Brill’s New Pauly

Get access Subject: Classical Studies
Edited by: Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider (Antiquity) and Manfred Landfester (Classical Tradition).
English translation edited by Christine F. Salazar (Antiquity) and Francis G. Gentry (Classical Tradition)

Brill´s New Pauly is the English edition of the authoritative Der Neue Pauly, published by Verlag J.B. Metzler since 1996. The encyclopaedic coverage and high academic standard of the work, the interdisciplinary and contemporary approach and clear and accessible presentation have made the New Pauly the unrivalled modern reference work for the ancient world. The section on Antiquity of Brill´s New Pauly are devoted to Greco-Roman antiquity and cover more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between Greco-Roman culture on the one hand, and Semitic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavonic culture, and ancient Judaism, Christianity, and Islam on the other hand. The section on the Classical Tradition is uniquely concerned with the long and influential aftermath of antiquity and the process of continuous reinterpretation and revaluation of the ancient heritage, including the history of classical scholarship. Brill´s New Pauly presents the current state of traditional and new areas of research and brings together specialist knowledge from leading scholars from all over the world. Many entries are elucidated with maps and illustrations and the English edition will include updated bibliographic references.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Repudium

(187 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] In Roman law, initially the unilateral repudiation of a wife by her husband. From the literal sense (from pudor, 'shame', 'chastity'), repudium would have had serious misconduct (especially adultery, adulterium ) by the wife as a prerequisite. According to the Twelve Tables, as reported by Gai. Dig. 24,2,2,1, for repudium, the man had to call upon the woman to leave ( baete foras) and to take her things with her ( tuas res tibi habeto). As early as the 3rd cent. BC, repudium was possible without any fault committed by the woman (cf. Gell. NA 4,3,1 f.); no late…

Resafa

(4 words)

see Rusafa

Rescript procedure

(222 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] This type of Roman trial developed from the reign of Hadrian (2nd cent. AD) as a special form of the civil inquiry of cognizance ( cognitio ). Its peculiarity consisted in the fact that the decisive legal issue (i.e. not also the correctness of the facts) was clarified in advance for the specific case by the princeps, by means of a written response ( rescriptum ) to the written enquiry of the party who would henceforth be the plaintiff, with the consequence that henceforth all that required examination was the correctness of …

Rescriptum

(223 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] (the 'reply letter') is one of the most important sources for Roman imperial law. In Gai. Inst. 1,5, the rescriptum is simply called epistula ('letter'), but classed as belonging to the constitutiones ('imperial laws'). Already in the Principate, the emperor received queries and proposals from officials and private persons on every matter imaginable. The emperor replied commensurate with the preparation in the chancellery ab epistulis with a rescriptum, a draft of which was archived. Starting with Hadrian (beginning of the 2nd cent. AD), the rescripta more and mo…

Rešep

(227 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Syrian (western Semitic) god, attested in the area between Ebla, Mari, Byblus and Ugarit from the 3rd millennium BC. In the Phoenician world of the Mediterranean, R. merged syncretistically with Melqart (cf. the votive inscription KAI II 88 f. of Ibiza, 5th/4th cent. [1]). As Smiting God adopted from Egypt in the well known pattern of 'the king striking dead his enemies', he inspired the iconography of fighting deities in the Mediterranean high and 'fringe' cultures [2], and was imitated in regions influenced by the Phoenicia…

Reshef

(4 words)

see Rešep

Res mancipi

(133 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] In Roman law, RM were objects which (Gai. Inst. 2,22) were transferred by mancipatio to another person. RM could be slaves, cattle, horses, mules, donkeys (the latter according to the Sabinian school from birth, according to the Proculian school only from being tamed: Gai. Inst. 2,15); also Italian land (Gai. Inst. 1,120), servitutes rusticae such as via, iter, actus, aquae ductus (rights of way, right to drive cattle, water rights; Ulp. 19,1) and provincial land of the ius Italicum (Gai. Inst. 2,14a). With the disappearance of the mancipatio, the importance of the …

Responsa

(841 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Term and form Responsa (lit.: 'responses', sing. responsum) were originally rulings or opinions of sacred law made by the Roman colleges of priests (the augures, fetiales, haruspices and pontifices) [1. 19-21; 2. 313 f., 560-563]. According to Dig. 1,2,2,6, the pontifical college ( pontifex ; hence: responsa pontificum) issued preventative or cautelary responsa for the formulation and interpretation of legal transactions ( cautio in the sense of a precaution) or suits ( actio), and responsa for the organs of judicial administration in respect of past…

Responsa (rabbinical)

(201 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Hebrew šeēlōt u-tešūḇōt, literally 'questions and answers'; plural 'responses'). Rabbinical genre name; correspondence, in which one party consults the other on a difficult question of Halakha. While the Talmudic literature (Rabbinical literature) already indicates the existence of this genre (cf. bYebamot 105a), a scope more significant to responsa literature only developed in the Gaonic period (Gaon, 6th-11th cents. AD), when Jews from the widespread diaspora turned to the halak…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

Restitutio

(499 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] In a general legal sense, restitutio means 'restoration'. In the area of Roman criminal law, it refers to the full or partial revocation of a legally binding conviction, as a result of which the condemned is restored to his former status (cf. Cod. Iust 9,51). In Roman civil and civil action law, a distinction must be made between a material and a formal restitutio. In certain actions, the material restitutio is the desired outcome, thus above all in actions in rem such as the rei vindicatio (action for the restitution of goods by the owner): in …

Retentio

(179 words)

Author(s): Gamauf, Richard (Vienna)
[German version] The retentio (literally 'withholding') of one's own service in order to put pressure on an opponent to perform the service he owes is encountered frequently in Roman law. In strict law actions ( ius strictum, ius C.2.), the retentio was effected with a plea of bad faith ( exceptio doli ) in bonae fidei iudicia ('actions in good faith', fides II.) through informal objection. For example, the bona fide foreman has a retentio against the owner (Cels. Dig. 6,1,38) for his expenses, as do the custodian (Mod., Collatio legum 10,2,6) and the borrower (Iulian…

Retiarius

(6 words)

see  Munus, Munera III.E.

Reticulatum opus

(4 words)

seeMasonry

Reudigni

(56 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe in the cult community of the Nerthus tribes to the north of the Langobardi (Tac. Germ. 40,2) in the area of modern Holstein and West-Mecklenburg. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography B. Rappaport, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 700 f.  A. Genrich, Der Siedlungsraum der Nerthusstämme, in: Die Kunde 26/7, 1975/6, 103-146.

Revenge

(900 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
(τιμωρία/ timōría, τίσις/ tísis; Latin ultio, vindicta , poena). [German version] A. Social conditions Revenge, a regular central element of relationships in human social structure, is encountered in Graeco-Roman history in specific forms which are very similar in the two cultures. Revenge belongs in the general framework of an ethic of reciprocation, which shapes, both positively and negatively, mutual exchange between individuals and groups (exchange of gifts; Euergetism). Under these premises, in Greece it…

Revocatio

(161 words)

Author(s): Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Revocation') occurs in two special senses in Roman law: (1) as revocatio in servitutem (' revocatio into slavery'), the revocation of manumission, probably only current in Late Antiquity (cf. Cod. Iust. 6,7,2 pr.); (2) in civil actions. There, the convicted party, having already paid, could demand retrial ( restitutio ) only with the risk of being compelled to pay the claimant for the litigation a second time by revocatio in duplum (' revocatio for double the value') if the restitution failed. This applied for the formula procedure ( formula ) and…

Revolution

(7,227 words)

Author(s): Papenheim, Martin | Hafner, Jochen
Papenheim, Martin I. The English and American Revolutions (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Reference to Greek and Roman Antiquity in philosophy, art and rhetoric during the revolutionary upheavals of the 17th and 18th cents. is unmistakable and more influential than any link to other ancient cultures. The Germanic tradition was nevertheless able to play an important role in the constitutional history of England and indirectly that of America in the course of those centuries. In France, too, that t…

Reworking

(5 words)

see Adaptation

Rex

(661 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] King Rex (pl. reges; Indo-Germanic * rḗg̑-s, Old Indo-Aryan rā́j-, Celtic -rīx) in Latin denotes a king; in the Greek world, the Indo-Germanic term probably gave way in the Mycenaean period to the ruler designations anax ( wanax ) and basileús . The Imperial and Byzantine word ῥῆξ ( rhêx) was originally a mere Greek transliteration of the Latin rex and generally refers to tribal kings of foreign peoples. According to the root of the word * h3reg̑- ('to straighten', 'to stretch out'), the job of the rex was to 'rule', i.e. to keep the world 'upright' and perpendic…
▲   Back to top   ▲