κάλαμος/ kálamos (Calamus [2]), Lat. (h)arundo). Phragmites communis and other species of grass are often mentioned in Theophrastus and Plinius (cf. the indexes of the Naturalis Historia s.v. harundo) as plants by and in lakes and rivers. The various applications of this 'extremely useful water plant' (Plin. HN 16,173: qua nulla aquatilium utilior) and related species - e.g., for thatched roofs and as arrows (see also Pen; Musical instruments [V B]) - are compiled in Plin. HN 16,156-173. Graminea Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)

Refinements

(5 words)

see Optical Refinements

Refuse

(632 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm (Wuppertal)
[German version] The urgency of the problem of large volumes of refuse is, historically speaking, a very recent phenomenon. In antiquity, much less refuse was created, because what was in any case a far lower density of population accumulated neither non-degradable materials nor significant quantities of packaging materials. For most, rather, the household was restricted to a limited number of possessions, and the natural recycling quota in the form of the reuse of expendable objects by new users …

Refutatio

(4 words)

see Argumentatio

Regae, Regisvilla

(106 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥηγισουίλλα/ Rhēgisouílla). Small landing site ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 499,3 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Graviscae and Cosa(e), the residence of Maleus [3], king of Pelasgian colonists, who later returned to Athens (Str. 5,2,8). In the Hellenistic-Roman Period, R. was a port of the Volci/Vulci (near modern Montalto di Castro). The place has been located at Le Murelle di Montalto di Castro; there is a Roman villa of the period from the 1st to the 5th cents. AD there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Tortorici, Regisvillae, in: Quaderni Ist. To…

Regalianus

(157 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Governor in Illyricum, probably of Dacian descent. In AD 260, after the overthrow of Ingenuus [1] by Aureolus at Mursa, he was proclaimed anti-emperor to Gallienus by the Danube troops (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. Chronica minora 1,521,45). He fought the Sarmatae, who had already been threatening the lower Danube provinces for some time (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,2). A sho…

Regendarius

(138 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Late ancient official in the officium [6] of the praetorian prefect, who was responsible for issuing licences ( evectiones) for the use of the cursus publicus (Lydus. Mag. 3,4 and 21; Cassiod. Var. 11,29). It is not certain whether this office is identical with that of a regerendarius, which the Notitia dignitatum records in the offices of all praetorian prefects, the city prefect of Rome, magistri militum and a number of comites and duces of the West (Not. Dign. Or. 2,68; 3,29; Not. Dign. Occ. 2,52; 3,47; 4,28; 5,280; 25,44; 30,27 et passim). The latt…

Reggio style

(7 words)

see South Italian minuscule

Regia

(288 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] A two-part building complex on the via sacra on the edge of the Forum Romanum (Forum [III 8]) in Rome, which, according to the ancient Roman mythologizing historiography, was supposed to have been built as his residence and place of office by the legendary king Numa Pompilius (Ov. Fast. 6,263 f.; Tac. Ann. 15,41; Cass. Dio fr. 1,6,2; Plut. Numa 14; Fest. 346-348; 439; cf. also [1. 328]). The excavated building of striking structure, with a three-roomed core facing the via sacra and a court annexe ([2] with illustration; presumably this court is what was meant by regium atr…

Regifugium

(250 words)

Author(s): Sehlmeyer, Markus (Jena)
[German version] Roman civic festival, recorded in several Fasti, held on 24 February (InscrIt 13,2 p. 65, 73, 165, 241, 265), consisting of a sacrifice by the rex sacrorum on the comitium and his subsequent flight (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 63; [3. 197]). Ovid (Fast. 2,685-852) and Ausonius (Eclogae 23,13 f. p. 102 Green) interpret the festival as a commemoration of the flight of the Tarquins from Rome [1. 198 f.; 2]. However, it was probably rather a lustration ritual [5. 98 f.], which was connected with the course of the Roman ye…

Regillensis

(47 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Postumii (Postumius [I 13-15]); tradition has it that it was granted to the first Postumius to bear it for his victory in the battle at Lacus Regillus in 496 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 183.

Regillus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (diminutive of rex, 'king'); in the Republican era, a byname of the family of the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 35-36]); in the Imperial era, also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316.

Regina

(5 words)

see Iuno; Isis

Regina Castra

(446 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Legionary fortress on the Danube opposite the mouth of the river Regen, modern Regensburg (Tab. Peut. 4,4; It. Ant. 250,1: Regino; Not. Dign. Occ. 35,17; It. Ant. 259,3; 6: ad castra; milestones [1; 2]: a legione; CIL V 32909: D( omo) Regino; name for the appendant civilian settlement, only passed down in the Medieval period, but possibly going back to a Celtic root: Radaspona). Built in the 70s of the 2nd cent. AD as the garrison quarters of the legio III Italica (CIL III…

Regina sacrorum

(6 words)

see Rex sacrorum

Regio, regiones

(427 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan)
[German version] Originally a theoretical principle of classification of astronomical and augural ( A ugures ) practice (Cic. Div. 1,17; 1,30; 2,3; 2,9; Ov. Ib. 38; Cic. Nat. D. 2,19; 2,50), elements of the division of Rome into four parts by Servius Tullius (Varro, Ling. 5,45; 49; 51; 53; Liv. 1,43,13; Plin. HN 18,13; Paul. Fest. 506,5), which was transferred to the tribus : I. Suburana, II. Esquilina, III. Collina, IV. Palatina (Rome III with map 3). Augustus partitioned the city, which had grown prodigiously in the meantime, into 14 regiones (10-4 BC; Suet. Aug. 30,1; [2]), still …

Regio Zeugitana

(120 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] The name of the northern part of the province Africa proconsularis (Africa 3., with map) before Diocletianus and, later, of Diocletianus' province Africa proconsularis (Diocletianus, with map); it derives from a native name (cf. mons Ziguensis, pagus Zeugius; Plin. HN 5,23; Mart. Cap. 6,669; Isid. Orig. 14,5,8; cf. Solin. 26,2; 27,1). The border ran from Tacatua (Takouch on Tunisia's north coast) southwards to the area south of Theveste and from there north-eastwards via Ammaedara, Althiburus and Abthugni to the region near Pupput (on Tunisia's east coast). Huß, We…

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Regium atrium

(5 words)

see Regia

Regium Lepidum

(199 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Natural catastrophes Celtic city halfway between Mutina and Parma [1] (Str. 5,1,6: Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion; Cic. Fam. 12,5,3: R. Lepidi; Tac. Hist. 2,50: R. Lepidum; Plin. HN 3,15; 115; Ptol. 3,1,46: Ῥήγιον Λεπίδιον/ Rhḗgion Lepídion; It. Ant. 99,3; 283,5; 287,7; Tab. Peut. 4,4), modern Reggio nell'Emilia. The Etrusci conquered RL in the early 6th cent. BC, occupying it thenceforward (inscription finds from Rubiera in the southeast of RL). In the 4th cent. BC, RL developed in…

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chichester was the estate of Fishbourne, probably a governor's residence from the Flavian Period (columns, mosaics, wall paintings) [2]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Regnum Tolosanum

(5 words)

see Tolosa

Regula

(110 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] (Lat. 'slat', 'bar', or 'guideline'). Architectural technical term used in Vitr. De arch. 4,3,4 et alibi to refer to a slat with guttae on the epistylion (architrave) of a building of Doric structure. In width, the regula corresponds to the triglyphos and forms its lower end which structurally belongs to the architrave (and not to the frieze). Furthermore, the regula corresponds to the blocks of the geison that are resting on the frieze. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography D. Mertens, Der Tempel von Segesta und die dorische Tempelbaukunst des griechisc…

Regula Magistri

(235 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] ('Rule of the Master'). Latin monastic rule from the early 6th cent. by an unknown author, referred to as 'Master'. It probably originated in Italy, although it is also claimed that the RM comes from southern Gaul; the oldest MS is from Italy (Paris, Latinus 12205, about 600). As the most comprehensive monastic rule, it is a very important source of information on the spirituality and lifestyle of monasticism in late antiquity. In the mid-20th cent. it became a central focus of sc…

Regulus

(46 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cogn. (diminutive of rex, 'king'), found in the families of the Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) and Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]) in the Republican Period; in the Imperial Period in other families as well. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Reiectio

(63 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] Reiectio civitatis refers to the relinquishment of civil rights, reiectio iudicis to the right of the parties in a civil or criminal suit to reject a certain number of judges who would be considered for deciding the case according to the list of judges, . Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) Bibliography M. Kaser, K. Hackl, Das römische Zivilprozeßrecht, 21996, 195, 198.

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Reindeer

(228 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] ( Rangifer tarandus, ὁ τάρανδος/ ho tárandos, Lat. tarand(r)us; parandrus: Solin. 30,25, there [?] shifted to Ethiopia!). The deer-like animal, dispersed as far as northern Italy and southern France during the Ice Age, was known to the Greeks only from the land of the Scythians on the basis of plausible reports in Theophr. fr. 172,2-3; Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 30,832b 7-16 and Aristot. fr. 317 (Antigonus Carystius 25), as well as Plin. HN 8,123-124. A fantastic motif recurring in these sources, such as in Solin. 30,25 (whose report on the pirander was adopted in the Middle …

Rei vindicatio

(691 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] ('laying claim to a thing', still ' Vindikation' in modern German legal usage). Originally the (ritual) laying of a staff on an object or a slave; in Roman law of the Principate, the claim of a Quiritarian owner (i.e. one in possession of Roman citizenship), not in possession, against the possessor for establishment of ownership, relinquishment and, where called for, pecuniary compensation. The RV superseded the ancient sacramental action in rem ( legis actio sacramento in rem) with its solemn rituals before the president of the court (king, consul, praet…

Relegatio

(191 words)

Author(s): Végh, Zoltán (Salzburg)
[German version] In Roman law, banishment, a milder form of exilium ; imposed in the Roman Republic, by the pater familias (head of the family) against members of his house, by the Senate and the magistrates; in the imperial era, also a status punishment without loss of honour for honestiores (members of the upper class). There was a variety of degrees: relegatio from 1/2 - 10 years and relegatio perpetua (permanent relegatio) on the mainland and relegatio in insulam (on an island). In addition, stay in a specific place could be forbidden. Violation of the banishment was …

Relics

(675 words)

Author(s): Warland, Rainer (Freiburg)
[German version] (Latin reliquiae, literally 'material remains' of mythical or holy objects or persons, particularly bones) gained increasing importance in pre-Christian as well as Christian antiquity, as material conveyors of supernatural power. The ancient cult of the dead (Dead, cult of the) and its beliefs saw contact with the deceased as linked to the tomb (Hero cult). Hellenistic cities revered their founding heroes in the midst of the city, hoping for protection and prosperity in return. In …

Relief

(3,221 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
I. Egypt and Ancient Near East [German version] A. Egypt Egypt had a long tradition of the two-dimensional portrayal of individual scenes and substantial compositions, initially as paintings on pottery, later as wall paintings and reliefs ( e.g. Narmer Palette, Proto-dynastic Period, c. 3100 BC). At the latest from the time of the Old Kingdom onwards, stone steles could be added to these, erected in association with the cult of the dead (dead, cult of), while the deeds of rulers were depicted in longer scenes on the walls of major build…

Relief ware

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Docter, Roald Fritjof (Amsterdam)
The plasticity of its raw material makes ceramics well suited to relief decorations, either as moulded shaping of the side of the pot itself or in the form of applied parts. RW is therefore represented in the pottery repertories of all periods. In the narrower sense, however, classical archaeology uses RW to denote luxury crockery of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods made in moulds. These wares represent early examples of ceramic mass production. [German version] I. Archaic relief ware In addition to Bronze Age antecedents, there is also a rough-sided RW, particularly of t…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Religion and Literature

(4,163 words)

Author(s): Bierl, Anton
Bierl, Anton [German version] A. Terms and Subject Matter (CT) The method of using religious materials for the comprehensive interpretation of literary texts is called 'religion and literature'. It emphasizes the productive interdependence of religious studies and literature, and addresses the question of how the subjects of religious studies can serve as a set of heuristic tools for understanding the structure and meaning of literary works in a historically appropriate way. Bierl, Anton [German version] B. Preconditions and Delimitations (CT) In contrast to the modern era,…

Religion, Critique of

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bianca-Jeanette
[English version] The transition from pagan Antiquity to the Christian era is generally regarded as a process mostly characterized by continuity, typified by the persistence and conscious adoption of cultural traditions (chrêsis) and philosophical theories (especially of Platonism). This view, which in extra-scholarly contexts has become condensed into the shibboleth of the 'Christian West', does not do justice to the reception of Antiquity as a whole [15]. For, since the Early Modern period, this…

Religion, History of

(9,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) Neither Greek nor Latin had a word that precisely corresponds to the modern term 'religion' in its academic sense, whether to designate a specific cultural subsystem ('the religion of the Aztecs') or to refer to the anthropological constant of religion. This modern concept was a result of the Enlightenment and ethnological discoveries, and dates only to the Early Modern era. Ancient concepts focused on individual areas: the Greek thrēskeía, 'worship', and the Greek eusébeia refer only to ritual in the collective…

Religion, Sociology of

(9 words)

see Religion, History of

Remancipatio

(163 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, the actus contrarius ('reversion') of the mancipatio (formal alienation). It served, for instance, for the return of objects given for fiduciary safekeeping ( fiducia ). The remancipatio was also a constituent act in the complex ceremonies of the emancipatio (release from the family group). Above all, however, it was an important element in divorce proceedings in the old manus marriage (cf. also Marriage III): if such a marriage was to be dissolved, the wife had to be released from the special authority of the husband. This remancipatio consisted of a ce…

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Remismundus

(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.

Remmius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Commander of the guard for the detained Parthian king Vonones I, whom he killed in AD 19 Commander of the guard for the Parthian king Vonones I, who was detained in Pompeiopolis, Cilicia; in AD 19, he killed the king at the river Pyramus during an escape (Tac. Ann. 2,68; cf. Suet. Tib. 49,2). He is probably identical to the C. R. Rufus mentioned in CIL V 2837 (= ILS 2022). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] R. Palaemon, Q. Roman teacher of grammar, 1st cent. Famous Roman teacher of grammar (cf. Juv. 6,451 ff.; 7,215 ff.) of the 1st cent. AD from V…

Remus

(5 words)

see Romulus [1]

Renaissance

(4,510 words)

Author(s): Tönnesmann, Andreas
Tönnesmann, Andreas [German version] A. Concept (CT) A Rinascita, a 'rebirth of the arts', was the term used by Giorgio Vasari in his biographies of Italian artists first published in 1550 [16]. He observed that the 'new' and 'good' art produced by his age had overcome a period of decline and - for the first time since Antiquity - had taken nature as its model. In a similar sense, Albrecht Dürer had earlier, in 1523, used the term Wiedererwachsung ( 'regrowth') in a similar sense [8]. Both terms embrace of necessity the exemplary nature of ancient art in contrast to other …
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